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PUBLICATIONS 



OF THE 



ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY 



OF THE PACIFIC. 



VOLUME VIII. 
1896. 



SAN FRANCISCO 
PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY. 

1S96. 



•*.j 



:i 



T^JMifc^'^JV*ii'K3s^.■^ 



TABLE OF CONTENTS.* 



Publicaiians No. 46, January i, 1896. 

Pace 

List of Members of the Society, January I, 1896 i 

List of Corresponding Observatories and Institutions 13 

Publications No. 47, February i, 1896. 

Planetary Phenomena, for March and April, 1896, by Professor 
Malcolm McNeill 17 

The Photography of Planetoids, by Professor Max Wolf; abstract 
by Dr. Edward S. Holden 23 

Twentieth and twenty-first Award of the Donohoe Comet-Medal 
to Messrs. C. D. Perrine and W. R. Brooks 26 

Notices Jrom the Lick Observatory 27 

Astronomical Instruments Making in Washington. E. S. H. 27 

Request to Astronomers, Regarding Ephemerides of Comets, 
etc. E. S. H 27 

New Edition (1895) of Professor Young's Book on the Sun. 
E. S. H 28 

Progress of the Astronomical Society of France. E. S. H. . . 28 
Nomenclature of the Asteroids. E. S. H 28 

Lick Observatory Expedition to Observe the Total Solar 
Eclipse of August, 1896, in Japan. E. S. H 30 

Minutes of the Meeting of the Directors, January 25^ i8g6 32 

List of Members Elected 32 

Minutes of the Meeting of the Society, Jannary 25, i8g6 32 

Officers of the Society, etc 34 

Publications No. 48, April i, 1896. 

View of the Lick Observatory in Winter to face page 35 

Address of the Retiring President of the Society, at the Eighth 
Annual Meeting, March 28, 1896, by Chas. Burckh alter ... 35 

Planetary Phenomena for May and June, 1896, by Professor Mal- 
colm McNeill 39 

Some Large Perturbations in the Motions of Celestial Bodies. 
Translation from Himmel und Erde, for January, 1896, by C. A. 
Stetefeldt 



^o the Binder: this should precede page i, Volume VIIL 



■r 



VI Publications of the 

Page 

Observations of Dark Markings on Venus^ by Edward S. Holden i8i 

Tiie Companion of Sirius, and its Brightness according to Photo- 
metric Theory, by Professor W. J. Hussey 183 

Interior View of Lowe Observatory, Echo Mountain, Cal 

to face page 187 

Notices from the Lick Observatory 187 

Memorandum on a Proposed Observatory Atlas of the Moon, 

from Negatives Taken at Mt. Hamilton. E. S. H 187 

Astronomical Telegrams Received by and Sent from the Lick 

Observatory. E. S. H 188 

Discovery of Comet b, 1896, by Dr. Lewis Swift 188 

Observations of Comet b, 1896. W. J. H. and R. G. A. . . . 189 

Elements and Ephemeris of Comet b, 1896. R. G. A 189 

Elements of Comet b, 1896, by A. O. Leuschner and F. H. 

Seares 190 

The use of the Science Observer Code in Foreign Countries. 

E. S. H 190 

Comet Telegrams in the Southern Hemisphere. Extracts 

from the Report of Mr. Tebbutt's Observatory for 1895 . . 190 

Total Eclipse of August, 1896— Russian Programme 191 

Elements and Ephemeris of Comet b, 1896. R. G. A 192 

Point Reyes Light seen from Mt. Hamilton. C. D. P 192 

Note on the Discovery of Comet b, 1896. Extracts from letters 

of Dr. Lewis Swift. R. G. A 193 

Photographs of Comet Perrine, a, 1896. A. L. C 194 

Peculiar Phenomenon Seen at Visalia, April 18, 1896 .... 194 

The Manuscripts of Bessel. E. S. H 195 

A Movable Observatory 195 

A Bright Meteor, May 9, 1895. C. D. P 196 

A Bright Meteor, May 19, 1896. C. D. P 196 

Errors in Cipher Telegrams due to the Morse Code, by W. J. 

Palmer. E. S. H 196 

Honor Conferred on Dr. Holden 197 

Elements of Comet ^, 1896. C. D. P 197 

Erratum in Star Catalogue. C. D. P 197 

Minutes of the Meeting of the Directors^ June 13^ 18^ 198 

List of Members Elected 198 

Resolution on Transfer of Permanent Funds 198 

Minutes of the Meeting of the Society ^ June /j, 18^ 199 

Officers of the Society, etc 200 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. vii 

Publications No. 51, August i, 1896. 

Page 

Plate of Sun-Spots to face page 201 

Planetary Phenomena for September and October, 1896, by Pro- 
fessor Malcolm McNeill 201 

Mars, by Pkrcival Lowell. Review by Professor W. W. Camp- 
bell 207 

" Nova " Z Centauri and the Nebula surrounding it, by Professor 

W. J. Hussev 220 

List of Earthquakes in California for 1895, by C. D. Perrine . . . 222 

Plate of Sun-Spots to face page 223 

Twenty-third Award of the Donohoe Comet-Medal to Dr. Lewis 

Swift 224 

Plate of Views of the Lick Observatory Photo- Heliograph .... 

to face page 225 

Some Recent Sun-Spots, by C. D. Perrine 225 

Brooks' Periodic Comet, 1889 V= 1896^, by Professor W.J. Hussev 227 

View of the Summit of Mt. Hamilton in Winter ... to face page 235 

Notices from the Lick Observatory 235 

Variable Stars. R. G. A 235 

Astronomical Telegrams, June 21, 1896 236 

The Crosslev Telescope. W. J. H 236 

On the Determination of Planetary Diameters. W. W. C. . . 236 

Professor Rreuger. R. G. A 238 

Comet Notes— Comet IV, 1895 Comet a, 1896. C. D. P. 

Comet c, 1896. W. J. H 240 

Th« Yerkes Observatory. R. G. A 240 

Meridian Circle for Sale 241 

Eight-inch Clark Equatorial for Sale. E. S. H. ...... . 241 

Mra Ceti. Extract from letter of W. Ste adman Aldis . . 241 

Views of Mountain Observatories. Note by the Committee on 

Publication 242 

A Meteor in Mexico, July 22, 1896 242 

Bright Meteor, July 31, 1896. C. D. P 242 

Sixteen-inch Clark Refractor for Sale. E. S. H 243 

Heights of Mountain Observatories. E. S. H 243 

Gifts to the Lick Observatory. E. S. H .... 243 

A Brilliant Meteor, July 29, 1896. Extract from letter of F. H. 

Seares 244 

Honorary Degree Conferred upon Professor H olden .... 244 

Centenary of the Birth of James Lick. E. S. H 244 

Total Solar Eclipse of August, 1896, in Japan. E. S. H. . . . 244 



viii Publications of the 

Page 
Officers of the Society, etc 245 

Views of Mountain Observatories following page 245 

Figure i. The Summit of Etna — Observatory. 

2. The Observatory of Nice. 

3. On the way to Mt. Blanc Observatory. 

4. On the way to Mt. Blanc Observatory. 

5. On the way to Mt. Blanc Observatory. 

6. View of Mt. Blanc. 

7. On the way to Mt. Blanc Observatory. 

8. M. Janssen's Observatory at the Summit of Mt. Blanc. 

9. The Meteorological Station on the Siintis. 

10. The Meteorological Station on the Sonnblick. 

ir. Thejungfrau Range. 

12. Mt. Chachani, from Arequipa Observatory. 

13. El Misti, from Arequipa Observatory. 

14. Ulampu and the Sorata Range. 

15. Chimborazo, distant view. 

16. Chimborazo from a point 17,450 feet above the sea. 

17. Pike's Peak, distant view. 

18. Mt. Whitney from the west. 

19. Mountain Camp, Mt. Whitney. 

20. Railway Train on Pike's Peak, 

21. Railway Train on Pike's Peak. 

22. Railway Train on Pike's Peak. 

23. Railway Train on Pike's Peak. 

24. View of Lowe Observatory, on Echo Mountain, Cal. 

Publications No. 52, October i, 1896. 

Planetary Phenomena for November and December, 1896 by Pro- 
fessor Malcolm McNeill 247 

Observations with a Four-inch Telescope of the Recent Maxima 
of the Variable Stars R and S Scorpii, by Miss Rose O'Hal- 
LORAN 254 

Lunar Eclipse, August 22, 1896, by A. H. Babcock 255 

Elements and Ephemeris of Comet d, 1896, by F. H. Seares . . . 256 

Elements and Ephemeris of Comet e, 1896, by F. H. Seares . . . 256 

Elements of Comet e^ 1896, by Professor W. J. Hussey 257 

Notices froin the Lick Observatory 259 

Large Refractor for the Potsdam Observatory. E. S. H. . . . 259 

Bright Meteor, August 18, 1896. Extract from letter of A. H. 
Babcock 259 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 5x 

Page 

The Per^Hds m August, 1B96. A. L. C. and C. D. P 259 

Partial Lunar Eclipse, August 22, 1896. C. D. P 260 

Asteriod No. ^/^i — Cali/orfna. E. S. H 260 

Gift of the Plane-Mirror of Speculum Metal to the LtckObserva- 
tory, by the Daughters of the late William Lassell, F.R.S. 

E. S. H 260 

Astronomical Telegrams, August 28, 1896 261 

A Correction, by Ihe Committee on Publication , 261 

Astronomical Cable Messages to the Southern Hemispliere. 

Letter of John Tebbutt 262 

Astronomical Telegrams, September 5, 1896 262 

AstroRomical Telegrams, September 6, 1896 263 

Astronomical Telegrams, September 7, 1896 263 

Astronomical Telegrams, September 9, 1896 264 

Elements and Ephemeris of Comet ^, 1896. C. D.P. and W.J.H. 264 

Elements and Ephemeris of Cometh/, 1896. Messrs Sea&es and 

Crawford 264 

Elements and Ephemeris of Comet d^ 1896. C. D. P 264 

Astronomical Telegrams, September 21, 1896 ^65 

Astronomical Telegrams, September 22, 1896 265 

AstroQomJcal Telegrams, September 29, 1896 265 

CoBiet, 1896 (Spbrra). Notes on discovery 265 

Request for Observations of Comet ^, 1896. R. G. A .266 

Distances between Lick Observatory and San Jos^. From a 

letter from A. H. Babcock «66 

A Bright Meteor, September 6, 1896. R. G. A . 267 

New Short-Period Variable in Germinu Extract from a letter 

from Edwin F. Sawyer 267 

Cost of the Crosslby Dome, etc. From the Ninth Annual 

Report of the Director of the Lick Observatory 267 

Minima of Algol. R. G. A 269 

Hubert A. Newton; George Brown Goode; William C. 

Winlock; Died, 1896. E. S. H 269 

Errors of Graduation of the Repsolo Meridian Circle of the 

Lick Observatory. R. H. T 270 

Weather in August, 1896. R.G. A 272 

Mr. Lowell on Mars, Note by the Committee on Publication 272 

The Photographic Durchmusterung of the Cape of Good Hope 

Observatory. Dr. David Gill 272 

Star Atlas— WiNSLOw Upton. Note by E. S. H 273 

Minutes of the Meeting of ihe Directors, September 5, i8g6 . . . 274 

List of Members Ejected 274 



X Publications of the * 

Pack 
Memorandum on the Distribution of the Publications A. S. P. 

to Corresponding Institutions 274 

Minutes of the Meeting of the Society , Septefnber 5, 1896 .... 276 

Officers of the Society, etc 277 

Publications No. 53, December i, 1896. 

Portrait of Kepler to face page 279 

Kepler, by Edward S. Holden 279 

Twenty-fourth Award of the Donohoe Comet-Medal to Mr. W. E. 

Sperra 285 

Twenty-fifth Award of the Donohoe Comet-Medal to Mr. Giaco- 

BiNi 285 

Results of Double-Star Measures made at the Lick Observatory, 

by R. G. AiTKEN 286 

New Elements and Ephemeris of Comet e, 1896, (Giacobini), by 

F. H. Seares 289 

Elliptic Elements of Comet Giacobini, by W. J. Hussey and C. D. 

Perrine 289 

Planetary Phenomena for January and February, 1897, by Professor 

Malcolm McNeill 290 

Plates of the Corona of August 9, 1896 to face page 297 

The Total Eclipse of August 9, 1896, by Alexander Rydzewski . 297 

Catalogue No. i, of Nebulae Discovered at the Lowe Observatory, 

California, by Dr. Lewis Swift 304 

Is Mars Inhabited? by Professor C. A. Young 306 

Discovery of the Companion to Procyon^ by Professor J. M. 

SCHAEBERLB 314 

Measures of Sirius. R. G. Aitken 314 

Elements and Ephemeris of Comet/, 1896 (Perrine), by F. H. 

Seares 315 

Benjamin Apthorp Gould, by R. H. Tucker 315 

Notices frotn the Lick Observatory 319 

Atlas Photographique de la Lune, MM. Loewy et Puiseux. 

Reviewed by Dr. Holden 319 

Meteor Seen at Noon, November ist. — S. K Chronicle .... 324 

A Bright Meteor Seen on October 8, 1896. C. D. P 324 

The Meteor of October 22, 1896. C. D. Perrine 324 

Abstract of a Letter from Mr. D. J. Brown to Prof. Holden 325 

Letter from Mr. H. F. Stivers, at Hunter's, Tehama County, 

Cal.. October 26, 1896 325 

The Meteor of October 2 2d. Press reports 326 

On the Form ofthe Corona of August 9, 1896. J. M. Schaeberle 326 



Astronomical Society of the PcLcific. xi 

Page 

Proposed Gift to the University of California by Mrs. Phcebe A. 

Hearst. E. S. H 327 

Request for Observations of Comet IV, 1895. CD.?.... 327 

List of American Learned and Educational Societies. Pre- 
pared by Dr. Stephen B. Weeks. E. S. H 328 

Scientific Visitors to the Lick Observatory. Professor Kavser. 

E. S. H 328 

The Meeting of the Astronomische Gesellschaft at Bamberg 

(1896) — Greetings to their Colleagues in California. E.S. H. 328 

Mt. Helena Visible from Mt. Hamilton. C. D. P 329 

Comet/, 1896 (Perrine). C. D. Perrine 329 

Decoration for Professor Holden 329 

Completion of the Washington Zone — 13® 50^ to — 18® 10^. 

Extract from a private letter from Mr. A. N. Skinner. . . 330 

Dr. John H. C. Bont6 (Died November 24, 1896.) E. S. H. 330 

Astronomical Telegram. Rotation-Times of yenusand Mer- 
cury, etc. With Note by E. S. H 331 

Astronomical Telegram. Re-Discovery of the Companion of 

Sirius^ at the Lick Observatory. With Note by E. S. H. . . 332 

Astronomical Telegrams. Discovery, Observations and Ele- 
ments of Comets 332 

Astronomical Telegram. Discovery of the Companion to 

Procyon 334 

Discovery of Comit g, 1896 (Perrine) 334 

Mmuies of the Meeting of the Directors, November 28, 1896 ... 335 

List of Members Elected ,. . 335 

Minuies of Meeting of the Society, November 28, 1896 336 

Officers of the Society, etc 337 



PUBLICATIONS 



OF THE 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 

Vol. VIII. San Francisco, California, January i, 1896. No. 46. 

LIST OF MEMBERS 

OF THE 

ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY OF THE PACIFIC. 

January i, 1896. 



OPPICERS OP THE SOCIETY. 

Chas. BuRCKHALTBR (Chabot Observatory. Oakland), President 

W. J. HussBY (Lick Observatory), ) 

£. S. HoLDBN (Lick Observatory) > Vice' presidents 

O. VON Gbldern (819 Market Street, S. F.), ) 

C. D. Pbrrinb (Lick Observatory), Secretary 

F. R. ZiBL (410 California Street, S. F.), Secretary and Treasurer 

Board 0/ Directors — Messrs. Burckhaltbr, Holdbn, Hussby, Molbra, Miss O'Halloran, 
Messrs. Pbrrinb, Pibrson, Schabbbrlb, Stringham, von Gblubrn, Ziel. 

Finaiue Committee — Messrs. von Gbldbrn, Pibrson, Stringham. 

Committee on Publication — Messrs. Holdbn, Campbbi.l, Babcock. 

Library Committee — Mr. Molbra, Miss O'Halloran, Mr. Babcock. 

Committee on the Comet-Afedai— Messrs. Holdbn {ex-officio), Schabbbrlb, Hussev. 

OPPICERS OP THE CHICAGO SECTION. 
Executive Committee — Mr. Ruthvbn W. Pikb. 

OPPICERS OP THE MEXICAN SECTION. 
Executive Committee— Messrs, Camilo Gonzalez, Francisco Rodriguez Rev. 



LIST OP MEMBERS* 

Mrs. Wm. a. ABBt New Bedford, Mass. 

Mr. Carl H. Abbott 118 nth St., Oakland, Cal. 

Mr. Charles L. Ackerman 426 California St., S. F., Cal. 

Prof. R. G. AiTKEN { ^'ton.^CaT'"'"'**"^' ^'' "*""" 

Prof. W. Steadman Aldis* { "f *^*^' Auckland. New Zea- 

Prof. W. D. Alexander Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands. 

Mr. Richard H. Allen* Chatham, Morris Co., N. J. 

Mr. Elmer L. Allor Observatory, Ann Arbor, Mich. 



a star sifniifies Life-Membership. Total membership, 398 (65 life-members) 



2 Publications of the 

Mr. CH.R.HS ALTSCHtL { ^°Btl"s^Rf Caf """""'" 

Hon. Henry B. Alvord* San Jos^, Cal. 

Hon. William Alvord* 2200 Broadway, S. F., Cal. 

Mrs. William Alvord* 2200 Broadway, S. F., Cal. 

Mr. W. S. Andrews Lancaster. Pa. 

Mrs. Wm. Ashburner 1014 Pine St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. J. Lawrence Aspinwall 71 Broadway, New York, N.Y. 

Mr. J. J. AUBKRT.^. {^^^ofdU'-Enliind"!""''^' 

Mr. Robert Stanton Avery 320 A St., Washington, D. C. 

Mr. A..K. H. BABCOCK {^Y^St"?t^| S^'lf^l.^"' 

Mr. N. A. Baldwin New Haven, Conn. 

Mr. T. R. Bannerman 2407 Howard St., S. F., Cal. 

Dr. G. Barroeta San Luis Potosi, Mexico. 

Mr. J. Bassett { '^N^J^EnlLn^d"'' '''*'"^'""' 

Dr. Henry H. Bates {T»g Portland. Washington. 

Miss Frances L. Beans. ....... 489 N. First St., San Jos^, Cal. 

Mrs. T. Ellard Beans 489 N. First St.. San Jos^, Cal. 

Mr. Henry Berger | Observatory Hill. Allegheny. 

Prof. Frank H. Bigelow { "^tSi! d!*C.^"'^"' ^^''* 

Mr. Wilbert M. Birge Davenport, Neb. 

Mr. R. L. BiscHOFFSHEiM* 3 Rue Taitbout, Paris, France. 

Mr. Anson Stiles Blake Berkeley, Cal. 

Mr. Charles T. Blake Berkeley, Cal. 

Mr. HENRY LORX, Bout.TON. jr.. . . { ^Yot^New Yo".'li. Y*: ^"^ 

Colonel E. D. Boyle Gold Hill, Storey Co., Nev. 

.Mr. J. A. Brashear Allegheny City, Pa. 

Rev. M. S. Brennan { ^ Yo'iitsT m"o"'' ^*'"'''''' ^*" 

Rev. A. L. Brewer San Mateo, Cal. 

Mr. Edward M. Brewer 27 Kilby St., Boston, Mass. 

{Hope Bank, Nelson St., Wool- 
lahra, via Sydney, New South 
Wales. 

M- IT D.>^«.,.,* (Further Barton, Cirencester, 

Miss E. Brown* ^ England. 

Dr. William Andrew^s Browne . . . Newton, Mass. 

Dr. J. D. Brownlee 754 S. 3d St., San Jos^, Cal. 

Miss C. W. Bruce* Sio 5th Ave., New York, N.Y. 

Mr. Charles Burckhalter, F.R.A.S. {^y^^^^^^^^^^ O^^' 

Miss Harrietta C. Butler 32 14 Washington St., S.F., Cal. 

\x' \T.«„ T? D„T>T. (The Observatory, Smith Col- 

Miss Mary E. Byrd ^ j^^^ Northampton, Mass. 



Asironomical Society of the Pacific. 3 

Dr. J. Callandreau* j 1 14 ^Montgomery St.. S. F., 

Mr. A. D. Campbell Campbell, SantaClaraCo.,Cal. 

Prof. W. W. Campbell { ^'ton^cll"^^**"^* ^'*" "*"""" 

Mr. Andrew Carnegie* sWestsistSt., NewYork.N.Y. 

Mr. O. E. Cartwright { '^giiS"*"'^ ^''*- °^*''°''' 

Mr. J. C. Cebrian* {''cal!'"'' °"'"''* ^*^' ^' ^" 

Dr. V. Cerulli { Ob^rvatorio Privato. Teramo, 

Mrs. EMELIE M. CHABOT { '^'Sajlalld.'ci.*'''''"" ^'"• 

Miss JosiE CHABOT { '^"(Saklan'd.'cll.'''''""" ^^"' 

Rev. C. M. Charroppin, S. J | St^Xavier College. Cincinnati. 

II Conte Carlo Caissotti Di Chiusano . Via Bogino, 12; Torino, Italy. 

Rev. E. Bentley Church 1036 Valencia St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. B. G. Clapp The Academy, Fulton, N. Y. 

Dr. E. S. Clark 16 Geary St., S. F., Cal. 

Miss Isabella D. Clark San Jos^, Cal. 

Mr. Mateo Clark* { "^ggjl^^'s Gate. London. 

Miss Agnes M. Clerke { ^Enlfa*""*?" ^''"'"*' ^°"*^°"' 

Mr. Ernest A. Cleveland Vancouver, B. C. 

Mr. C. H. CoLBURN Virginia City, Nevada. 

Mr. Arthur T. Collins Swarthmore, Delaware Co., Pa. 

Mr. A. L. COLTO.V { ^'t^^n.^C^r'"'*"^' ^^ "^'""" 

Mr. Alexander K. Coney 604 Clay St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. J. Costa |ii4_^Montgomery St.. S. R. 

Mr. Henry Cowell* 413 Hyde St.. S. F., Cal. 

Mr. A. W. Craig 177 8th St.. Oakland. Cal. 

Mr. Hugh Craig 312 California St., S. F.. Cal. 

.,. <,. „ r- .„ ( laao North Broad St.. Phila- 

Mr. Walter Cramp | j^,p^i^ p^ 

Hon. C. F. Crocker* {^S.^FrCaL ^""^ '''"^ ^"■' 

Mr. Edward Crosslev. F. R. A. S.* . { ^IC^.^liJ,^ d'""^*"'^'' ^"' 
Miss S. J. Cunningham jSwanhmoreCollege.Delaware 

Mr. Chas. S. Cushing 1669 13th St.. Oakland, Cal. 

tt#- f I?,.,.,,., n.,,.r>o^i.,* f Alexandra Plantation, Brans- 
Mr. J. Ewen Davidson* -^ combe, Mackay.Que^nsland. 

Mr. Jacob Z. Davis* 408 Post St., S. F., Cal. 

Mrs. Jacob Z. Davis* 408 Post St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. Joseph E. Davis 154 Beacon St., Boston, Mass. 



4 Publications of the 

Mr. William T. Dawson Etna, Siskiyou Co., Cal. 

Mr. C. W. DEARBORN {'^'(^iSfnK"''*''^""''' 

Dr. J. H. De Meritt ^335 Vermont Ave.. Washing- 

■' \ ton, U. C 

Mr. A. B. Depuy J 54i^ Washington St., Camden, 

Mrs. John H. Devereux j^^hfo.''"'^ ^''^*' ^^^''^^^"'^' 

Mr. VV. H. Devine Nagasaki, Japan. 

Mr. John Dolbeer lo California St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. W. E. Downs Sutter Creek, Amador Co., Cal. 

Mrs. Anna Palmer Draper* .... J 271^ Madison Ave., New York, 

Dr. L. L. Dunbar 500 Sutter St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. Francis G. Du Pont Wilmington, Del. 

Mr. Earnest I. Dyer | Unwersity of California, Berke- 

Miss S. J. Eastman Ogontz School, Pa. 

Mr. Geo. W. Edwardes {^^k^''"^*' Orange St., Media, 

Prof. George C. Edwards Berkeley, Cal. 

Capt. Oliver Eldridge 615 Sutter St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr Thomas Gwvn Elger i Beaumont House, Shakespeare 

Mr. i HOMAs owyn JiLGER ^ ^^^^^ Bedford, England. 

Mr Ferd Ellerman /Kenwood Observatory, 4545 

Mr. l^ERD. ULLERMAN \ Drexel Boulevard, Chicago, ill. 

vf, o I T Prrirov r \\ T J Govt. Astronomer.Observat'y, 

Mr. R. L. J. Ellerv, C. M. G. . . . | Melbourne, Victoria. 

Mr. John Everding, Jr 48 Clay St., S. F., Cal. 

.Mr. W. B. Featherstone 1230 24th St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. ROBERT ISAAC F.NNEMORE ...R. A.S. { ^^r^ NaS^^uirAMcl'" 

Mr. S. Wilson Fisher 1502 Pme St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Miss Katharine Flavan 2014 Van Ness Ave.. S. F., Cal. 

.Mr. Andrew B. Forbes* 401 California St , S. F., Cal. 

Mr. GEO. STUART FORBES I^trdia^fea^b^y'in^^a! 

Mr. Arthur W. Foster* 322 Pine St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. C. L. Foster 601 Polk St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. H. C. Frick* 42 5th Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Prof Chas. W. Friend Observatory, Carson, Nev. 

Mr." Robert D. Fry* 181 2 Jackson St.. S. F., Cal. 

Hon. Levi K. Fuller Brattleboro', Vermont. 

Mr. Walter F. Gale, F. R. A S. . . . Paddington, Sydney, N. S. W. 

Mr. Jos. F. Gass.mann 318 Montgomery St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. Otto %-ON Geluekn .( Rooni 56.8i9MarketSt.,S.F., 

Mr. Louis Gex Santos, Brazil. 

nk nk.,,,r. r-.. . f Roval Astronomer, Cape of 

Dr. David Gill ^ ^.^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^j^^ ^ 

.Mr. Allen F. Gillinan. 2420 Fulton St., Berkeley, Cal. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 5 

Mr. George Gleason { ^°Ca. Caf ***"*' ^"^ ^"^^'^ 

Mr. CAMico GONZAUES {''^^Sir'M^x'ur'''"''* '"'''"" 

Capt. Charles GooDALL* {^sCs.^R^Car^"'' ^'^''*'* 

Mr. H. M. GoRHAM Gold Hill, Nevada. 

Mr. Emil R. Graebeiel Elm Creek, Buffalo Co., Neb. 

Mr. Adam Grant* {^■Ste.,''s." F^CaT'' ^"^"""^ 

Mr. Joseph D. Grant* { ^'^i^^^' F.^'caT'' ^"'"""^ 

Rev. Charles Graves { P«°P^|^^ ^•""■<=*'- Anamosa, 

w, T x> r-oAx, f Leverington, Kim bolton Road, 

3lr. 1 . V. ORAY I Bedford, England. 

Mr. Andrew Greig * Belle Vue, Tayport, Scotland. 

Sir George Grey,* K. C. B Auckland, New Zealand. 

\T^ D u.,^Toxr r-otPPTvr J Combe Wood, Bonchurch 

Mr. P. Henry Griffin | j^,^ ^^ ^^.^^^^ England. 

Mr. C. P. Grimwood P. O. Box 2092, S. F., Cal. 

Mr. Alva J. Grover 1137 Park Ave., Omaha, Neb. 

D^.. u /-»*..«,..•., r-TT.n^vT^or. r* r» j Cliff House, Curbar, via Shef- 
Rev. H. Grattan Guinness, D. D. | ^^j^^ England. 

Mr. J. 0*B. GuNN Box 2128, S. F., Cal. 

Miss EsTELLA L. Guppy San Jos^, Cal. 

Mr. W. C. Gurley Marietta, Ohio. 

Mr. David E. Hadden Alta, Iowa. 

Prof. Asaph Hall. Jr { "^ MiSr"''^' ^"" ^''"''• 

Mr. VV. H. HAMMON { "b^I Jnf ^F^Tal" ' ''"'^ 

Mr. HENRV HARR.SON ^^^l 4^^jirYe7 ^'' 

Mr. Jackson Hatch Porter Building, San Jos^, Cal. 

Mrs. Phebe Hearst { ^ in^S.' 1^.*^ Car ^"'' ^""''" 

Mr. ANDREW P HENKEL \^}^^^i;^^^ ""'^' 

Mr. H. S. Herrick 13 Nevada Block, S. F., Cal. 

Mr. David Hewes Occidental Hotel, S. F., Cal. 

Mr. Geo. W. Hewitt Burlington, New Jersey. 

Prof. Alfred Higbie jS.W. wr^Pierce and Pine Sts., 

Hon. Henry E. Highton 528 California St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. Chas. B. Hill 212 Pine St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. Horace L. Hill* 314 California St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. SAMUEL V. Hoppman* {^TlL^rrM<?. '''^'^'^' 

Mr. Charles W. Holden 30 Congress St., Boston, Mass. 

o^^f i7T^,tr.»r^ c u^. T>..^. (Director Lick Observatory, 

Prof. Edward S. Holden ^^ ^^^^ Hamilton. Cal. 



^ Publications of the 

Vit. S. E. HoLDES Napa. Cal. 

Hon. James F. Houghton 303 California St., S. F., Cal. 

Hon. C. Webb Howard* Pacific-Union Club, S. F., Cal. 

Mr. \Vm. Howat* \ ^^8 U-iHUm St. Melbourne. 

i \ ictona. 

Mr. Wm. RtMFORD Howell .« 43o6^VValnirt St. Philadelphia. 

Hon. Gardinek G. Hlbbard . . . . ^^n J^"1?1^' ^''* ' ^''^'" 

( ington, LI. C 

Prof. Alex. S. Hunter Hanover, Indiana. 

Prof. W. J. HtssEV {^'^•iS^''''***'^''^''- "*™'- 

^ C ton, 1^1. 

Mrs. M. H. Hlttos { "^KeuTe^'v.^*" Brunswick. 

Imperial Observatorv \^"ri^U.^' *"' ^'' ''***"^"«' 

\f^ f .a.»o r f^-r-o .«.«. ^ GenU Ae*tJ. Sl A. & I. R. R. 

Mr. James E. Ingraham -^ ^^ gf ^^g^gtine, Florida. 

Mr. E. B. Ingram Eau Claire, Wisconsin. 

Mr. O. H. Ingram Eau Claire, Wisconsin. 

Mr. Frank Javses { ^^'^^Y; '^*'*'«"'P'' ^*'- ^- ^^ 

Mr. Nels Johnson Manistee, Mich. 

Mr. Paul TvcHO Johnson Livermore, Alameda Co., Cal. 

{ Care New York Life Ins. Co , 

Prof. C. N. Jones -I 346 Broadwav, New York, 

I N. Y. 

Prof. J. E. Keeler .[ '^'gt^^^P^''^'''''' ^"^^^^^^^ 

Prof. JosiAH Keep { ^^^Cal.^"""^^^' Alameda Co., 

Mr. A. Keith Riverside, Cal. 

Mr. W. E. Keith Riverside, Cal. 

Mr. James R. Kelly 309 Leavenworth St., S. F.. Cal. 

Mr. A. E. Kennellv ^ "°^^^'S ^"'l^»"g* Philadel- 

( pnia, la. 

Prof. Jefferson E. Kerschner . . . .; °Laifc^as1er"'pa': °''^*''''*^*"'>'' 

Mr. RoDNEv G. Klmball 253 Monroe St., Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Mr. Donald King -"^ Church Lane Hornsey, Lon- 

( don, England. 

Mr. SVDNEV T. Klein* ■* °'i^?^^f *''>' ^J^^} Stanmore, 

c Middlese.x, England. 

Dr. I)()R(.thea Kllmpkk ' National Observatory, Paris, 

( France. 

Mr. W.M. H. Knight .^ 747 College Su, Los Angeles, 

I Cal. 

Mr. ToKVALO K()HL* Odder, Denmark. 

Mr Fr Kcjfppfn ^^ Potsdamer St. 65, Berlin, Ger- 

■ ( many. 

Mr. \Vm. J. Landers 205 Sansome St., S. F., Cal. 

\fjc< I AQ«i,i I ' Winkton Lodge, near Ring- 

( wood, Hants. England. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 7 

Mr. Joseph G. Lavery 423 California St , S. F., Cal. 

Mr. Walter W. Law Briar Cliff, Scarborough, N.Y. 

Miss Hannah Townsend Lawrence. . Bayside, Long Island, N.Y. 
Mr. James Lawrence Groton, Mass. 

Hoa. MANCK. FEKNA«oHz LHAL . . { ^^/j ^e^xtrMfxic^o" ^• 

J.rof. F. P. LEAVENWORTH { "t^^Slrti^nn """''■ '""' 

!Prof. Joseph Le Conte, LL. D Berkeley, Cal. 

^ev. Edmund Ledger, M. A.,F. R. A. S. . Claydon, Ipswich, England. 

Tr Ai RRRTo I ELoiR [ ^^5 Callc Plcdad, Buenos 

ir. AL3ERTO LELOIR | ^^^^^ RepubUca Argentina. 

ifiss Margaret Lepper Box 490, Benicia, Cal. 

r. William Leviston \ S*'!^*"'?^'* ^^- S^" ^'*"- 

{ CISCO, Cal. 

Ir. Clarence Mackenzie Lewis. . . 104E. 37th St., New York, N.Y. 

ir. J. B. Lewis, C. E 126 Sparks St., Ottawa, Canada. 

LiFORNiA State Library ..... Sacramento, Cal. 

HE City Library Lowell, Mass. 

HE Newberry Library Chicago, 111. 

NiVERsiTV OF CHICAGO LiBRARV . . { ^i^^' "^ Astronomy, Chicago. 

f. Adolph Lietz 422 Sacramento St, S. F., Cal. 

r. J. A. Lighthipe 15 First St., S. F., Cal. 

r. John D. Locke Haverhill, New Hampshire. 

Ir. Henry B. Loomis Seattle, Washington. 

{ Director of the McMillin Ob- 

Tof. Henry C. Lord < servatory, Ohio State Uni- 

l versity, Columbus, Ohio. 

rof. GusTAV C. Lueben San Rafael, Marin Co., Cal. 

r. Geo. Russell Lukens 1350 Madison St., Oakland, Cal. 

r. Frank E. Lunt jCa^e^R. G. Lunt, Los Angeles, 

r. PATRICK MACMANUS { 'IVe^RepuK^ArgSa^ 

^^^- W. F. Main {^^Sc^t"' I?^.'"^"^ '^^•' 

^tiss Agnes M. Mannmng iai5 Sutter Street, S. P., Cal. 



Mr. Marsden Manson, C. E., Ph. D. . { ^"i:?„" °'r!?'^'"*'^^'^' ^^"^" 

(. mento, Cal. 

^Ime. LA Marquise de Viti de Marco . 37 E. 36th St., New York, N.Y. 

Mr. F. Martens { ^ Nefv^ol".^' ^"*^"'' ^°' 

Mr. Camilo Martin 4ii>^ California St., S. F., Cal. 

Hon. E. S. Martin P. O. Box 75, Wilmington, N.C. 

Mr. Louis C. Masten { "^^^i^'^" ^'•' ^^" Francisco, 

Mr. CHARLBS Matson {'«inSor' ^'^'' ''°- 

Mr. W. H. Ma^h. { '^^oniTEnTlid'"'"''"' 

Mr. FRANK McClean,».M.A., F.R.A.S. { ^-^hall House,^ Tunbridge 



8 Publications of the 

Mr. James Jennings McComb 175W. 58th St., New York, N.Y. 

Mr. F. H. McCoNNELL 19 Montgomery St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. John McDonough 193 28th St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Prof. Malcolm McNeill Lake Forest, 111. 

Mr. J. S. McWiLLiAMs Colorado, Mitchell Co., Texas. 

Dr. G.OKCE W. MEKR.TT {^?^ribt"Pa^s*FSnce.' ''"^ 

Hon. Albert Miller* 532 California St., S. F., Cal. 

Prof. E. Miller I "l''„*A,nL!^*"'*'' ^"*" 

L rence, Kansas. 

Hon. D. O. Mills* 15 Broad St., New York, N. Y. 

Mr. Edgar Mills | Brkeland House. Menlo Park. 

Dr. Lewis F. Mizzi Constantinople, Turkey. 

Mr. E. J. Molera,* C. E 606 Clay St., S. F., Cal. 

{Instituto Mexico, Esquina Pla- 
teros y Empedradillo, City of 
Mexico, Mexico. 

Mr. W. H. S. MONCK { '^ifetnnd""' '^"'^^^' '^""'"' 

Dr. JORGE C. MONZO. { ^"c^mJrrenca."^'^'"^'^* 

Mr. Beverly K. Moore 56 Bedford St., Boston, Mass. 

Mr. C. Moorman What Cheer, Keokuk Co., Iowa. 

Prof. Ira More { ^o^n^l School. Los Angeles. 

Mr. R. S. Morrison Equitable Bld'g, Denver, Colo. 

Mr. Fremont MoRSE,U.S.C.&G. Survey. P. O. Box 2512, S. F., Cal. 

Mr. WILLIAM S. MOSES . {"^"p^u^r'AvIs- rri^al^"' 

Miss MARTHA H. MUNRO {''ij^^:^^^:^ ^^^""^' 

Mr. C. A. MuRDOCK 2710 Scott St., S. F., Cal. 

Hon. B. D. Murphy* San Jos^, Cal. 

Mr. Charles Nelson 6 California St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. H. F. NEWALL.. F. R. A. S. . . . { ^Sb^e? e'IiYhT"''^' 
Mr. C. J. NicKERsoN St. Helena, Napa Co., Cal. 

Mr. G. VV. NicOLLS { ^''^razil"^' *^*° ^^ ^^"*'''°' 

Mr. P. NooRDHOFF Groeningen, Holland. 

Mr. Charlf.s Nordhoff Coronado, Cal. 

Miss Rose O'Halloran 2023 Pine St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. Warren Olney { ^^Ca^'''^^''^ ^^^" ^^^^^""^^ 

Miss M. A. Orr C^EnSand.^' ^'^"^^"^^ ^^"'^ 

\fr T Q PATvtiTD /Department of Agriculture, 

.Mr. 1. ^5. t'ALMER ^ Washington. D. C. 

General W. J. Palmer Colorado Springs, Colo. 

Dr. George C. Pardee 526 Montgomery St., S.F., Cal. 

Mr. H. E. Parker { ^Conn^"'' ^^'' '^^*'""«''°''''" 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 9 

Dr. S. C. Passavant 200 Post St.. S. F., Cal. 

«'joH'* p-"HN {''^^t:::ui.^''"^'^'' 

Miss Elizabeth H. Pearson . . . . { '\ll;^^'' "'" ^'"'■' ^°^'°"' 
Miss Clara A. Pease High School, Hartford, Conn. 

Mr. George VV. Percy { ^'fan^d^Cah''' ^^"**'*' ^^' 

Hon. Geo. C. Perkins* Oakland, Cal. 

Prof. H. B. Perkins Box 240, Pasadena, Cal. 

Mr. C. D. PERRINE {^^I&rHi:mK8a'r"^'°^' 

Hon. T. Guy Phelps Belmont, Cal. 

Mr. Henry Phipps. Jr.* {^bur|h!'p^'?'''''^ * ^°' ^'***" 

Mr. Sam C. Phipps Ii-vington, Alameda Co., Cal. 

Mr. John Jay Pierrepont { ' ^^f^^^i^^^ ^'*^*;' Brooklyn, 

Mr. Lawrence H. Pierson Pacific P. L. Co., S. F., Cal. 

Hoa. Wm. M. Pierson, F. R. a. S. . . |4th,floor. Mills Building, S. F., 

Mr. Ruthven W. Pike* i66 La Salle St., Chicago, III. 

Mr. Chester E. Pond Auburn. Cal. 

Mr. Arthur French Poole .... { ^ aUo^ (?al. ""'''^''^"^' ''"'^ 

Dr. Charles Lane Poor { JTlLoreTd. ''""^"'^* 

Miss Juliet Porter* { "uLs^''^"''' ^'" ^*"'*'^^'*''' 

Dr. Thomas Porter { ^'loIh^VValer"''"' ""'^ 

Mr. Louis C. Porterfield Tidioute, Warren Co., Penn. 

Mr. Charles A. Post Bayport, Long Island, N. Y. 

Mr. Walter A. Post Newport News, Va. 

Mr. Wm. Appleton Potter 39 W. 27th St.. New York, N.Y. 

Mr. Thomac; Prather i President Union National 

*H0MAS I'RATHER ^ ^^^^^ Oakland, Cal. 

Mr. Enos Putman* Grand Rapids, Michigan. 

Mrs. Enos Putman Grand Rapids, Michigan. 

Miss EsTELLE R. Putman Grand Rapids, Michigan. 

Miss Helen R. Putman Grand Rapids. Michigan. 

Mr- F. B. Randall. U. S. R. M. . . . { \^a|'*^^- ^''- "^"'*''" ^- ^•' 

Sister Anna Raphael { ^ Josf CaV^°''^ ^^"'^' ^^" 

Mr. Albert Raymond 202 Sansome St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. Norman B. Ream 1901 Prairie Ave., Chicago, III. 

Prof I V D«.,rc. i Observatory of Columbia Col- 

• J. K. KEES ^ j^g^ ^^^ Yqj.j^^ j^ Y. 

Mr. Edward B. Reillev ...... -J 18^2 Christian St., Philadel- 

i pnia, ra. 

Mr. M. Reiman -^ ^^^^ Drexel Boulevard, Chi- 

i cago, 111. 



lo Publications of tlu 

Mr. Francisco Rodriguez Rey. . . \ National Obsenatoo', TacE^ 

I baya. Mexico. 

Rev. J. L. RiCARD. S. J Santa Clara. Cal. 

Mrs. W. G. Rice 13 Elk St, Albany, N. Y. 

Mr. DANIEL S. Richardson -) ^^S^^SI^Od"""' ^*'- 

Mr. Isaac Roberts. F. R. A. S. . . . j Crow^rouRh. Sussex. Eng- 

Mr. N. A. Robinson \^1- JH*''^'} »«*' ^'"* Sis.. 

( S. F., Cal. 

Hon. Arthur Rodgers Nevada Block. S. F., Cal. 

Mrs. Arthur Rodgers* \ Leaven u-orth and Vallejo Sts., 

f o. Jr., Cal. 

Mr. F. B. RoDOLPH 523 Tenth St., Oakland, Cal. 

Dr. VV. H. Rollins 250 Marlboro St, Boston. Mass. 

Mr. A. W. Rose. Jr Hobart Building, S. F., Cal. 

Mr. Geo. A. Ross 861 Madison St, Oakland. Cal. 

The Earl of Rosse \ ^7 ^^^^' Parsonstown, Ire 

( land. 

Baron Albert von Rothschild* . . . Vienna, Austria. 

Mr. John R. Ruckstell 24 Post St., S. F., Cal. 

Rev. E. H. RUDD. D. D -j SL Mar>'s School. Knoxville. 

Mr. ALEXANDER RvDZEwsK. -} ^f g^^'peSu^gf Ru^sfa"' 

Mr. G. N. SAEOMULLER .; ^Tve"; WashUon, D.^C'*"' 

Mr. Joseph C. Sala 429 Montgomery St, S. F., Cal. 

Prof. J. M. SCHAEBERLE* .* LiCK Observator>-. Mt. Hamil- 

-' ( ton, Lai. 

Mr. Jacob H. Shiff* 932 Fifth Ave.. New York, N.Y. 

Mr. Herman Schussler Pacific-Union Club, S. F., Cal. 

Baron A. v. Schweiger-Lerchenfeld-] ^Aus^iria.^"^''''^ '^' ^'^""^' 
Mr. Henry T. Scott Box 2128, S. F., Cal. 

Mr. JAMES L. SCOTT ; ^I^SS^^i'hi^r"^ '^"' 

Rev. GEORGE M. SEARLE \ ^to^^^E ^ C.'''^'"'"" ' 

Mr. Fred. H. Seares Berkeley, Cal. 

Dr. J. M. Selfridge Box 37, Oakland, Cal. 

\fr c-T.xvAor. Peour^vc-T <^pi I v: jThe Observatory, Adelaide, 

Mr. Edward Perronet Sllls . . . ^ ^^^^^ Australia. 

Mr. Garrett P. Serviss 8 Middagh St, Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Dr. T. Steele Sheldon, F. R. A. S. . { ^Yan'd ""' Macclesfield, Eng- 

r\r r \f Qmitcv ^ ^51 E. Fourteenth St., East 

Dr. G. E. Shul\ • Oakland. Cal. 

Mr. D. P. Simons Los Gatos, Cal. 

Mr. Francis Sinclair Berkeley, Cal. 

Judge Charles VV. Slack 1729 Sutter St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. Chas. S. Smith* 25\V. 47th St, New York, N.Y. 

Mr. S0.MMERS N. Smith Newport News, Virginia. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 1 1 

Mr. Wm. F. Smith 2426 Pine St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. Roger Spragie \ "co^,'^c^iorado'!' ^"'^P*'"'^ 

Mr. C. A. Spreckels* San Mateo, Cal. 

Mrs. C. A. Spreckels* San Mateo, Cal. 

Mr. Rudolph Spreckels 2000 Gough St., S. F., Cal. 

Miss Gertrude Stanford i2i8 0ak St., Oakland, Cal. 

Dr. Hezekiah Starr -j "7jM"'berry St.. Baltimore. 

Mr. C. A. Stetefeldt, M. E 967 Alice St., Oakland, Cal. 

Mr. Robert Stevenson P. O. Box 2214, S. F., Cal. 

Mr. H. F. Stivers Hunters, Tehama Co., Cal. 

Mr. Chauncev M. St. John U.S. Custom House, S.F., Cal. 

«'i--STOKH. rro.?Sm°btohr '''"'' 

Prof. W. H. VON Streeruwitz P. O. Box 465, Austin, Texas. 

Prof. I. Stringham, Ph. D Berkeley, Cal. 

Miss Mary A. Sullivan 571 36th St., Oakland, Cal. 

Mr. Daniel Suter { ^ s'T^'caP'^^''' ^"'^'^*"^' 

Hon. A SuTRO* ^ ^^ Montgomery Block. S. F., 

{ Cal. 

Mr. H. C. Swain 1107 Post St.. S. F., Cal. 

Miss Abby Taft Box 45, College Park, Cal. 

Mr. C. F. A. Talbot 204 California St.. S. F., Cal. 

Mrs. Louis Taussig 2127 California St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. C. L. Taylor 709 Bush St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. Charles Tousev Taylor Kamela. Oregon. 

Prof. J. M. Taylor State University, Seattle, Wash. 

I^r. Jesus MuSos Tebar Caracas, Venezuela, S. A. 

Mr. John Tebbutt, F. R. A. S. ... -j ^IS Wales^*"^^^ ^^"^ 

^^' A. Blair Thaw ^ Montecito, Santa Barbara Co., 

{ Cal. 

Mr. I. E. Thayer 28 California St., S. F., Cal. 

Dr. JOH» M. THOME- { ^"LtXSl- Sb.^c"'" 

Mr. D. F. TiLLiNGHAST 3i5MontgomerySt.,S. F., Cal. 

Hon. J. \v. Towner Santa Ana, Orange Co., Cal. 

Mr. S D Tnwvipv i Astronomical Observat*y, Ann 

u. 1 OWNLEY -^ ^^.^Qj.^ Michigan. 

Mr. J. P. Treanor 401 California St., S. F.. Cal. 

Won. Alfred L. Tubes* 611 Front St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. R. H. Tucker, Jr \ ^^^"^ Observatory, Mt. Hamil- 

Mf- Henrv j. Turner* -j VV-oodville. Rappahannock Co., 

"® Sara Carr Upton 3 2109 Pennsylvania Ave., VVash- 

{ ington, D. C. 

^"•"Of Francisco Valiente San Jos6, Costa Rica. 

Mr- Felipe Valle . . . -' National Observatory. Tacu- 

( baya, Mexico. 



12 Publications of the 

Mr. Edward H. Van Ingen 9 East 71st St., New York, N.Y. 

Dr. M. A. Veeder Lyons, N. Y. 

Rev. Jacob VooRSANGER 508 Montgomery St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. W. P. Wallheiser Bedford, Indiana. 

Mr. Frederic Lumb Wanklyn . . . { ^'^ca^aX."''*"'^ ^^" Montreal, 

Mr. J. W. WARD { -^l^^^'^^i^,: Sy^-^' N-' 

{Care of Warner & Swasey, 
East Prospect St., Cleve- 
land, Ohio. 

Mrs. W. Seward Webb { ^^^^"^ ^^^""^' ^^^' ^^'^» 

Prof Dr L Weinek ^ Imperial Observatory. Prague, 

rroi. ur. 1.. weinek ^ Austro-Hungar>\ 

Mr. Chas. J. Welch 1090 Eddy St., S. F., Cal. 

Prof. L. G. Weld { ^^owa^"'"'^''*^^' ^"""^^ ^'^' 

President Andrew D. White* Ithaca, N. Y. 

Mrs Elsie Hadlev White \ ^^^® Normal School, Valley 

Mrs. liLSiE hadlev white ^ (,j^y^ ^^^^ Dakota. 

Mr. E. J. White j ^^^^Z^^"""^' Melbourne, Vic- 

Mr. Ralph Radcliffe-Whitehead . . Santa Barbara, Cal. 

Mr. A. STAN.HV W.LUAMS { ^^JtSVI A^rEngtS'^' 

Mrs. Mary H. Willmarth* 222 Michigan Ave., Chicago, III. 

Mr. J. Howard Wilson Great Barrington, Mass. 

{St. Petersburg. Petersburg 
Side, Great Prospect h. 8, 
1. 5, Russia. 

Rev. Henry Wood St. Ignatius College, S. F., Cal. 

Mrs. Richard Wood 243 Ridge Ave., Allegheny, Pa. 

Mr. William H. Wright Berkeley, Cal. 

Mr. Charles G. Yale j StaH|tician U. S. Mint, S. F., 

Mr. FREDERICK W. Zeile* i Room 26, 5th floor. Mills Build- 

] mg, S. F., Cal. 

Prof. C. V. Zenger Smichow, Prague, Bohemia. 

Mr. F. R. Ziel 410 California St., S. F., Cal. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific . 13 



LIST OP CORRBSPONDINQ OBSERVATORIES AND INSTITUTIONS. 



[Arranged Alphabetically by Cities.] 

Dudley Observatory, Albany, New York. 

Observatory, Algiers, Africa. 

Allegheny Observatory, Allegheny, Pennsylvania. 

Lawrence Observatory, Amherst, Massachusetts. 

Detroit Observatory, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 

Observatory*, Armagh, Ireland. 

Library. University of California, Berkeley, California. 

Redaction Berliner Jahrbuch, Berlin, Germany. 

Royal Observatory, Berlin, Germany. 

Gesellschaft Urania, Berlin, Germany. 

Observatory, Berne, Switzerland. 

University Observatory, Bonn, Germany. 

Observatory, Bordeaux, France. 

Royal Observatory, Uccle, Brussels, Belgium. 

University Observatory, Cambridge, England. 

Harvard College Observatory, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 

Royal Observatory, Cape Town, Africa. 

Astronomical Society, Chicago, Illinois. 

Editors of The Astrophysical Journal, Kenwood Observatory, Chicago, 111. 

University Observatory, Christiania, Norway. 

University Observatory, Cincinnati (Mt. Lookout), Ohio. 

Litchfield Observatory, Clinton, New York. 

National Observatory, Cordoba, Argentine Republic. 

Astronomical Society of Michigan, Detroit, Michigan. 

University Observatory, Dorpat, Russia. 

Trinity College Observatory, Dublin, Ireland. 

Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, Scotland. 

Schuylkill Seminary, Fredericksburg. Lebanon Co., Pennsylvania. 

Observatory, Geneva, Switzerland. 

College Observatory, Georgetown, District of Columbia. 

Morrison Observatory, Glasgow, Missouri. 

University Observatory, Glasgow, Scotland. 

Ducal Observatory, Gotha, Germany. 

Royal Observatory, Greenwich, England. 

Observatory, Hamburg, Germany. 

Shattuck Observatory, Hanover, New Hampshire. 

University Observatory, Helsingfors, Russia. 

Ducal Observatory, Karlsruhe, Germany. 

University Astronomical Observatory, Kasan, Russia. 

University Observatory, Kiel, Germany. 

University Observatory, Koenigsberg, Germany. 

Royal Observatory, Kopenhagen, Denmark. 



14 Publications of the 

Observatory, La Plata, Argentine Republic. 

University Observatory, Leyden, Holland. 

University Observatory, Leipzig, Germany. 

Royal Observatory, Lisbon, Portugal; ■ 

Astronomical Society, Liverpool, England. 

British Astronomical Association, London, England. 

British Museum, London, England. 

Royal Astronomical Society, London, England. 

The Nautical Almanac, London, England. 

University Observatory, Lund, Sweden. 

Observatory, Lyons, France. 

Washburn Observatory, Madison, Wisconsin. 

Observatory, Madras, India. 

Royal Observatory, Madrid, Spain. 

Observatory, Marseilles, France. 

Observatory, Melbourne, Victoria. 

Royal Observatory, Milan, Italy. 

University Observatory, Moscow, Russia. 

Royal Observatory, Munich, Germany. 

Royal Observatory, Naples, Italy. 

Observatory, Neuchdtel, Switzerland. 

Yale University Observatory, New Haven, Connecticut. 

Observatory, Nice, France. 

Observatory of Carleton College. Northfield, Minnesota. 

Radcliffe Observatory, Oxford, England. 

University Observatory, Oxford, England. 

Royal Observatory, Palermo, Italy. 

Bureau des Longitudes, Paris, France. 

Astronomical Society of France, Paris, France. 

National Observatory, Paris, France. 

Astrophysikalisches Observatorium, Potsdam, Germany. 

University Observatory, Prague, Austro- Hungary. 

Halstead Observatory, Princeton, New Jersey. 

Imperial Observatory, Pulkowa, Russia. 

Observatory, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 

Observatory of the Roman College, Rome, Italy. 

Italian Spectroscopic Society, Rome, Italy. 

California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, California. 

Mercantile Library, San Francisco, California. 

Mechanics' Institute Library, San Francisco, California. 

Technical Society of the Pacific Coast, 819 Market St., San Francisco, ( 

Observatory, Santiago, Chile. 

University Observatory, Stockholm, Sweden. 

University Observatory, Strassburg, Germany. 

Observatory of Sydney, New South Wales. 

National Observatory, Tacubaya, Mexico. 

University Observatory, Tokio, Japan. 

Observatory, Toulouse, France. 

University Observatory, Upsala, Sweden. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 15 

McCormick Observatory, University of Virginia, Virginia. 

Chamberlin Observatory, University Park, Colorado. 

Imperial Observatory, Vienna, Austria. 

Von KuFFNER*sches Observatory, Ottakring, Vienna, Austria. 

Tlie American Ephemeris, Washington, District of Columbia. 

Library of Congress, Washington, District of Columbia. 

National Academy of Sciences, Washington, District of Columbia. 

Naval Observatory, Washington, District of Columbia. 

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, District of Columbia. 

U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Washington, District of Columbia. 

Librar>' U. S. Military Academy, West Point, New York. 

Field Observatory, Williamstown, Massachusetts. 

Observator>', Zurich, Switzerland. 



f 



PUBLICATIONS 



OF THE 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 

Vol. VIII. San Francisco, California, February i, 1896. No. 47. 

PLANETARY PHENOMENA FOR MARCH AND APRIL, 

1896. 



By Professor Malcolm McNeill. 



March. 

The vernal equinox, when the Sun crosses the equator from 
south to north, occurs on March 19th, at about 6 p. m., P. S. T. 

Mercury is a morning star throughout the month, and comes 
to greatest west elongation 27° 20' on March 5th; but, on 
account of the fact that it is about ten degrees south of the Sun, 
the conditions for visibility are not very good. During the first 
ten days of the month, it rises a little more than an hour before 
sunrise, and may possibly be seen under good weather conc^tions. 
Veiius is still a morning star, but it is overtaking the Sun in 
its eastward motion among the stars, and, by the end of the 
month, it rises less than an hour before sunrise. On the morning 
of March 14th, it passes six minutes south of the fifth magnitude 
star /A Capricomi. The time of nearest approach is about 5 
A. M., P. S. T., about the time of its rising in the extreme western 
part of the United States. 

Mars rises about two hours before sunrise throughout the 
month. During the month it moves about twenty-three degrees 
eastward and six degrees northward in the constellation Capri- 
corn us, increasing its apparent distance from the Sun about four 
degrees. It is coming a little nearer to the Earth in actual dis- 
tance, but it is still distant from us about twice the mean distance 
of the Elarth from the Sun; and it is gradually growing a little 
brighter, but the gain is small as yet. 

Jupiter is still in fine position for observation, being above the 
horizon until quite late at night, or, rather, early morning. It is 



iS Publications of the 

in the constellation Cancer, and, up to March 24th, moves about 
one degree westward. It then begins to move slowly eastward. 
It is about ^\^ degrees west of the *' Beehive" cluster Prcesepe. 

Saturn is gradually getting into favorable position for evening 
observation, rising at 9** 21™ at the end of the month. It is in the 
constellation Libra, and during the month moves about one 
degree westward and northward. The opening of the rings is 
quite a little wider than it was last year, the minor axis being 
more than one-third of the major. 

Uranus follows about four degrees after SaturHy and three 
degrees south of it. It is on the borders of the constellations 
Libra and Scorpio^ and during the month moves about five- 
tenths of a degree westward. 

Neptune is in the eastern part of the constellation Taurus^ 
too faint to be seen without a good telescope. 

April. 

Occuitations. The planet Afars will be occulted by the Moon 
on the morning of April 8th. The occultation will be visible in 
the eastern part of the United States, the planet rising occulted, 
and coming into view shortly after. The occultation will be over 
before planet and Moon rise in the western part of the country. 
On the evening of April 15th, the Moon will again occult the 
Pleiades group, and quite a number of occuitations may be seen 
from almost any part of the country. The Moon is only three 
days old, and the emersions at the dark limb will be quite strik- 
ing phenomena. There will be other occuitations of the Pleiades 
during the year, in August, October, and November, which can 
be observed in the United States. 

Merairy is a morning star at the beginning of the month, 
passes superior conjunction on the evening of April 17th, and 
becomes an evening star. It rapidly increases its apparent dis- 
tance from the Sun, and, by the end of the month, sets more 
than an hour and a quarter after sunset; so it may easily be seen 
under good weather conditions. It will then remain visible on 
every clear evening for about a month. 

Venus is still a morning star, but is drawing nearer the Sun 
in their apparent eastward motion, and rises only forty minutes 
earlier at the end of the month. It is in aphelion on April ist. 

Mars is gradually increasing its apparent distance from the 
Sun, and is rising a little earlier. It is also gaining in brightness, 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 19 

but will not become conspicuous until late in the summer. It 
moves twenty-two degrees eastward and eight degrees northward 
during the month, from the constellation Capricormis, through 
A^iiarius^ and into Pisces. 

Jupiter is still in fine position in the southwestern sky in the 
early evening. It does not set until long after midnight. It 
moves about two degrees eastward in the constellation Cancer, 
to\%'ard the ** Beehive'* cluster. 

By the close of the month, Saturn rises just after sunset, and 
is in good position for observation late in the evening at any 
time during the month. It is in the* constellation Libra, and 
during the month it moves about two degrees westward and 
nortihward toward a Libra, being about three degrees distant on 
Ap>i-il 30th. 

Uranus follows about five degrees after Saturn, It is also 
moving westward, but only about half as fast as Saturn. 

.Neptune is in the eastern part of Taurus, 

Explanation of the Tables. 

The phases of the Moon are given in Pacific Standard time. 

Iri x\\t tables for Sun and planets, the second and third columns 

give the Right Ascension and Declination for Greenwich noon. 

*"he fifth column gives the local mean time for transit over the 

Greenwich meridian. To find the local mean time of transit for 

^^y other meridian, the time given in the table must be corrected 

"y adding or subtracting the change per day, multiplied by 

the fraction whose numerator is the longitude from Greenwich 

^^ hours, and whose denominator is 24. This correction is 

seldom much more than 1°. To find the standard time for the 

Pnenomenon, correct the local mean time by adding the differ- 

^'^ce between standard and local time if the place is west of the 

s^ndard meridian, and subtracting if east. The same rules apply 

to the fourth and sixth columns, which give the local mean times 

^^ Hsing and setting for the meridian of Greenwich. They are 

^p^ghly computed for Lat. 40°, with the noon Declination and 

"nie of meridian transit, and are intended as only a rough guide. 

*"^y may be in error by a minute or two for the given latitude, 

^^d for latitudes diff*ering much from 40° they may be several 

^^nutes out. 



20 Publications of the 



Phases of the Moon, P. S. T. 

H. M. 





Last 


Quarter 


« 


Mar. 6, 


3 29 A. 


M. 






New 


Moon, 




Mar. 14, 


2 48 A. 


M. 






First 


Quarter, 


Mar. 22, 


3 57 A. 


M. 






Full 


Moon, 




Mar. 28, 


9 21 p. 


M. 










The Sun. 










1896. 


R. A. 


Declination. 

' 


Rises. 

H. M. 


Transits. 

H. M. 




Sets. 

H. M 


Mar. I. 


22 52 


- 7 


16 


6 34 A M. 


12 


12 P 


.M. 


5 50 P. 


II. 


23 29 





24 


6 20 


12 


10 




6 


21. 


5 


-r 


33 


6 3 


12 


7 




6 II 


31- 


41 


+ 4 


28 


5 47 


12 


4 




6 21 








Mercury. 

• 










Mar. I. 


21 8 


- 16 


15 


5 26 A.M. 


10 


29 A, 


M. 


3 32 P. 


II. 


21 50 


— 14 


31 


5 21 


10 


31 




3 41 


21. 


22 43 


— 10 


28 


5 21 


10 


45 




4 9 


31. 


23 43 


— 4 


20 


5 20 


II 


6 




4 52 



Venus. 

Mar. I. 20 43 — 18 19 5 8 a.m. 10 4 A.M. 3 op. 

II. 21 33 — 15 13 5 7 10 H 3 21 

21. 22 21 — II 25 52 10 23 3 44 

31. 23 7 - 7 5 4 54 10 30 46 

Mars. 



Mar. I. 


20 3 


— 21 21 


4 41 A. 


M. 


9 24 A. 


M. 


2 


7P 


II. 


20 35 


- 19 45 


4 26 




9 16 




2 


6 


21. 


21 6 


- 17 50 


4 10 




9 8 




2 


6 


31. 


21 36 


- 15 37 


3 53 




8 59 




2 


5 



Mar. I. 


8 


9 


II. 


8 


7 


21. 


8 


6 


31- 


8 


6 



Jupiter. 

-4-20 52 2 14 P.M. 9 28 P.M. 4 42 A. 

-^210 I 32 8 47 42 

-f- 21 3 12 51 S 6 3 21 

-h 21 2 12 12 7 27 2 42 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 21 



Sa turn. 



1896. 


R. A. 


Declination. 


Rises. 




Transits. 




Sets. 


H. 


M. 


a ' 


H. M. 




H. M. 




H. M. 


Mar. I. 


15 


9 


- 15 10 


II 24 P. 


M. 


4 31 A. 


M. 


9 38 A.M. 


II. 


15 


9 


-15 6 


10 44 




3 52 




9 


21. 


15 


8 


- 14 59 


10 3 




3 II 




8 19 


31. 


15 


6 


- 14 50 


9 21 




2 30 




7 39 



Uranus, 



Mar. I. 


15 


29 


- 18 


37 


II 56 p. M. 


4 


51 A.M. 


9 46 A. M 


II. 


15 


29 


— 18 


36 


II 16 




4 


II 


9 6 


21. 


15 


28 


- 18 


34 


10 36 




3 


31 


8 26 


31. 


15 


27 


- 18 


31 


9 56 




2 


51 


7 46 










Neptune. 










Mar. I. 


4 


57 


+ 21 


13 


II 2 A. 


M. 


6 


16 P.M. 


I 30 A.M 


1 1. 


4 


57 


+ 21 


14 


10 23 




5 


37 


12 51 


21. 


4 


57 


+ 21 


15 


9 44 




4 


58 


12 12 


31. 


4 


58 


+ 21 


17 


9 4 




4 


20 


1 1 36 P.M 



Eclipses of Jupiter's Satellites, P. S. T. 

(Off right-hand limb, as seen in an inverting telescope.) 









H. 


M. 










H. 


M. 


I, 


R. 


Mar. I. 


6 


35 P- M. 




II, R. 


M, 


ar. 20. 


3 


20 A. M 


III. 


D, 


5- 


4 


10 A. M. 




I, R. 




23. 


12 


20 A. M 


II, 


R, 


5- 


10 


10 P. M. 




II, R, 




23- 


4 


38 P. M 


I. 


R. 


7- 


2 


A. M. 




I, R, 




24. 


6 


49 P. M 


I. 


R, 


8. 


8 


30 P. M. 




III, D, 




26. 


4 


9 P. .M 


I. 


R. 


10. 


2 


59 A. M. 




III. R, 




26. 


/ 


42 P. M 


IV. 


D. 


10. 


II 


50 P. M. 




IV. D. 




27. 


5 


53 P- M 


II, 


R. 


13- 


12 


45 A. M. 




IV, R, 




27. 


10 


33 P. M 


I. 


R. 


15- 


10 


25 P. M. 




I, R. 




30. 


2 


15 A.M 


I. 


R. 


17- 


4 


54 P- M- 




II, R, 




30- 


7 


13 P.M 


III. 


R, 


19 


3 


42 p. M. 




I, R. 




31. 


8 


44 P. M 








Phases of the Moon, P 




;. T. 










Last 


Quarter, 


Apr. 


4. 


H. 

4 


.M. 
24 P. 


M. 








New 


Moor 


I, 


Apr. 


12, 


8 


23 P. 


M. 








First 


: Quarter, 


Apr. 


20, 


2 


47 P- 


M. 








Full 


Moon 


» 


Apr. 


27, 


5 


47 A. 


M. 





22 Publications of the 



1896. 

Apr. I. 

II. 

21. 
May I. 





Tp 


IE Sun. 






R. A. 


• 

Declination. 


Rises. 


Transits. 


Sets. 


H. M. 


c / 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


45 


+ 4 51 


5 46 A.M. 


12 4 P. M. 


6 22 P 


I 22 


+ 8 37 


5 30 


12 I 


6 32- 


I 59 


+ 12 8 


5 15 


II 59 A.M. 


6 43 


2 37 


+ 15 19 


5 2 


II 57 


6 52 




Mercury, 







Apr. I. 23 50 — 3 37 5 20 A.M. II 8 a.m. 4 56 p. 

II- o 57 + 4 27 5 21 II 36 5 51 

21. 2 13 + 13 26 5 27 12 13 p.m. 6 59 

May I. 3 34 +20 58 5 39 12 54 8 9 

Venus, 

Apr. I. 23 12 — 6 38 4 54 A.M. 10 30 A.M. 4 6 P. 

II- 23 57 — I 58 4 43 10 36 4 29 

21. o 42 4- 2 51 4 32 10 42 4 52 

May I. I 28 + 7 35 4 22 10 48 5 14 

Mars. 

Apr. I. 21 39 —15 22 3 51 A.M. 8 58A.M. 2 5 P. 

II. 22 9 - 12 54 3 33 8 48 23 

21. 22 38 — 10 13 3 13 8 38 23 

May I. 23 6 — 7 24 2 52 8 27 22 

Jupiter. 

Apr. I. 8 6 -f- 21 2 12 8 P.M. 7 23 P.M. 2 38 A. 

II. 8 8 4- 20 57 II 31 A.M. 6 46 21 

21. 8 10 r 20 48 10 55 69 I 23 

May I. 8 14 +20 35 10 21 5 34 12 47 

Saiurs. 

Apr. I. 15 6 — 14 49 9 17 P.M. 2 26 A.M. 7 35 A. 

II. 15 .3 ~ 14 38 8 34 I 44 6 54 

21. 15 I — 14 26 7 52 12 6 12 

May I. 14 58 — 14 14 7 9 12 20 5 31 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 



23 











i 


Uranus, 








1896. 


R. 

H. 


A. 

M. 


Declination. 

' 


Rises. 


Transits. 

H. M. 


Sets. 

II. M. 


Apr. I. 


^5 


27 


— 18 


30 


9 52 P.M. 


2 


47 A.M. 


7 42 A. M 


II. 


15 


26 


- 18 


26 


9 II 


2 


6 


7 I 


21. 


15 


24 


- 18 


21 


8 30 


I 


26 


6 22 


May I. 


15 


23 


- 18 


15 


7 49 


12 


45 


5 41 










Neptune, 








Apr. I. 


4 


58 


+ 21 


17 


9 A. M. 


4 


16 P.M. 


II 34 P. M 


1 1. 


4 


59 


+ 21 


19 


8 22 


3 


38 


10 54 


21. 


5 





+ 21 


21 


7 44 


3 





10 16 


day I. 


5 


2 


+ 21 


23 


7 6 


2 


23 


9 40 



Eclipses of Jupiters Satellites, P. S. T. 

(OfT right-hand limb, as seen in an inverting telescope.) 









H. M. 








H. .M. 


Ill, 


r>. 


Apr. 2. 


8 9 P. M. 


II. R, 


Apr. 


14. 


12 23 A.M. 


III. 


R-, 


2, 

t 


II 41 P. M. 


I, R, 




15. 


12 35 A.M. 


II. 


I^, 


6. 


9 48 P. M. 


I, R. 




16. 


7 4 P. M. 


I. 


R^, 


7- 


10 40 p. M. 


II, R, 




21. 


2 58 A. M. 


I. 


R-, 


9. 


5 9 p. M. 


I. R, 




22. 


2 31 A. M. 


III. 


r>. 


10. 


12 9 A. M. 


I, R, 




23. 


■ 8 59 P. M. 


IV, 


R^, 


13. 


4 39 P. M. 


I, R. 




30. 


10 55 P. M. 



THE PHOTOGRAPHY OF PLANETOIDS, BY PRO- 
FESSOR MAX WOLF. 



Abstract by Dr. Edward S. Holden. 



* he Astronomische Nachrichten No. 3319 contains an exhaust- 

ive Paper by Professor Max Wolf, of Heidelberg, on the photog- 

raptiy of planetoids, based on his personal experience in the years 

189 1-^1895. His work has been done with portrait lenses of five 

and of six inches aperture, with foci of twenty-five and of thirty 

locri^s^ respectively. The lens is kept accurately pointed for 

exposures of one and one-half, or, better, two hours, and the 

stars appear as dots on the plate, while asteroids are distinguished 

by their (short) trails, 

* o draw safe conclusions from such observations, the plates 
must be in duplicate. If both plates are simultaneously exposed, 



I 



24 Publications of the 

errors on one plate may make the result doubtful. Professor 
Wolf prefers to expose plate A for one hour, then to begin the 
exposure of plate B, to close plate A after another hour, and, 
finally, to close plate B at the end of the third hour. Part of the 
space occupied by the trail of a planetoid on A will be vacant on 
plate B, and vice versa. 

If a visual telescope of sufficient power is at hand, the short- 
est method is to expose one plate only, and to examine the sky 
with the visual telescope to resolve the doubtful points suggested 
by the plate. This is the method so successfully followed by M. 
Charlois at Nice. 

An important advantage of this method of research is the 
wide field covered by the portrait lens.* 

For planetoids brighter than 12.6 magnitude. Professor Wolf 
finds that a field of some seventy square degrees is available 
under good conditions. 

To compare two plates, A and B, both plates are laid on a 
retouching frame, one over the other, with both films downwards, 
and are then examined with a hand-glass. This method is found 
by Professor Wolf, after long experience, to be preferable to 
other processes, suggested by Messrs. E. C. Pickering, Bar- 
nard, and" by Wolf and Lenard. 

Whenever it is possible, the R. A. and Dec. of the planet 
should be obtained from visual observations, and not from plates 
made with portrait lenses of short focus. If portrait lenses of 
sixteen inches aperture and eighty-odd inches focus are available 
(such as the Heidelberg Observatory expects to possess), the 
case is different, and good positions can be had from the plates. 
The estimation of the magnitude of the planet from its trail 
requires long experience, and is always difficult. The measure- 
ment of positions on photographic plates is attended by a swarm 
of difficulties, which have been considered in detail by Professor 
Wolf in Aslro7ioiny and Astrophysics for 1893, page 799, to 
which reference is made. 

During the past years, Professor Wolf has experimented 
with all kinds of developers, and concludes that, in respect of the 
energy of the development, there is little to choose between 
them. He generally employs Rodinal in its commercial form, 
using ninety parts of water to ten of Rodinal, and not developing^ 



* This point was laid before the Iniernalioual Astro-Phot ograiihic Congress by Messrs. 
E. C. PiCKKRiNG and Steinheil, but such leuses were rejected for the International Map. 



Astrono7nical Society of the Pacific. 25 

too long, — that is, the plate is not allowed to become too dark. 
'E^Y' ^o^& ^^^ careful researches, Professor Wolf also concludes 
thi^^t he can secure somewhat fainter impressions on the plate by a 
strong developer actmg for a short time than by a weak one used 
for a long development. So-called restrainers, as Sodium- 
bromide, should not be employed. They produce a clear film, 
the fainter impressions are lost. 
These remarks relate to the photography of planetoids, etc., 
are not applicable to photographs of nebular details, etc., to 
tographs of the Sun and Moon, etc. In such cases the 
cin developer is to be recommended, v&\n% fresh plates. For 
F^l£i.i:^etoids and faint nebulae, old plates and a rapid development 
^r^ desirable. 

Trom the tables in Professor Wolf's paper, it results that in 
'^Sqs, 38 known and 18 new planetoids were found by him. 
r 8^> -2 27 ** *' Q ** '* ** *' ii «i 

I Sc^k -• - _ (( (i fi t( ii (i (t (( ti 



15 " " 6 

^'"» one new planetoid was found 

to 2.1 known planetoids in 1892. 

to 3.0 " " *' 1893. 

to 2.5 •* '' '* 1894. 

to 6.3 *' *' " 1895. 

It would seem, from this table, as if the number of the 
^^*^riown planetoids as bright as the twelfth magnitude had been 
'"^^ti^rially reduced, though it is probably too soon to draw this 

^^hen one reviews the work that has been done in this field 
ir^ Order to see how far the photographic method of discovering 
^*^^etoids has succeeded, the result is most satisfactory. 

Ky means of the photographic method, many new planetoids 

^"^'^ been discovered, and, what is at least as important, many old 

P^J^ets which had been '*lost" have been re-discovered, — which 

^/^uld hardly have been the case had we depended solely on 

visua.1 observations. 

As in other fields of research, it has been found that photog- 

^phy, so far from doing away with the necessity for visual 

observations, has, in fact, created new demands upon the former 

^^thods, and has increased, not diminished, its scope and use- 

: Alness. 

I In a foot-note, Professor Wolf remarks that he feels obliged, 



26 Publications of the 

on account of the pressure of other work, and on account of hb 
present state of health, to abandon the field of the discovery of 
planetoids by photography. In the four years of his work, he 
has discovered no less than thirty- six new asteroids, and has 
re-discovered many of those which were **lost,*' and he may 
leave the methods which he has created to other most capable 
observers, well content with his own contributions to this branch 
of science. By the time the Heidelberg Observatory obtains its 
pair of great photographic lenses,* it is hoped that Professor 
Wolf may be in robust health, and ready to use them in new 
fields. If there is an unknown major planet, the best hope for 
its discovery is by these lenses or by the Bruce telescope of the 
Harvard College Observatory, or by some instrument of like 
class, with a large field and great light-gathering power. 

£. S. H. 



(TV/ENTIETH) AWARD OF THE DONOHOE COMET- 
MEDAL. 



The Comet-Medal of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 
has been awarded to Mr. C. D. Perrine, Assistant- Astronomer 
in the Lick Observatory for his discovery of an unexpected 
comet on November 17, 1895. 

The Committee on the Comet-Medal, 

Edward S. Holden, 
j. m. schaeberle, 

January 17, 1S96. W. J. HlSSEY. 



(TWENTY- FIRST) AWARD OF THE DONOHOE 

COMET-MEDAL. 



The Comet- Medal of the Astronomical Societv of the Pacific 
has been awarded to Professor W. R. Brooks of Geneva, N. Y., 
for his discovery of an unexpected comet on November 21, 1895. 
The Committee on the Comet-Medal, 

Edward S. Holden, 
J. M. Schaeberle, 
January 21. 1S96. W. J. HussEV. 



* See Publications A. S. P.. Vol. VII, p. 2^5. 



Astronomical Society of the Paci/ic. 




NOTICES FROM THE LICK OBSERVATORY. 



Astronomical Instruments Making in Wash 
A letter from Mr. Saegmuller, of Washington, D. C. 
notifies that during the past year his works have completed a 
nine-inch photographic transit- instrument, with collimators, for 
the observatory of Georgetown College ; that a four-and-one- 
half'inch meridian -circle has just been finished for the observa- 
tory of the Catholic University of America (Professor Searle); 
and that a photographic equatorial, a combined transit and zenith 
telescope, posit ion -micro meter, and a chronograph are now in 
hand for Cordoba, Argentine Republic, (Dr. Thome). The 
observatory of Notre Dame College, at South Bend, Indiana, 
ha^ ordered a seven-inch equatorial, a transit, a clock, and a 
chronograph ; and four other equatorials are in process of con- 
struction (apertures, five to nine inches). E, S. H. 

Request to Astronomers Regarding Ephemerides of 
Comets, Etc. 

The Astronomische Nachrichten and other European journals 
are received at Mount Hamilton from twenty days to a month 
after their dates of publication, and we frequently find that the 
ephemerides of comets, etc., as printed, have e.xpired when the 
journal reaches us. Computers will confer a great favor upon the 
Lick Observatory if they will remember this delay of twenty to 
thirty days in printing their ephemerides, or if ihcy will kindly 
send a mi. ephemeris by letter. It is not always possible for us 
to spare the time to extend an ephemeris. The orbits of comets 



t ( 

( i 



28 Publications of the . 

discovered a'. Mount Hamilton are always calculated here, but 

for other comets we must depend, in general, upon orbits and 

ephemerides computed elsewhere. Edward S. Holden. 

1896, January 4. 

New Edition (1895) of Professor Young's Book on the 

Sun. 

The publishers of the International Scientific Series have 
issued a new and revised edition of Professor Young's book on 
the Sun, which will be. like its predecessor, indispensable in 
every astronomical library. R S. H. 

Progress of the Astronomical Society of France. 

The number of members of the Society at the end of each 
calendar year is given in the table following: 

1887, 90 members. 1891, 455 members. 

1888, 188 " 1892, 552 

1889, 288 " 1893, 640 

1890, 366 '* 1894. 742 

1895, 1133 members. 

The Society is to be congratulated, not only upon its rapid 
growth, but upon the excellent journal which it issues monthly, 
the Bulletin de la SociH^ Astrononiiqiie de France, an octavo of 
more than 400 pages, well illustrated. E. S. H. 

Nomenclature of the Asteroids, Etc. 

It may be interesting to recall a bit of ancient history with 
regard to the nomenclature of the asteroids, though it is entirely 
too late to hope for a reform. In the Astronomical Journal^ 
vol. i., p. 134 (1850), Dr. Gould, the editor, has a note upon 
the discovery of a new planet by Hind. "Mr. Hind has selected 
the name Victoria, with a star surrounded by a laurel wreath for 
a symbol. Such nomenclature is at variance with established 
usage," Dr. Gould goes on to say, **and is liable to the objec- 
tions which very properly led astronomers to reject the names 
Medicean Stars, Georgitnn Sidus, Ceres Ferdinandea, etc., and 
even those of the astronomers Herschel and Leverrier, for 
the adoption of whose names some arguments might be adduced." 
In the same volume o( \.\\q Journal (page 139), Mr. W. C. Bond, 
Director of Harvard College Observatory, writes on the same 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 29 

subject, that *' Victoria was the daughter of Pallas, and one of 

the attendants o{ Jupiter, and, therefore, the name appears to 

AjI fill the required conditions of a mythological nomenclature." 

Ork this Dr. Gould has a note to the effect that the Pallas in 

c]U6stion was a ** a giant — not the goddess, who is believed to 

have left no children.'* In the same volume oi the Journal (page 

131) Mr. Hind prints a letter saying that "the name Victoria 

wa.s submitted to the approbation of astronomers on mythologi- 

0*1.1 grounds, and not exclusively as marking the country where 

th^ discovery was made. I foresaw the objections which you 

tia.v'€ advanced, and, therefore, devised a symbol which would 

^.p>F>ly equally well to Victoria or to another name, — Clio, — which 

J hsid in view in case the general feeling of astronomers was 

^^S^^inst the latter. ... I would at once reject any name that 

is not found in mythology." With this letter the incident ended; 

^^^ name Victoria was, however, adopted, but the rule of choosing 

vthological name for newly discovered bodies was apparently 

firmlv settled than ever. Victoria was such a name. There 

be no doubt that the rule is a good one. 

The Comet IV of 1857 was discovered by Dr. C. H. F. 

ERS, at the Dudley Observatory, Albany, and was named by 

*^*»'>^ the **OLCOTT-Comet," after one of the trustees. This name 

^^'"^-^ not accepted by the Journal, nor by astronomers generally, 

^'^>^ more than the name *'Comet-TE\VFiK," given to the comet 

^^^crovered at the Egyptian eclipse ot 1882 in the presence of the 

'^t^^jdive Tewfik. The absurdity to which such personal names 

'^^'ill lead is well illustrated by an English chart of the Moon, on 

^"^icrh one of the craters bears the name "Mrs. Jackson-Gwilt.*' 

^^'^*«ral charts of Mars also are burdened with personal names, 

^t: the elegant and scholarly nomenclature of Schiaparelli's 

'^^liifc, where the names are from ancient geography and history, 

^'*^l undoubtedly prevail. 

To return to the asteroids. About 1852, the minor-planets 

^^S"^n to be found in such numbers that the invention of separate 

^*"^ bols for them was abandoned, and they were designated by 

^*^^bers, which signified the order of their discovery, enclosed 

^^ircles. Thus, Victoria now has for a symbol,. (^). The names 

^\\t planetoids continued to be chosen from mythology. (67) = 

^^<€i was discovered by Pogson in Madras. She was one of the 

^<^€inides, the wife of lapetus and the mother of Atlas and Pro- 

^^^^eus. The name was thus at once conventionally correct and 



30 Publications of the 

happily chosen. No one was more happy in choosing such 
names, in general, than Dr. Peters, who discovered so many of 
these bodies. Immediately after returning from the Transit of 
Venus expedition, he discovered two planets, — Adeona and 
Vibilia, — in one night. Adeona is the patroness of home- 
coming, and Vibilia the patroness of ways — of journeyings. 
The name of his asteroid Miriam (who was the sister of Moses) 
was chosen in defiance of rule, and of malice aforethought; so 
that he could tell a theological professor, whom he thought to be 
too pious, that Miriam, also, was "a mythological personage.'* 

Jiiewa, discovered by Watson in China in 1874, is out ol 
Chinese mythology; and Freia (D* Arrest, 1862) and Frigga 
(Peters, 1862) from Scandinavian. I do not find Polana (dis- 
covered by Palisa at Pola in 1875) in any mythology, and she 
probably is an invented patroness of her city, Pola. Gallia 
(Henry, at Paris, 1875,) is an evident departure from the strict 
rule. From about this time onward such departures are frequent. 
Hilda, Bertha, Eva, Irma, Elsa, Lamberia, Martha, Isabella^ 
Bianca, Stephania, Lucia, Rosa, Henrietta, Barbara, Carolina, 
Ida, Betti7ia, Clementina, Mathilde, Augusta^ Hiiberta, Anna, 
Aline, Antonia, Elvira, Paulina, Lticretia,^ Clorinda, Emma, 
Amelia, Alice, Baptistine, Geraldine, Dorothea, Clarissa, Olga, 
Gordonia, Margarita, Gobcrta, Katharina, Chicago, etc., (all 
adopted names of asteroids), may, some of them, have a right in 
a list of heavenly bodies, but many of them, at least, read like the 
Christian names in a girls' school. 

No doubt the departure from a strictly classical nomenclature 
has gone too far to be corrected now, but there is no question 
the departure is, on the whole, to be regretted; and, although 
the matter of nomenclature is a minor one, it is worth while to 
keep it as impersonal as possible in the future. The abuses to 
which a contrary course might lead are only too evident. 

E. S. H, 

Lick Observatory Expedition to Observe the Total 
Solar Eclipse of August, 1896, in Japan. 

An expedition to observe the total solar eclipse of August, 
1896, will be sent from the Lick Observator}', under the direc- 
tion of Professor J. M. Schaeberle. The expedition has been 



♦ Named in honor of Lucretia Caroline Herschkl. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 3^ 

authorized by the Regents of the University, and its expenses 
will be met from a fund generously offered by Colonel C. F. 
Crocker, a member of the Regents* Committee on the Lick 
Observatory. * 

The programme of the expedition will be wholly photo- 
graphic. Professor -Schaeberle will make large-scale photo- 
graphs of the corona with a lens of forty-foot focus, on the plan 
which was so successful in Chile in 1893; and smaller scale pic- 
tures (some on standardized plates) will be taken with the five- 
inch Floyd photographic telescope. 

Mr. BuRCKHALTER, Director of the Chabot Observatory, 
Oakland, will photograph the corona on a plan described by him 
in these Publications^ Vol. VII, 1896, page 157, with a special 
photographic telescope, of four inches aperture and twenty feet 
focus (provided at the expense of Hon. William M. Pierson, 
of San Francisco). A portion of Mr. Burck halter's appa- 
ratus is provided by a gift from Mrs. Phcebe Hearst. 

Dr. G. E. Shuey and Mr. Louis C. Masten have volun- 
teered to accompany the expedition (at their own cost), to serve 
as assistants to Professor Schaeberle and Mr. Burckhalter, 
and to manage the smaller instruments. Professor H. Terao, 
Director of the Imperial Observatory of Tokyo, has kindly 
offered to select a member of the staff of his observatory to ac- 
company the Lick Observatory Expedition, as one of its mem- 
^rs, to its station in Japan. 

It is to be hoped that the expedition may meet with good 

weather, and return with results which will reward its efforts. 

E. S. H. 
Mount Hamilton, January 17, 1896. 



* It will be remembered that the Lick Observatory Eclipse Expedition to Cayenne in 
^cojber, 1889, was also sent at the expense of Colonel Crocker. 




32 Publications of the 

Minutes of the Meeting of the Board of Directors, 
held in the rooms of the society, january 25, 

1896, AT 7:30 P. M. 

President Burckhalter presided. A quorum was present. The 
minutes of the last meeting were approved. The following members 
were duly elected : 

List of Members Elected January 25, 1896. 

Mr. George V. Hicks 532 California St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. Beverly Letcher 532 California St., S. F., Cal. 

Mrs. F. K. UPHAM -J ^t°,"ets¥,^"gl. "*""'• ""^ 

Library of the Chabot Observatory . . Oakland, Cal. 
Library of the College of New Jersey . Princeton, New Jersey. 
Library of the Lick Observatory . . . Mount Hamilton, Cal. 

Librarv of the Leland Stanford Jr. '\ Cf^^r^^^ tt^:..^^^:*., r-^i 
University . ^Stanford University, Cal. 

Mr. C. A. Spreckels and Mrs. C. A. Spreckels were elected to 
life membership. 

On motion, the following resolutions were adopted : 

Whereas, The Lick Observatory, the Chabot Observator>', and the 
Leland Stanford Jr. University have become members of the Society, 
to date from January i, 1896; 

Resolved^ That these names be transferred from the list of corres- 
ponding institutions to the list of active members. 

Resolved, That, on the recommendation of the Committee on Pub- 
lication, the edition of the Publications be fixed at 750 copies, for the 
present. 

Resolved, That the funds belonging to the General Fund of the 
Society be deposited with the Donohoe-Kellv Banking Company, and 
with the Security Savings Bank, as provided in the resolution adopted 
December 29, 1892. 

Adjourned. 

Minutes of the Meeting of the Astronomical Society of 
THE Pacific, held in the Lecture Hall of the Cali- 
fornia Academy of Sciences, January 25, 1896. 

The meeting was called to order by President Burckhalter. The 
minutes of the last meeting were approved. 

The Secretary read the names of new members duly elected at the 
Directors' meeting. 

The resolutions adopted at the Directors' meeting were read and 
approved. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 33 

A committee to nominate a list of eleven Directors and Committee 
OQ Publication, to be voted for at the annual meeting, to be held on 
March 28th, was appointed, as follows: Messrs. C. M. St. John (Chair- 
man), Chas. S. Cushing, D. S. Richardson, J. Costa, and George 
\V. Percy. 

A committee to audit the accounts of the Treasurer, and to report 
at the annual meeting, was appointed, as follows : Messrs. D. F. 
TiLLiNGHAST (Chairman), Chas. B. Hill, and Louis C. Masten. 

The following papers were presented: 

X. On the grinding of a silver on glass Reflector, illustrated by a mirror 
under construction, by Mr. Allen H. Babcock. 

2. The orbit of Comet Perrine, illustrated by Ian tern -slides, by Mr. 
Chas. B. Hill. 

3- A new method of photographing the Corona, illustrated by the appa- 
ratus, by Mr. Charles Burckhalter. 

A- Weather Forecasting: its present methods, limitations, and future 
possibilities, with lantern-slide illustrations, by Mr. W. H. 
Hammon, Forecast official U. S. Weather Bureau. 

These papers were read by the authors. 

Secretary Ziel exhibited a slide representing the sky at the time of 
^^t^.lity of the eclipse of August 9, 1896, showing the relative positions 
^^ t\\(t planets Jupiter ^ Vemis^ and Mercury ^ and the brighter fixed stars. 

The thanks of the Society were returned to the California Academy 
^f Sciences for the use of the lecture hall. 

Adjourned. 



34 PidicatioHs of the Astronomical Society &c. 

OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY. 
ChAS. BuKKHALTH IChaSOT ObKmion', Omlilaiid), Pniu 

W. I. Hu»»(UrK Ob«r™toryl, J 
E. S.HoLDiM iLicKObxrviioiyj ! Vin-Pmm 



Fimtmtt Cimmillir—Mtun, VON Gbluuk, Pibison. St>ih«ha>i. 
Ctmmiltit <,« pKilicnlim—Mctsn. HoLUEN, Cahpbii.l, BA»cock:. 
Library Ciimmilln—i\j. Molira, Mix O'Hallobak, Mr. HabcocK. 
CammhUt s« Iht C^mcl-ilffaa/—t.lcssn. HoLHEH (ix-nffica). ScHAlBERL 
OFFICERS OF THE CHICAGO SECTION. 



MiuO'HALL 

.MK. ZlBl.. 



OFFICERS OF THE MEXICAN SECTION. 



llie aliemion or MW m'tmben i< lalled lo Article VIII of ihe nv'La<r>, vhich provjdci that 

ihere have been (unfpnunMely) »n)i omidliDin in ihit muier, il \.i lequesied ihil ihe Secreurits 
heu once noiified. iu otderthii the niBinc nunben niny be lupplied. Meiiibenue requested 
toprcHrvt the c<q>i« of tb* ^wMci^uhi uf the Si>ciet)r is unl In them. Once each yeu a liile- 
paiEeand contentfiof Ihe preceding Dumbers will al» M sent to the mcinbers. who can then bind 
the numben together into a volume. Conpleie volamca for past yean will also bt iup]:>lied, to 
■Dtnibcti only, u far an iht Mock In hind i> tuHicieni, on the payment of two dollui to cither of 
■he Secteianei. Any non-re>idenI nwmbet within Ihe United !iiaie> can obtain booki fnini the 
Sociny't library by tending his library card with ten centi in rtampi to Ihe Secretary A. S. P., 
Big Market Street. Sin FnuleiiCD. who will return the bmlt and the card. 

The Comniliee on PubJicaiion deiiRi to uy that Ihe order in which pipers are primed in 
the /'H^£:a<M>u it decided limply by convenience. In a gcntrai way. Ihote paperi are printed 

to be primed lo author! whose midencc i> not within the Uniied Siaiu. The retpontibility tot 



'the Society HI 

Kdely. Big Marltel Sirei 
atlaiion. lodging, (ic. 



iiamps. Hie sending* are at ihe risli of the in 



PLBLICATIOt-S ISSLLD hi ll!0\lHL1 




PUBLICATIONS 



OP T H B 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 

Vol. VIII. San Francisco, California, April i, 1896. No. 48. 

ADDRESS OF THE RETIRING PRESIDENT OF THE 

SOCIETY, AT THE EIGHTH ANNUAL 

MEETING, MARCH 28, 1896. 



By Chas. Burckhalter. 



Ladies and Gentlemen: — Following the custom of my 
predecessors retiring from this chair, I briefly submit for your 
consideration a few thoughts on the condition, progress, and aims 
of our Society. The Astronomical Society of the Pacific, with 
this meeting, has reached the age of seven years, and at no time 
has it been as strong in ability or a more potent factor in astron- 
omy. With the same conservative management in the future 
that has characterized the past, this influence will grow and 
expand. 

The fortunate occurrence, almost at our doors, of a total solar 
eclipse, gave the Society birth. The eclipse of New Year's Day, 
1889, brought out and together the active and latent astronomi- 
cal talent of this city and surroiinding towns, and laid the founda- 
tion of our Society, and resulted in a united, intelligent and suc- 
cessful effort to add to our knowledge of the science, by the work 
of local amateurs and their friends. The Director of the Lick 
Observatory saw an opportunity of making this somewhat indis- 
criminate coming together of amateur photographers and astrono- 
mers the basis of a permanent organization. The first call 
resulted in a preliminary meeting in the rooms of the Pacific Coast 
Amateur Photographic Association, on February 7, 1889, and 
the first regular meeting, held in the March following, witnessed 
the formal organization of our Society, sans everything but 
boundless enthusiasm. 



36 Publications of the 

The remarkable growth of the Society surprised its most en- 
thusiastic friends, attracting attention everywhere, and was proof, 
if proof was needed, that a popular society of professional and 
amateur astronomers could flourish in this comparatively new 
community. Every meeting added new names to our roll of 
membership. Names from the Eastern States and foreign coun- 
tries became surprisingly numerous, and the rapid growth of the 
Society added unexpected labor to the few who did most of the 
hard work incident to organization, and required your officers to 
give more and more of their time to the increasing wants and 
interests of the Society. For the most part, these same men are 
still bearing the heat and burden of the day, with no thought of 
reward but the justly deserved ** Well done, good and faithful 
servant ' ' 

I do not believe the Society, as a body, has ever fully realized 
how much has been done by the few. Composed as it is of a 
widely scattered membership, it has devolved (and always will 
fall) upon a few to carry on the work. This wide distribution of 
our members has the disadvantage that the work cannot well be 
divided; but, on the other hand, the sphere of the Society's in- 
fluence is correspondingly increased, and the bringing together 
of such widely scattered and disassociated forces can result only 
in good for astronomy. 

I desire to call the attention of those of us who have the 
advantages of the San Francisco meetings, the opportunity oi 
meeting twice each year at our great Lick Observatory, and the 
use of our fine library, to the fact that the non-resident members 
of the Society receive in return for their subscriptions only the 
publications of the Society. Our non-resident membership, a 
very large percentage of the whole, will wax and wane as our 
publications appreciate or depreciate in value. Every effort must 
be made to increase our volumes in number and size, and this 
again depends almost entirely upon the amount of funds that wc 
can place in the hands of the Publication Committee. It is 
especially important to provide for well-chosen and instructive 
illustrations. It is the custom of the retiring President to advise 
the members of the Society's needs, he, presumably, being 
familiar with its wants and conditions. If I am to follow this 
well-established rule, I will concentrate all my energies in one 
sentence, and say, that in my opinion the greatest need of the 
Society to-day is, more money for the publications. Our Publica- 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 37 

^on Committee has worked faithfully and given us full return for 

ai/ that we have given them. Rigid economy has been practiced 

in every department in favor of the publications, thus returning 

to our non-resident members nearly all they gave. The publica- 

\\OT\s are first-class in every respect, and, to show that I am not 

a/one in this opinion, I will take the liberty of quoting from a 

private letter of the Director of an American Observatory the 

following appreciative sentences: 

• * I wish to tell you something which you may perhaps know 
already. The publications of the A, S. P, contain the best digest 
of ^what is going on in the astronomical world to be found. 

* • Prior to revising some book manuscripts, I have just been 
reading up the doings of astronomers during the past two years. 
In the A. S, P. I found practically everything that I found 
els^^here which was of service to me. * ' 

If this compliment is deserved, and I believe it is, it should 
resialt in greater efforts than we have yet made, to increase the 
valiae of this branch of the Society's work. 

AVhen stating a need it should, if possible, carr}' with it the 

remedy, and this is very simple, indeed, — more members ! I have 

no doubt that many of our members have often wished they could 

do some service to the* Society and astronomy. Because they 

cai:iiiot discover more Neptunes^ or write valuable papers for the 

meetings, they persuade themselves that they can do little of 

value; and end by doing nothing. I will, therefore, venture to 

point out a most excellent way, within the power of every mem- 

^r, of advancing the cause of science on our coast, and greatly 

lielping our Society; which is nothing more than to add new 

names to our list of members. 

The Society is open to both gentiemen and ladies. We require 
'^o exhaustive knowledge of astronomy, or deeply studied thesis, 
but only an honest love for Urania, and an earnest desire to pro- 
'"^te the study of the science and the diffusion of our knowledge 
^vering it. As most of our expenses are fixed, each new 
™^niber means so much additional for enhancing the value of our 
publications, and more widely sowing the good seed. 

I will venture to offer another suggestion, intended for our 
•^H!al members. You have been, in the past, entirely too modest 
^^ reading papers before the Society, and in discussing those 
^^d. Because you believe you cannot prepare papers that will 
^^'^t the attention of the astronomical world in high places, is no 



3^ Publications of the 

reason why you should not prepare papers for our meetings. 
They need not, necessarily, be published, and you may feel con- 
fident that anything that will interest you will interest a majority 
of the members who attend the meetings, and it should be borne 
in mind that many members are only in the A B C of astronomy, 
and papers read by those not far advanced are more likely to be 
understood, and therefore more often useful, than the finished 
paper of the professional astronomer. The object of the meetings 
is to instruct each other, rather than to attract the attention of 
astronomers. This is a Society of amateurs and professionals, 
not a Society of experts alone. As a Society, we have been 
remarkably fortunate in receiving generous gifts from some of our 
members, while the Lick Observatory, which is our foundation- 
stone, has received gifts worthy of princes from others. I need 
only mention Alexander Montgomery, who founded and 
endowed our library, and Joseph A. Donohoe, who founded 
and endowed the Comet- Medal. 

At the present time, preparations are being made by the 
Lick Observatory to send an eclipse expedition of four members 
to Japan, to observe the eclipse of August 9th, under the direc- 
tion of Professor Schaeberle, at the expense of Colonel C. F. 
Crocker. Ex-President Wm. M. Pierson generously furnished 
the funds to equip one of the members with an expensive and 
novel telescope for this special work, while Mrs. Phcebe Hearst 
has given liberally to carry on the necessary experiments to in- 
vestigate the possibilities of this novelty, and I take pride in 
saying that every one of the members of the expedition, and all 
the generous contributors, are our fellow-members. 

In conclusion, I congratulate you upon the successful work 
accomplished in our short history and the wide-spreading influ- 
ence of the Society. At this time, when astronomy is making 
such startling progress, and its popular study is so wonderfully 
increasing, one of the greatest results we can achieve for its 
advancement is to induce others to share our privileges, and to 
bring them within the unseen yet powerful influence that unity of 
thought and purpose alone can give. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 39 

PLyVNETARY PHENOMENA FOR MAY AND JUNE, 

1896. 

By Professor Malcolm McNeill. 



May, 1896. 

Atfercury is an evening star throughout the month, coming to 

its greatest eastern elongation, 22° 9', on May 16; during the 

entire month it remains above the horizon more than an hour 

after sunset, and about the middle of the month nearly two hours. 

This is the best time of the year for seeing it as an evening star. 

The distance from the Sun is not as great as it was during the 

preceding greatest west elongation, but during the greater part of 

the month the planet is several degrees north of the Sun, and 

this retards its setting quite a number' of minutes. It moves 

ra.pidly eastward in the constellation Taurus. On May 9th it 

Passes eight degrees north of the first-magnitude star a Tauriy 

^^^ on May 19th it passes three degrees south of the second- 

'"^g^nitude star fi Tauri, Toward the close of the month, the 

distance between planet and Sun diminishes rapidly. 

l^enus is still a morning star, but it is so near the Sun that it 
^ no longer conspicuous, rising only about half an hour before 
^^ Sun at the close of the month. It moves eastward and north- 
W3.rd among the stars from Pisces, through Aries, into Taurus, 
^^d On May 31st is about four degrees south of the Pleiades, 

^ars is slowly creeping away from the Sun, and rises a little 
earlier than before. It is continually coming nearer to us and 
Seining in brightness, but the change is very slow, and it will not 
^ ^s near to us as is the Sun until September. Its apparent 
"lotion among the stars is east and north, about twenty-five 
^^rees in the constellation Pisces, 

Jupiter is still the most prominent object in the western sky 
in tile evening, and sets about two hours earlier than it did 
^u«"ingr April. It moves about five degrees east and south in the 
coristellation Cancer, 

'^€ttum is getting into very good position for observation. 

^ay I St it rises just a little after sunset, and is above the 

^'"^^on practically the entire night. It comes to opposition on 

^ Afternoon of May 5th. It is retrograding (moving westward) 



40 Publications of the 

in the constellation Libra^ and moves toward its brightest star, 
a LibrcB, The rings are apparently not as wide open as in March, 
owing to the change in our position with reference to their plane, 
due to the earth's orbital motion around the Sun. This closing 
up is only a trifle, about two per cent. , and lasts only a few months. 
The general change in the appearance of the rings is a progressive 
increase in size of minor axis, until the maximum is reached in 
1898, but there are periods of slight retrogression near each 
opposition. 

Uranus is in the same neighborhood as Saturn^ and comes 
into opposition on May 12. It moves slowly west in the con- 
stellation Libra^ and is about halfway between a Libra and 
fi Scorpii, 

Neptune is in the eastern part of Taurus^ and sets very soon 
after the sun. 

June, 1896. 

The Sun reaches the summer solstice, and summer begins on 
the afternoon of June 20th, about 2 p.m., P. S. T. 

Mercury is an evening star, setting about an hour after the 
Sun on June ist, rather too near to be easily seen, except under 
very favorable conditions of weather. It rapidly nears the Sun, 
passing inferior conjunction on June 8th, and becomes a morning 
star. It then moves rapidly away from the Sun, and by the 
close of the month is nearly out to the greatest west elongation, 
rising about an hour and a quarter before the Sun. 

Venus is still a morning star, but is too close to the Sun to be 
easily seen. At the close of the month, it rises only a quarter of 
an hour before sunrise. 

Mars is moving away from the Sun and rising earlier, before 
I A. M. on June 30th. It moves about twenty- three degrees east 
and north from Pisces into ArieSy and is a trifle brighter than it 
was during May. It is in perihelion on the morning of June 12th. 
It is then about 128,000,000 miles distant from the Sun. Its 
distance from the Earth is about 10,000,000 miles more. 

Jupiter is still conspicuous in the western sky, but is drawing 
too near the Sun for good telescopic observation. At the close 
of the month it sets at a little after 9 p. M. It moves about six 
degrees east and a little south in the constellation Cancer, On 
the afternoon of June 14th it is very close to the Moon, and 
in some places there will be an occultation, but the timfe of 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 41 

nearest approach occurs during daylight for most of the United 
States. 

Saturn is in excellent position for observation, being well 
al>ove the horizon at sunset and not setting until long after mid- 
nig^lit. It moves about one degree westward in the constellation 
L^iSr-ay and during the latter part of the month is very close to the 
brig-Htest star of the constellation, the third-magnitude a Libra, 
The nearest approach is on June 19th, when the planet passes 
al>out two degrees north of the star. 

ZJranus follows Saturn about eight degrees east and four 
degrees south, and lies about halfway between it and /3 ScorpiL 

IVeptune is very close to the Sun, passing conjunction and 
changing from an evening to a morning star on the evening of 
June 7th. 

Explanation of the Tables. 

The phases of the Moon are given in Pacific Standard time, 
la the tables for Sun and planets, the second and third columns 
give the Right Ascension and Declination for Greenwich noon. 
The fifth column gives the local mean time for transit over the 
Greenwich meridian. To find the local mean time of transit for 
any other meridian, the time given in the table must be corrected 
^y adding or subtracting the change per day, multiplied by 
^^ fraction whose numerator is the longitude from Greenwich 
in hours, and whose denominator is 24. This correction is 
^Wom much more than 1°. To find the standard time for the 
phenomenon, correct the local mean time by adding the differ- 
ence between standard and local time if the place is west of the 
standard meridian, and subtracting if east. The same rules apply 
to the fourth and sixth columns, which give the local mean times 
^^ Hsing and setting for the meridian of Greenwich. They are 
roughly computed for Lat. 40°, with the noon Declination and 
time of meridian transit, and are intended as only a rough guide. 
They may be in error by a minute or two for the given latitude, 
^^ for latitudes differing much from 40® they may be several 
°^*^utes out. 



42 Publications of the 



Phases of the Moon, P. S. T. 

Last Quarter, May 4, 7 25 A. M. 

New Moon, May 12, 11 47 a. m. 

First Quarter, May 19, 10 21 p. m. 

Full Moon, May 26, i 56 P. M. 





tf 


The Sun. 






1896. 


R. A. 


Declination. 


Rises. 


Transits. 


Sets. 


H. M. 


t 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


May I. 


2 37 


+ 15 19 


5 4 A.M. 


II 57 A.M. 


6 50 P 


II. 


3 15 


+ 18 5 


4 53 


II 56 


6 59 


21. 


3 55 


+ 20 21 


4 44 


II 56 


7 8 


31. 


4 35 


+ 22 I 


4 39 


II 58 


7 18 






Mercur y. 







May I. 3 34 + 20 58 5 39 A.M. 12 54 P.M. 8 9 P. 

II. 4 42 +24 44 5 52 I 23 8 54 

21. 5 25 H- 24 57 5 55 I 27 8 59 

31- 5 35 +22 52 5 34 12 57 8 20 

Venus, 

May I. I 28 + 7 35 4 22 A.M. 10 48 A.M. 5 14 p. 

II. 2 14 + 12 3 4 14 10 55 5 36 

21. 3 2 + 16 3 47 113 5 59 

31- 3 51 + 19 24 44 II 13 6 22 

Mars, 

May I. 23 6 — 7 24 2 52 A.M. 8 27 A.M. 2 2 P. 

II. 23 34 — 4 31 2 30 8 15 20 

21. o 2 — I 34 2 9 84 I 59 

31. o 30 + I 21 I 47 7 52 I 57 

Jupiter. 

May I. 8 14 + 20 35 10 21 a.m. 5 34 P.M. 12 47 A. 

II. 8 19 + 20 19 9 48 50 12 12 

21. 8 25 + 19 59 9 15 4 26 II 37 p, 

31. 8 32 + 19 36 8 44 3 53 II 2 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 43 











i 


Sa turn. 










s^e. 


R. 

H. 


A. 

M. 


Declination. 

/ 


Rises. 

H. M. 




Transmits. 


Sets. 

H. M. 


^y I. 


14 


58 


- 14 


14 


7 9 P. 


M. 


12 20A.M. 


5 


31 A.M. 


II. 


14 


55 


— 14 


I 


6 22 




1 1 34 P.M. 


4 


46 


31. 


14 


52 


- ^3 


49 


5 38 




10 51 


4 


■ 

4 


31. 


14 


49 


- 13 


39 

< 


4 56 
Uranus. 




10 9 , 


3 


23 


y I. 


15 


23 


- 18 


15 


7 49 P.M. 


12 45 A.M. 


5 


41 A.M. 


II. 


15 


21 


— 18 


8 


7 7 




12 4 


5 


I 


21. 


15 


19 


- 18 


2 


6 22 




II 19 P.M. 


4 


16 


31. 


15 


17 


- 17 


56 


5 41 




10 38 


3 


35 










Neptune. 










■y I. 


5 


2 


+ 21 


23 


7 6 a. 


M. 


2 22 P.M. 


9 


40 P.M. 


II. 


5 


3 


+ 21 


25 


6 26 




I 43 


9 





21. 


5 


5 


+ 21 


27 


5 49 




I 6 


8 


23 


31. 


5 


6 


-- 21 


30 


5 i^ 




12 28 


7 


45 



Eclipses of Jupiter's Satellites, P. S. T. 

(Oflf right-hand limb, as seen in an inverting telescope.) 











H. M. 








H* m« 


11, 


», 


May 


I. 


6 50 P. M. 


Ill, D, 


May 


15. 


8 8 P. M. 


1. 


R. 




2. 


5 24 p. M. 


III, R, 




15. 


II 42 P. M. 


111. 


n. 




8. 


7 42 p. M. 


I. R, 




16. 


9 15 P. M. 


11. 


n. 




8. 


9 25 P.M. 


I, R, 




23. 


II 10 P.M. 


I. 


R, 




9- 


7 19 P. M. 


I. R, 




25. 


5 39 P.M. 



Phases of the Moon, P. S. T. 

Last Quarter, June 3, 12 2 a. M. 

New Moon, June 11, 12 43 A. m. 

First Quarter, June 18, 3 41 a. m. 

Full Moon, June 24, 10 55 P. M. 



1896. 

June I. 

II. 
21. 

July I. 





The Sun. 






R. A. 


Declination. 


Rises. 


Transits. 


Sets. 


H. M. 


c / 


H* w/m* 


H. M. 


H m M* 


4 40 


+ 22 10 


4 38 A.M. 


II 58 A.M. 


7 18P.M 


5 21 


+ 23 9 


4 35 


II 59 


7 23 


6 2 


+ 23 27 


4 37 


12 2 P.M. 


7 27 


6 44 


+ 23 4 


4 41 


12 4 


7 27 



44 



Publications of the 







Mercury, 




1896. 


R. A. 


Declination. 


Rises. 


Transits. Sets. 


H • Ma 


f 


H • AVa 


Ha M • Ha As* 


June I. 


5 35 


+ 23 34 


5 57 A.M. 


12 53 P.M. 8 I9P 


II. 


5 16 


+ 19 37 


4 46 


II 55 A.M. 7 4 


21. 


5 I 


+ 18 15 


3 56 


II 64 


July I. 


5 H 


+ 19 31 


3 25 


10 34 5 43 



Venus, 



June I. 


3 


56 


+ 19 


41 


4 4 A.M. 


II 


14 A.M. 


6 241* 


II. 


4 


48 


-\- 22 


5 


4 7 


II 


26 


6 45 


21. 


5 


41 


+ 23 


27 


4 15 


II 


40 


7 5 


July I. 


6 


34 


+ 23 


41 


4 27 
Mars, 


II 


54 


7 21 


June I. 





32 


-- I 


38 


I 45 A. M. 


7 


50 A.M. 


I 55^ 


II. 





59 


+ 4 


30 


I 23 


7 


38 


I 53 


21. 


I 


26 


+ 7 


14 


I I . 


7 


26 


I 51 


July I. 


I 


53 


+ 9 


50 


12 40 


7 


14 


I 48 










Jupiter, 








June I. 


8 


32 


+ 19 


34 


8 41 A.M. 


3 


50 P.M. 


10 59 P 


II. 


8 


39 


+ 19 


7 


8 II 


3 


18 


10 25 


21. 


8 


47 


+ 18 


38 


7 41 


2 


46 


9 51 


July I. 


8 


55 


+ 18 


6 


7 12 


2 


15 


9 18 



Sa turn. 



June I. 


14 49 


-13 38 


4 52 P.M. 


10 5 P.M. 


3 18 A. 


II. 


14 47 


- 13 29 


4 10 


9 24 


2 38 


21. 


14 45 


- 13 23 


3 29 


8 43 


I 57 


July I. 


14 44 


— 13 20 


2 48 


8 2 


I 16 






Uranus, 


1 




June I. 


15 18 


— 17 56 


5 37 PM. 


10 34 P.M. 


3 31 A 


II. 


15 16 


- 17 50 


4 55 


9 53 


2 51 


21. 


15 15 


- 17 45 


4 14 


9 12 


2 10 


July I. 


15 14 


- 17 41 


3 34 


8 32 


I 30 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 45 



1896. 

June I. 

II. 
21. 

]^h I. 





Neptune, 




R. A. 


Declination. Rises. Transits. 


Sets. 


H. M. 


H« As* rl • M« 


H. M. 


5 6 


+ 21 30 5 7 A.M. 12 24 P.M. 


7 41 P.M 


5 8 


+ 21 32 4 30 II 47A.M. 


7 4 


5 9 


+21 34 3 52 119 


6 26 


5 II 


+ 21 36 3 14 10 31 


5 48 



Eclipses of Jupiters Satellites, P. S. T. 

(Off right-hand limb, as seen in an inverting telescope.) 









n • 04* 








H. M. 


I. R. 


June 


; I. 


7 35 P- M. 


II. R, 


June 


9- 


9 P. M. 


IV. D. 




2. 


6 6 P. M. 


I. R. 




17- 


5 53 P- M. 


II. R, 




2. 


6 26 P. M. 


IV, R, 




19. 


4 55 P- M. 


IV. R. 




2. 


10 52 P. M. 


III, R. 




20. 


7 42 p. M. 


I. R. 




8. 


9 29 P. M. 


I, R. 




24. 


7 48 p. M. 



SOME LARGE PERTURBATIONS IN THE MOTIONS 

OF CELESTIAL BODIES.* 



The novice in astronomy often believes that the motions of 

planets and satellites take place with great regularity, according 

^^ Kepler's laws, and that the disturbances caused by their 

reactions upon each other are only slight. A closer investiga- 

^^ shows, however, that the ** harmony of the universe'* is 

^'ten seriously disturbed. In seeking for the reasons of these 

P'^^nomena, the mathematical theory of planetary motions has 

^^n materially furthered, and convincing proof has been 

^'^ished that its foundation, — i. e., Newton's law of attraction, 

*s correct Although one of these disturbances was already 

^^Wn in the early stages of the planetary theory, yet such great 

^thematicians as Lagrange and Euler could not give a 

^fltcient explanation of it. We refer to the motions of Jupiter 

^ 'Saturn^ in which great deviations were discovered, increasing 

^*th the time. 

It remained for Laplace, the real founder of celestial 
^^hanics, to discover the reason, namely; that the times of revo- 



^ * I'rom the January number, 1P96, of Himmel und Erde. Translated for the Society 
^r. C. K. Stktkkbldt. 



4^ Publications of the 

lution of the two planets stand very nearly in the relation of tvi 
to ^\^, Deviations are thereby produced which, returning or 
after 900 years in the same order, become so summed up that t 
simple motions in the ideal elliptic orbits are completely destroys 
Similar phenomena occur wherever two celestial bodies, movi 
round the same main body, have times of revolution standings 
a simple relation to each other. The greater the inclination 
such orbits, and the more pronounced their elliptic eccentricJ 
the more marked, necessarily, are the deviations. It may e^ 
occur that the body cannot be observed for a long: time, becai 
we look for it at a place considerably removed from its acti 
position. As an example, the planet AndromcLche may be m€ 
tioned. Its time of revolution stands to that oi Jupiter nea; 
in the relation of four to nine. It is evident that the movemei 
of this small planet, having an orbit of great eccentricity, must 
seriously disturbed by the giant Jupiter. These disturbances t 
for about 200 years in the same direction, and only after t 
expiration of this period in an opposite one. In consequenc 
the planet was actually lost to observation, and restored on 
by celestial photography. Berberich proved that in the me 
time strange changes, reaching enormous figures, had taken pla 
in its orbital elements.* 

Satellites present an example of disturbances of a different kir 
Of the eight satellites of Saturn, the sixth ( Titan), and the seven 
(Hyperion)y are so connected that three revolutions of the latt 
require the same time as four of the former. Considering th 
the orbit of Hyperion deviates considerably from a circle (the fo< 
points of the ellipse are distant from the center one-eighth of t 
major semi-axis), it follows that the two satellites must distu 
each other considerably. Titan^ discovered by HuvGHE^ 
the brightest of Saturn' s moons, has been observed longe 
and its orbit is well known through Bessel*s measurements ai 
calculations. Hyperion is the faintest of these moonlets, ai 
was discovered in 1848 by Bond and Lassell. Since then 
has been accurately observed by Hall, in Washington, and I 
H. Struve, in Pulkowa, through their giant telescopes. Accor 
ing to Hall and Struve, the rapid retrograde movement 
the major axis of the elliptic orbit is nearly 20° in one year 

• Nat. Rdsch. 189. 

t With our Moon, the corresponding turning of the elliptic orbit is twice as mu 
but in this instance, it is the result of solar attraction, which is considerably greater tl 
that of the Earth. In the case of Hyperion^ it is produced by the attraction of anot 
moonlet. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 47 

The theory of this body is, however, as yet so incomplete that the 

Paris Academy has announced a prize for a satisfactory theory. 

Such a theory also presupposes the determination of Titan's 

mass. On the other hand, a comparison of the theory with 

observations would give a determination of the mass. Thus, the 

mass of Saturn could be deduced with tolerable accuracy from 

the disturbances in Jupiter' s orbit. In Titan' s orbit similar 

deviations may be found, which, however, on account of the slight 

mass of Hyperion^ must be less prominent than the disturbances 

of the latter. From these, nevertheless, the mass of even such a 

small body could be determined with some accuracy. 



THE CIRCULATION OF THE ATMOSPHERE OF 

PLANETS. 



By Marsden Manson, Ph. D. 



Our knowledge of the circulation of the atmosphere of planets 
has been so befogged by detail, that the grand and simple prin- 
^^pl^s involved are lost in the maze of irrelevant and incompetent 
data, which has been woven about the subject.* 

The problem is intricate when attacked solely from the stand- 
poirii of the meteorologist, and it is doubtful whether an explana- 
tion of the prime mode of action of solar energy in producing 
atrnospheric circulation has place in any treatise or text upon the 
suoj^ct It is certain that none of the laws and formulae laid 
down in meteorology will explain the grandeur and the delicate 
"^l^nce of the movements observed in the atmosphere of Jupiter. 
Nor will these complicated and empirical rules explain the 



* The writer was led into makiiij^ this investigation in a very peculiar manner, and it 
™*V Hot be inappropriate to outline the facts. 

1* he amounts and distribution of rainfall upon the Pacific Coast became a subject of 

"^^'■est to the writer in 1877. This limited study broadened into a general one of the 

^^^^-^ of meteorology. Repeated failures to grasp the scope of the fundamental facts and 

"^"'^^» through these sources of knowledge, led into the general question as to whether the 

interpretations of meteorology would, in their simplest form, explain the movements 

******rved upon Jupiirr. 

I'heview was entertained that the fundamental laws of the circulation of the atmos- 
ph«r« were true for all planets. 

An apology is also due for the crudeness of the form in which these studies are pre- 
s«ftted— for their preparation has been confined to the moments which can be snatched 
"**o» bread- winning in other lines. 



48 Publications of the 

apparently complex and confusing movements of the Krak 
dust cloud, which, in 1883, gave such splendid opportunitie 
observe atmospheric movements. 

Even the distinguished committee appointed by the R 
Society to investigate the phenomena attendant upon the Krak 
explosion were forced, under present views, to partly attri 
the movements of that cloud to ** other laws than those w 
regulate the motion of the air in which it floated/* The 1 
of the matter is, that the dust cloud floated in exact accord 
with the laws which regulate the movement of the atmospt 
of planets ; but the laws heretofore given are the empirical 
of man, and not the interpreted laws of nature. 

It is therefore necessary to develop the prime mode of a< 
of solar energy in producing atmospheric circulation upon 
globe, and to apply the same reasoning and methods to eluci 
the movements in the Jovian cloud system. 

It is a known fact, established by many extended series oi 
servations, that the barometer has, at all latitudes, a daily v 
tion caused by the action of solar energy. This rise and fj 
greatest in the torrid zone, gradually dying away to an al 
imperceptible phase in the polar regions.* 

This phenomenon assumes the form of a diurnal pulsa 
with a maximum about 9 A.M., and a minimum about 3 p 
with a tenderxy to a corresponding maximum and minimui 
9 p. M., and 3 A. M. These latter pulsations are much less 
nounced, and in the higher latitudes are scarcely appreci 
The diagram, Fig. I, illustrates this very marked feature. 

It will be observed: (i) That under these conditions the 
of daily minimum barometer is always in the easterly quadra 
the illuminated hemisphere, that the lunes farther east have 
been exhausted, and that those to the west are at their maxin 
(2) That this action takes place continuously at each revoh 
of the earth. (3) That cloudiness accelerates and intensiiie 
action by appropriating all of the solar energy reaching 
clouded areas. (4) That it is not counteracted in any 
whatever. 

Therefore, there results a constant lune of lowest baron 
always in the easterly quadrant of the illuminated hemispl 



*See Physical Gtography of the Sea. Maury, p. 210. 8th edition. 
Elementary Meteorology. R. H. Scott, F. R. S. pp. 88-91. 
Dbschanbl's Natural Philosophy. 6th Edition, p. 165. 




BS-3 







Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 49 

wKich, by reason of the daily axial revolution, moves round the 
esLitih from east to west about ninety degrees (or six houj;^) east 
of rhe lune of maximum barometer; this condition can only be 
satisfied by a constant flow of air in the direction of this barometric 
gradient, or from west to east. 

-As solar energy has its greatest effect in the torrid zone, and 
gradually decreases toward the poles, westerly currents and 
vertical circulation reach their maximum in that zone, and the 
lo'wrer strata of air in each hemisphere have a slight trend toward 
the equator, and the upper strata a necessary counter current 
toward the polar regions. 

It becomes necessary here to explain the apparent stoppage 
of tilie winds in the calms of Cancer and Capricorn; the apparent 
reversal of the west winds into the easterly trades of the torrid 
zones; and the existence of a calm belt between these two belts 
of easterly trades. 

For illustrative purposes, let us assume a sphere in space, 
without axial rotation, and surrounded by an atmosphere similar 
in composition to that of the Earth. Around this sphere let us 
further assume a beam of heat and light to revolve from east to 
west, successively heating the air. 

Barometric phenomena, similar to those now known to take place 
and illustrated in Fig. I, will be inaugurated; and if the revolutions 
of the beam of heat could be accomplished in twenty-four hours, 
and the heat received by each hemisphere be in whole or in part lost 
during the following period of non-exposure, the atmosphere 
surrounding our illustrative sphere would flow around it from 
west to east; and as the zone of nearly normal rays would be 
n^ost acted upon, the west winds of that zone would be the 
strongest and the vertical circulation greatest. There would ako 
^ established a series of counter currents in the upper atmosphere 
trending toward the poles, and the resulting circulation would be 
^s represented in Fig. II. 

It will be observed: (i) That the strongest westerly winds and 
vertical circulation upon our non-rotating sphere will obtain under 
^^ zone of vertical rays, and that these winds will gradually 
decrease in force toward the polar regions, to die away at the 
P^^es. (2) That surface winds will trend toward the equatorial 
^^gions by reason of the greater vertical circulation there estab- 
lished, and an upper system of counter currents will trend 
toward the polar regions. These two wind systems will there- 



50 Publications of the 

fore be as represented by the full and dotted arrows in Fig. 
the varying lengths being intended to indicate the proportion, 
strength of the currents. 

Now, instead of the assumed and impossible stationary sph< 
and revolving beam of heat, let us substitute the simple a 
actual stationary beam of heat and the rotation from west to e 
of the sphere. There will be no change in the forces tending 
cause the atmosphere to circulate about the sphere, nor v 
conditions be introduced which would in any way tend to count 
act such circulation, but remarkable relations between the atm* 
pheric circulation and the moving surface will be introduce 
All latitudes of the surface will travel* with the atmosphere, I 
with varying relative velocities in each latitude. 

In regions where the two velocities are equal, there would 
apparent calms. In regions in which the tangential veloc 
exceeded the atmospheric velocity, there would be a different 
motion — the planetary surface, moving to the east at a greai 
speed than the air, would pass the air, giving rise to an appan 
east wind. The air would be going to the east with the lesj 
velocity. In regions in which the tangential velocity of the si 
face was less than the atmospheric velocity, there would be 
actual west wind, the air in this case moving to the east with t 
greater speed. 

The greater vertical circulation at the equator with its neo 
sary oblique movement of air toward the equator at the surfc 
and toward the poles in the upper atmosphere, need not now 
taken into consideration, for as will be shown later, the ra 
between longitudinal motion and latitudinal motion in the gr« 
body of the air is as 720 to 36, or 20 to i; in the thin strati 
next the surface these ratios do not obtain. 

The question of whether the atmosphere would revolve w 
the planet, irrespective of the effect of solar energy, is not C( 
sidered. The principal subject under discussion is the accelerati 
effect of solar energy. In temperate latitudes, where the n 
pass obliquely through the atmosphere, this accelerating effect is 
great as to cause the atmosphere to revolve faster than the Elar 

The tangential velocities are expressed in the table appends 
which gives the velocity of the surface at sea level for each 1 
degrees of latitude. It is practically correct, but subject to v< 
slight corrections, as the exact form and dimensions of the Ea: 
shall be more minutely ascertained. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 



51 



TANGENTIAL VELOCITY OF EACH TEN DEGREES OF LATITUDE 

FROM THE EQUATOR TO THE POLES. 



I.atitnde. 


TaoReatial 

Velocity in 

Miles Per Hour. 


Remarks. 


o* 


1037.4 


Equator. 


Calm. 


10° 


I02I.8 






20° 


975.3 




Easterly Trades. 


■*iW 


941.6 


Tropics. 


Calm. 


30° 


899.1 






40° 


795.7 


) 




50° 


668.1 




Westerly Anti-trades. 


60° 


520.0 


) 




6«Ji° 


415.0 


Polar Circles. 




70° 


355.8 






80° 


180.7 






90° 


00.0 


Poles. 





The appended diagram of the wind systems of the globe, 
** ^S". Ill, is familiar and generally accepted. The variations are 
y, and produced by various causes, the principal of which 
the different proportions of solar energy taken by ocean and 
^^^■^tinental areas; the varying exposure of winter and summer, 
^*^d the transfer of heat by ocean currents, each of which locally 
^^^Uplicates the actual phenomena, but all are foreign to a discus- 
of the prime problem, and will not now be considered. 
It will at once be admitted that in the region of the anti-trades, 
north and south of the calms of Cancer and Capricorn^ the 
^^^culation agrees with that established and explained in Fig. II. 
^"^ other words, between thirty-five degrees and sixty degrees in 
hemispheres, the air circulates about the globe from west to 
a few miles faster per hour than the tangential velocity in 
^ose latitudes. But about latitude thirty degrees, the accelera- 
tor! in tangential velocity brings it up to the westerly circulation 
^ the atmosphere, and both reach a velocity of about 900 miles 
P^r hour, and hence a region of calms. Between these two calm 
*^lts there is a zone in which the motion from west to east is actually 
I ^^ater than in the calm zones on each side, but owing to the 

I Proportionately greater increase in tangential velocity, these 



5^ Publications of the 

stronger west winds appear to be east winds — the earth slippir 
under the air faster than the air circulates. 
' In the center of this great belt of easterly trades is a narro 
belt of calms and variables — in which the velocity of the atmo 
phere and the tangential velocity are equal. 

This narrow belt of calms is under the equatorial cloud-rin: 
and is exposed to vertical rays, and, by reason of its cloudines 
intercepts a larger portion of solar energy than the less cloudc 
areas to the north and south of this ring. The effect of tfa 
intercepted heat is to accelerate the westerly currents of th 
region, thus equalizing the X^ko velocities, and resulting 
the equatorial calms. 

The general relations of the tangential velocities to the actu 
atmospheric velocities are oudined in Fig. IV. The appare 
atmospheric velocities or winds are the differences between tl 
actual surface velocities and the actual atmospheric velocities. 

It would be difficult to verify these views from the ordinal 
meteorological observations, particularly in the torrid zone; b 
an opportunity to observe the movements of the atmosphere on 
grand scale was inaugurated on August 27th,* 1883, when 
latitude six degrees nine minutes south, the volcanic island 
Krakatoa, in the Straits of Sunda, was suddenly disrupted wi 
a degree of violence unknown to history. 

The Royal Society of London appointed a committee 
December, 1883, ^^ collect and put on record the observatioi 
made throughout the world upon the consequent phenomen 
The results of the labors of this able committee were published 
December, 1888, by G. J. Svmons, F. R. S., chairman of tl 
committee. From this valuable work the following outline 
condensed : 

The most violent explosions were heard at a distance of 25^ 
miles, and over one-thirteenth of the area of the globe, and thn 
a column of volcanic dust and vapor to a vertical height of fix 
seventeen to thirty-one miles. The wave of atmospheric co 
cussion traversed the globe to the antipodes of Krakatoa 
sixteen hours, and. successively rebounding back and fort 
compassed the globe seven times before subsiding. Eve 
barometer marked seven successive passages of this reboundii 
wave, but its passage was rarely recorded except upon the bai 

* At this date the Sun was vertical over latitude thirteen desrees fifty-five minu 
north. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 53 

grraphs of the observatories. Masses of lava were thrown to a 
distance of fifty miles, with an initial velocity of 2500 to 3500 
feet j>er second. The total volume displaced was about one and 
one-eighth cubic miles. 

This vast dust column was borne by the winds twice and a 
half times around the Earth before being dissipated, making each 
circuit in about twelve and a half days, apparently in a westerly 
direction, and at an average rate of seventy to seventy-seven and 
two- tenths miles per hour. The probable maximum speed being 
estimated at eighty and three- tenths miles per hour, and by the 
celebrated Dutch engineer, Verbeek, at eighty-two and nine- 
tenths miles per hour. 

In the first circuit, the diffusion was over a zone of about 
thirty-one degrees in width; in the second, about sixty degrees in 
width ; the center of each zone being practically the latitude of the 
explosion. 

After passing latitude thirty-five degrees north, the further 
extension up to sixty degrees north was from the southwest. 

From page 431 of the Report cited, the following quotation is 
introduced : 

**If we analyze these, we shall find that on their first circuit, 

^^ mean latitude of the center of the band of the twilight glows, 

^^s six degrees ten minutes south (the latitude of Krakatoa being 

^*^ degrees nine minutes south), and their mean extension north 

^'^^ south of this position was ±: fifteen and one-half degrees. 

For the colored suns, the mean latitude of the center of the 
^^d was five degrees twenty-six minutes south, and the mean 
^^^^nsion of the phenomenon north and south of this was ± ten 
^^Srees and forty-nine minutes. The latter, therefore, was more 
'"^^^ricted than, but very similar in position and extension to, 
^*^^ former. 

During the second circuit, the limits are not so determinate; 
^t.^ omitting extremes, we may take the twilight glow band to 
^^V-^ had its central line about six degrees south, and to have 
^^^^nded north and south of this for about ± thirty degrees. 

Xjp to October 5th, this rate of expansion for the stream seems to 
^^'^•^ been fairly maintained, but after this epoch we find a distinct 



lation in the latitudinal spread of the main body of the haze, 
^*^cl thenceforward its course is doubtful. Apparently, it reached 
^^tude thirty-five degrees by the end of October; then, in 
"^^^Vember, a sudden rush took place, which, by the* end of the 



54 Publications of the 

same month, caused the phenomenon to be seen over the major 
part of North America and Europe, up to latitude sixty degrees. 
A change in the direction of motion appears to have taken place 
in October, after which the material seems to have been wafted 
along by a different set of currents. 

Whether the material spread by the action of any other laws * 
than those which usually regulate the motion of the air in which 
it floated^ and at what time it ceased to move from east to west, it 
is difficult to say ;\ but the facts negatively favor the view that by 
the time it reached latitude thirty degrees, it no longer possessed 
that due east to west direction, by which, at first, its general motion 
within the tropics was so markedly characterized. Beyond this 
limit, the facts relating to the march of the glows over North 
America, Europe, and Northern Asia, show that the current 
which brought the glow-causing material, whether simply the 
southwest anti-trade, or a current analogous to it at a higher level, 
carried it more from west to east than from east to west. There 
is, indeed, a remarkable absence of any succession of appearances 
from east to west beyond latitude thirty degrees north, and a 
general impression conveyed by the facts that while the material 
was crossing this limits it was simply spreading north and souths 
and afterward turned around so as to move^ if anything^ from 
southwest to northeast.^ If this was the case, its general motion 
beyond the tropics was similar to what that of the usually so-called 
higher parts of the atmosphere should be, according to the modem 
theory of atmospheric circulation." 

It will be observed that in this quotation very important facts 
are recorded, but that a remarkable interpretation of them is 
rendered in referring to the apparent motion of the dust cloud, at 
from seventy to eighty- three miles per hour, from east to west, 
as an actual velocity in that direction — when in reality at this 
latitude this dust cloud was being borne in the opposite direction 
at much greater rate of speed. 

The fact that this dust cloud traversed the Earth twice between 
latitude di thirty degrees is beyond dispute. The observed 
time of passage was twelve and a half days, or three hundred 
hours. The distance accomplished in each circuit was the 
equatorial circumference of the Earth, at an altitude of twenty or 



* Such as electrical repulsion, 
t Italicized by the present writer. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 55 

thirty miles, or practically 25,000 miles. The tangential velocity 
of the equator is 1037.4 miles per hour from west to east. 

By that well-known and useful principle established in the 
'* Problem of the Couriers/' the time necessary for one body 
to overtake another moving at a different rate, is found by 
dividing the distance between them hy the difference of their 

rates of speed, or T = in which T = 300 hours; D = 25,000 

r "" r, 

miles; r= 1037.4 miles per hour, to find the velocity and direc- 
tion of the dust cloud r,. 

Substituting these values, we find r, = 954 miles per hour. 
The sign being positive, the direction of motion is the same as 
the tangential velocity, and the difference between the two 
velocities is eighty- three and four- tenths miles per hour. In 
other words, the dust cloud, instead of being borne around the 
grlobe from east to west at an average speed of eighty-three and 
four- tenths miles per hour, was actually traveling in the opposite 
direction at a speed nearly eleven and one-half times greater, but 
the lost motion, or lagging behind the tangential velocity, was 
^*grhty- three and four- tenths miles per hour, giving an apparent 
"^^otion from east to west. When the dust cloud reached the 
latitude of the tropics, or the calm belts, it traveled at the same 
velocity as the surface beneath, hence the ** retardation*' in 
October, 1883. 

Upon passing north of the calms of Caticer, the haze reached 

ttie southwest upper currents, overspreading the northwest anti- 

'^des, and moving faster than the surface beneath, and hence 

'^^ apparent change in the direction of motion, and its spread 

^ver Northern Asia, Europe, and North America from the south- 

"^est. The change in direction spoken of in the quotation given 

^^ only an apparent change, due to the reversed relation between 

^^ tangential velocity of the surface and the velocity of the 

*^oulating air. The distinguished committee, in failing to cor- 

^^tjy interpret the facts, found it necessary to partly attribute 

^ motion of the dust cloud to ** other laws than those which 

^^^y regulate the motion of the air in which it floated." 

lut when the principles herein developed are applied to the 
^Z^^nomena attending the movement and spreading of this volcanic 
^^t cloud, these movements become grandly simple, and part of 
'^^ harmonious whole 

"We can also more readily interpret the two calm belts about 



56 Publications of the 

the tropics; starting in the torrid zone, or region of apparent east 
winds, where the tangential velocity is greater than the atmos- 
pheric velocity, and passing to the temperate zones, where the 
atmospheric velocity is the greater, we must pass through regions 
where the two rates of motion become equal, or the calm belts. 
Beyond these are the anti-trades, or the region of actual westerly 
winds, in which the velocity of the atmosphere is the greater. 

In the regions of northwest and southwest trades, there is a 
proportionately greater acceleration, due to the greater appropria- 
tion by the atmosphere of the heat rays reaching those latitudes. 
By reason of the obliquity of solar rays, in latitude ±: fifty 
degrees, nearly twice as thick a stratum of air must be passecf 
through as at the equator; hence a larger proportionate amouiB. 
of heat is taken up, and proportionately a greater acceleration b- 
acquired by the atmosphere of those latitudes. 

Thus the apparently confusing motions of the dust cloud *- 
latitude thirty-five degrees north, and its apparent reversal c^ 
motion in approaching Europe and North America from 
southwest, become part of a general circulation, always in tl 
same direction, and in accordance with the same fundameni 
laws, acting in the same manner and in the same direction in 
latitudes. 

This velocity of 954 miles per hour is that obtaining in tl 
higher regions of the atmosphere about the torrid zone, 
relative surface velocities are more nearly as represented 9 
Fig. IV. If the actual velocities of the atmosphere at various- 
latitudes be compared with the scheme deduced from Fig. II, tl 
correctness of this latter is at once established. 

In the temperate zones, the actual surface velocities are aboi^— 
675 to 680 miles per hour, gradually increasing to ■±. thirty' 
degrees where velocities of about 900 miles per hour exist. I^ 
the tropical trade-wind belts the actual velocities are from loio tc^ 
10 1 5 miles per hour; and under the equatorial cloud ring th^ 
actual velocity is about 1037 miles per hour. The differenced 
between these velocities, and the tangential velocities of the^ 
corresponding latitudes give the apparent directions and forced 
of the winds. 

The northerly and southerly components are omitted in this 
discussion, which is limited to the fundamental principles. The 
Krakatoa dust cloud encircled the globe twice before passing 
beyond the tropical calm belts, or, in going through 720 degrees 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 57 

o/iongitude, it went from six degrees south to thirty degrees 

'Jorth latitude, or in the ratio of twenty to one. At the surface 

these components are relatively more nearly equal in value, and 

Aence the directions of surface winds are more oblique to the 

mex-idians than the ratio above given would indicate. 

Phenomena Presented upon Jupiter, 

XA^hen the physical conditions and phenomena existent 
upon Jupiter are fully grasped, they present, in their simplest 
and grandest form, the circulation of the atmosphere of a planet. 
So far as our knowledge oi Jupiter now extends, that planet is 
a rnass of unknown size, shrouded in a densely clouded atmos- 
phere. Not knowing the surface temperature of the inner 
planetary mass, nor the composition of the atmosphere, it is 
^'^ possible to approximate the limit to which the gaseous 
envelope has been expanded. The cloud sphere evidently 
^ri closes a planetary mass, in which is still resident sufficient heat 
^^^ Control surface temperatures and to cause evaporation, thus 
'^Maintaining the cloud sphere. 

That evaporation is kept up on Jupiter by internal heat is 
'^Made manifest by the following facts: Being 5.2 times more 

^^*stant from the Sun than the Earth, he receives -7 — - =: .037 of 

^^ heat per unit of area which the Earth receives. It is inconceiv- 

that this amount of heat could keep up sufficient evaporation 

shroud the planet in clouds. As will be shown later, this feeble 

ount of heat is entirely taken up in the atmosphere, and 

uces an atmospheric acceleration about the equatorial regions 

ter than the corresponding acceleration on the Earth. This 

solar energy, by reason of producing a greater com- 

tive acceleration, must therefore be taken up in the atmos- 

^re to a greater extent than in the case of the Earth. The very 

ence, therefore, of the densely clouded atmosphere, is 

ence of a surface temperature maintained by internal heat. 

^ is also evident, as radiated solar energy is so largely taken 

^P by the clouded atmosphere, and as we can detect no more 

^^^t in the rays emanating from Jupiter than is due to reflected 

^Va.r rays, that the dark heat rays emanating from the planet 

^^self cannot escape except in the performance of work. There- 

L fore, the function of the solar energy reaching that planet is simply 

m to conserve the internal heat. The cloud sphere oi Jupiter having 



5^ Publications of the 

a diameter eleven and two-tenths times larger than that of 
Earth, and being five and two-tenths times more distant, int 

cepts (11.2)' X - — r, =^ 4.64 times more heat; every thermal u 

of which has only this conservative function to perform. 

The surface of this cloud sphere is marked by a series 
bands and spots ranged in zones parallel with the equal 
These spots are either dark or light, and exist for many mont 
Their periods of revolution are observed with great accura 
After these bands and spots, the most notable feature is tbe R 
Spot, situated in the southern hemisphere, and extending fr« 
about fifteen degrees south to thirty-two degrees south, and o 
thirty-five degrees of longitude, or one- eleventh of the circu 
ference of the planet. See Fig. V.* 

The Red Spot has a mean period of revolution of 9* 5 
38.4", with a retardation of a few seconds per year for about 
years, and then a similar acceleration. The most rapid revolut 
is 9*" 55" 24.2", and the slowest 9** 55" 41. iV The spots in I 
bands have periods of revolution of from 9** 55" 46' to 9** 50"' 9- 

Those immediately adjacent to and north of the Red S| 
have periods of revolution some five minutes less than that of 1 
Red Spot, so that in about forty-five days they make one mc 
revolution than it does, or they make no revolutions whikt 1 
Red Spot makes 109. This swifter motion causes them to ps 
by the Red Spot, when it exercises a * ' repellant influence " up 
them. Mr. Williams refers to the results of his observations 
* * demonstrating the great probability of the existence of a r 
repulsive influence exercised upon neighboring objects by tl 
remarkable formation." But he offers no explanation of tl 
phenomenon. The spots more remote from the Red Spot ha 
nearly the same period of revolution. All of these periods 
revolution are therefore variable. These variations are set forth 
the accompanying tables from a recent and very able woi 
Zenographical Fragments, by A. Stanley Williams, F.R. A. 

The column of latitudes has been added by the writer fn 
other parts of the same work. These latitudes mark appro 
mately the center of each spot. There has also been added t 



* In this figure, the zero of longitude is made the center of the Red Spot, the o 
prominent permanent feature. The spots are distorted to appear as they would wl 
the planes of their meridians pass through the Earth. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 59 

column marked "Size," in which the letters "L" and "S" 
marlc the large and small spots, the others being medium in size. 

SUMMARY OF ROTATION PERIODS. 



I TEMPERATE SPOTS. 



^VhUeSpolA 

Dark Spot B 

"^Vh^teSpot C 

Dark Spot D 

White Spot D= 

C>ark Spot E 

White Spot F 

t>ark Spot G 

White Spot H 

t>arkSpotH= 

W-hiteSpotK 

t>ark Spot K' 

White Spot L 

'^ark Spot M 

W'hite Spot N 

'^rk Spot O 

White Spot P 

NORTH EQIJATORIAI, SPOTS. 

^ark Spot I 

Park Spot 2 

Park Spot 3 

■l^rk Spot 4 

*-*»«-k Spot 5 

SOUTH EQUATORIAL SPOTS. 
?^rk Spot I 

^hi„ Spot II 

^ark Spot III 

^hite Spot IV 

P^'"*'SpotV 

JTnite Spot VI 

zr*«-k Spot VII 

rr^rk Spot VlIE 

jyhite Spot IX 

^i-k Spot X 

^*hue Spot XI 

"ark Spot Xa 



Publications of the 



SOUTH EyUATORIAL 

White Spot XV 

Dark Spot XVI 

White Spot XVH .... 
Dark Spot XVIII . . . . 

White Spot XIX 

Dark Spot XX . . 

White Spot XXI 

Dark Spot XXII 

White Spot XXlll .... 
Dark Spot XXIV .... 
White Spot XXV .... 
Dark Spot XXVI .... 
White Spot XXVII. . . . 



■boot l«iUude*°S,l 






rej«;Ud 



Red Spot . . 
White Spot a 
Dark Spot ^ . 
Dark Spot y . 



Mean period of rotation of mailer (from 17 north tem- 
perate spots) in Lai. 11° N 

Mean period of rotation of matter (from 5 north equa- 
torial spots) in Lai. 4° N 

Mean period of rotation of matter (from 21 south equa- 
torial spots) in Lat. S° S 



Mean period of rotation of matter (from ^ southern 
spots) in Lat. 50° S 



(See pase m of work citid.) 

It will be observed that cloud spots in the equatorial regit 
have periods of revolution averaging some five minutes less th 
cloud spots in the less exposed temperate regions on either sii 
demonstrating that solar energy is the accelerating cause, a 
that the circulation of these spots is in accordance with the int 
pretation just rendered for the circulation of the atmosphere 
the Earth. 



I 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 6i 

It is probable that these spots are gyratory columns of warm 
air rising from and descending to the surface ; the two forming 
essential components of the system of vertical circulation, and 
corresponding to the areas of high and low pressure, which alter- 
nately traverse the northern hemisphere at intervals of every 
few days. 

It has been observed that during periods of great brilliancy 
and distinctness, the spots of the equatorial regions of Jupiter are 
subjected to a wave of acceleration passing westwardly in its 
action. The interpretation of this is, that in the upper strata, 
heat and light rays are at times partially arrested by cirrus 
clouds; during such partial interruption retardation takes place, 
and during non-interruption increased brilliancy and acceleration 
occur. The westward motion of the wave is due to the retarda- 
tion by the cirrus cloud strata. 
From the table just given it will be noted: 
(0 That cloud spots in the south equatorial regions had, in 
1887-8, a period of revolution faster than in any other portion of 
^e visible surface. 

(2) That in the north equatorial regions, nearly equal periods 
o» revolution were maintained. 

(3) That in the temperate latitudes, longer periods of revolu- 
tion prevailed than in equatorial latitudes. 

(4) That the Red Spot had a period of revolution distinctly 
slower than the adjacent cloud spots. 

An Explanation of these Motions. 

ih^ Red Spot being the most permanent feature, an explana- 
tion c^£* jjg oscillations and influence will first be offered. 

" is evidently caused by the local escape of internal heat from 
^^ '^ass beneath, the repellant influence being due to the 
spreading of the heated currents as they rise, and to the conse- 
<iuent ^greater altitude and overshadowing effect of this remark- 
able feature. 

^ *^^ retardation and acceleration in its rate of revolution are 
"^e to the veering of the spot by the increasing force of west 
winds consequent upon the exposure of the southern hemisphere 
<luni\g- one-half of the Jovian year, or ^v^ and ninety-three 
nundr^ths of our years. During the other half of the Jovian 
y^^ these winds retreat northerly, permitting the Red Spot to 
^ssutti^ a position in the atmosphere more nearly vertical over the 



62 Publications of the 

source of heat beneath, thus apparently retarding its motion 1 
the east. 

This acceleration and retardation of west winds, and ti 
annual shifting of the belt of their maximum activity, are notabi 
marked on the Earth.* It is very perceptible in its March an 
April passage over the central part of the continent of Nort 
America. It is also well known in the correlated shifting of th 
belts of trades and calms in the tropical latitudes of each hemi 
sphere. 

In spite of the slight variation in the rate of motion of th 
Red Spot, it affords the best measure of the Jovian day; and 
taken for a long period, embracing both the summer acceleratio 
and winter retardation, it gives the following measures: 

Noting the mean period of rotation as fixed by 4,917 revolutioc 
from July 10, 1879, to August 2, 1887, we have 9** 55" 38.4' as th 
length of the Jovian day. This is four and two-tenths seconc 
longer than the shortest period observed in 1879-80, and two an 
seven-tenths seconds shorter than the longest period of revolutio 
in 1885-86, about six years later. f 

There also occurs in latitude forty degrees south, longituc 
fifty-five degrees to eighty degrees west, an indistinct spot of gres 
size. So far as the author is aware, the exact time of revolutic 
of this spot has not been observed. The opinion is ventured tb 
it is caused by conditions similar to those producing the R^ 
Spot, and that their periods are identical. 

We have only to apply the principles herein developed to t 
varying periods of revolution of the belts of white and dark clo' 
spots in the atmosphere oi Jupiter — and to bear in mind t 
non-diathermic character of his atmosphere — and these varyii 
periods of revolution become simple, and in perfect accord v«^J 
the explanations herein given for the wind systems of the glat 
The wind system of Jupiter is more simple than ours, the ac^* 
eration in velocity being directly proportioned to solar exposU^ 
and no heat is lost by passing through to a planetary surf3 
having variable heat-appropriating powers. 

The mean tangential velocity of the twenty- one spots obserV 
in the south equatorial regions is 28,097.8 miles per hour. 

The mean tangential velocity of the northern edge of t:* 
Red Spot (latitude twelve degrees thirty minutes south) up< 



• See pages 578 to 663 of the Report of th^ Chief Signal Officer, iSgo, 
t See page 97, Zenographical Fragments. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 63 

the data just given is 27,149 miles per hour, the swifter motion 
of the freely-moving spots carrying them one more complete 
revolution in forty-five days than is made by the slower moving 
Red Spot. Those next to the line of juncture have a mean 
tangfential velocity of 27,416 miles per hour, or they move 267 
miles per hour fcister than the northern edge of the Red Spot. 
In this forty-five-day period the south equatorial spots make 1 10 
revolutions, and the Red Spot 109. 

We have seen that in the equatorial regions of the Earth 
the Krakatoa dust cloud had a tangential velocity of 954 miles per 
hour, and that the surface of the Earth has a tangential velocity of 
1037.4 n^iles per hour, or the partly transcalent atmosphere of 
the Earth does not keep up with the great equatorial tangential' 
velocity; by reason of some of the heat passing through the air 
to the planetary surface beneath, the atmospheric tangential 
velocity lags, or is retarded by eighty-three and four-tenths miles 
per hour. 

We therefore see that the lesser proportion of solar energy 
^hich reaches Jupiter produces an acceleration in tangential 
velocity above his enormous equatorial velocity, showing that his 
atmosphere takes up a much greater proportion of solar energy 
^han does the atmosphere of the Earth, in which case the atmos- 
pheric velocity is actually less by eighty-three and four-tenths 
*^iles per hour than the equatorial tangential velocity. 

There is upon Jupiter a delicate difference between the rates 
^^ motion in these spots; the dark spots move slightly faster 
^^n the white spots of the same belt 

This variation has also its analogue in terrestrial phenomena, 
'^*' the cloudy low areas, which extend well up into the regions of 
*^*8rh velocities, move several miles faster per hour over sea and 
^^ci than do the clear high areas, which lie more in the slow 
'Moving, lower regions of the atmosphere. * 

In the equatorial regions oi Jupiter, direct solar energy causes 
^^ atmosphere to revolve faster than the planet itself, and hence 
^^ spots of this belt pass the comparatively fixed, yet floating, 
^^ci Spot This spot, however, obeys the accelerated force of 
^^^ summer winds of the southern hemisphere, which increase in 
^Orce for one-half of the Jovian year, or fiv^ and ninety-three 
"^"^nciredths years; during the other half these winds decrease in 

* See Weather Bureau U. S. Department Agriculture, monthly Charts I and IV, and 
^'^''^eapooding tobies. 



^4 Publications of the 

force, and the acceleration is in part lost. The center of this b 
of strongest winds shifts over a zone seven degrees eleven minu 
wide, the inclination of the plane of the equator to the plane 
the ecliptic being one-half of this arc. 

In temperate latitudes the oblique rays are not capable 
producing so great an acceleration, and hence the spots of th 
latitudes have longer periods of revolution. The northerly s 
southerly components of the Earth's wind systems are also gres 
than on Jupiter, This condition is brought about by the decrea 
heat received by the latter planet, and his shorter period 
axial revolution. 

The motions of the atmosphere of Jupiter are, therefc 
simpler than those upon the Earth. This is due to the fact t 
upon Jupiter solar energy acts upon a more homogeneous surl 
than is offered by the partly clouded and partly clear atmosph 
of the Earth, and by its varying heat-appropriating surfaces 
land and water. 



TELEGRAPHIC ANNOUNCEMENTS OF AST^IONO 
ICAL DISCOVERIES, ETC., IN AMERICA. 

By Edward S. Holden. 



In 1 87 1, Dr. C. H. F. Peters, Director of the Hamil 
College Observatory, addressed a letter to the Secretary of 
Smithsonian Institution asking that the Institution should act: 
a central-office for communicating discoveries of planets, com^ 
etc., by telegraph. Steps were immediately taken by Profes 
Henry to arrange for such a service, and from 1873 to i^ 
it was carried out under the auspices of the Institution. Gr 
pains was taken by Professor Henry and Professor Baird 
obtain the opinions of astronomers as to the best form 
message, etc.* 

These telegrams were decidedly useful to American science, 
spite of many annoying errors which arose from the fact that 1 
Institution had then no astronomer to serve as editor. X 
telegrams from discoverers received by the Institution were v^ 
often wrongly worded, and there was no control. These te 



* See Report of Smithsonian Institution, 1882, page 57. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 65 

grams were widely disseminated by Associated Press dispatches; 
and in a more detailed and scientific form by the circulars of the 
Boston Scientific Society, edited by Mr. John Ritchie, fi-om 
1879 onwards. Mr. Ritchie and Dr. S. C. Chandler, in 188 i, 
devised a special cipher-code for transmitting such telegrams, 
which was submitted to, but not accepted by, the Smithsonian 
Institution. During 1882 and 1883 arrangements were con- 
cluded between the Harvard College Observatory and the 
Smithsonian Institution which resulted in the transfer of the 
control of this useful service to the Observatoi^ on the formal 
acceptance of its Director.* 

Mr. Ritchie was appointed to take charge of this service, 
and Dr. Chandler (then also connected with the H. C. O.) 
calculated comet orbits, ephemerides, etc., for quick transmission 
to other observatories. The transfer of the Bureau of Astro- 
nomical Telegraphy from the Smithsonian Institution to the 
Harvard College Observatory was in direct agreement with the 
settled policy of the former establishment to relinquish its own 
^ork to other responsible institutions so soon as the latter are 
billing and competent to undertake it 

The beneficial effect of the change was immediately felt. It 
^^^ principally due to competent and alert editorship, and only 
Partially to the new code, which, however, received its full share 
^^ credit. 

-An equally efficient service is now maintained at Kiel by Pro- 
^^^^sor Krueger, who uses, I believe, a different code. 

The code devised by Messrs. Ritchie and Chandler was 

Similar to the ** Science Observer Code" (described below). Its 

^c^rd-book was, however, Worcester's Comprehensive Dic- 

^onary — an unfortunate choice. Many of the Commercial Code 

"Ooks (with a few pages of additions), as Slater's Telegraphic 

*-^ictionary, for example, would have served the purpose better. 

^^cinost important part of Messrs. Ritchie and Chandler's 

system was not the cipher- code itself, but the introduction of 

control- words suitable for detecting and correcting errors of trans - 

'Mission or of translation. This very practical device will always 

^ ^ part of every subsequent code. Almost any code will suffice, 

^ Sufficient checks are applied. No single code will be equally 

convenient to astronomers of all nations. The English language, 

^^h its illogical pronunciations and spellings, will always contain 

^e^art of the Smithsonian Institution^ 1883, page 33. 



66 



Publuaiiams of the 



many puzzles to Earopeans. With the ol:9ect of improving- 
cipher-code (the fundamental principles and methods remaiimi 
the same), the Boston Sdentilic Society printed, in i8S8, ^ 
Science Observer Code^ prepared by Dr. S. C Chandler aj 
Mr. Ritchie. The preface to this work gives an interests 
account of its development from 1879 ^^ 1888. 

The code consists of four parts. Part I is an explanation c 
the principle of the code with detailed accounts and examples o 
its use, and Part I^ is the Number Code. The latter is printec 
on 200 quarto pages, in double colunms, and the column is the 
unit Each column is numbered (from i to 400) and each con- 
tains 100 words— 40,000 words in all. Opening the book, at 
random, at column five, the last words of this column are: 

80 Acodalar 

81 Acodiciar 

82 Acodillar 

83 Acogedizo 

84 Acogeta 

85 Acogido 

86 Acogollar 

87 Acogombrar 

88 Acogotar 

89 Acolcetra 

Opening once more at column 2 
this column to be: 



o 
I 
2 

3 

4 

5 
6 

7 
8 

9 



Grouping 

Groups 

Grouse 

Groveled 

Groveling 

Growlers 

Growlingly 

Growls 

Growth 

Growthead 



90 


Acollarado 


91 


Acollarar 


92 


Accolerge 


93 


AcolHdo 


94 


Acollonar 


95 


Acology 


96 


Acolytes 


97 


Acolythist 


98 


Acomendar 


99 


Acometedor 


), we find the firsi 


10 


Groyne 


II 


Grozzer 


12 


Grubaxe 


13 


Grudge 


14 


Grudgeful 


15 


Grudgeth 


16 


Grudgingly 


17 


Gruffly 


18 


Gruffness 


19 


Grugery 



A Spanish or Italian telegrapher would be at home in the *^ 
set of words, but he could not pronounce the second set at * 
It is not easy for an American telegrapher to even spell the *^ 
set, as we know by many experiences over the Mount HamiJ^ 
telephone wire. The selection of words from all languages * 
resulted in pleasing no one; for the Science Observer Code i^ 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 67 

>eUeve, not used in Europe, and its large proportion of long 
5panish words is not welcome in America. It is probable that 
iese were selected on account of the consistent rules of 
Spanish pronunciation. But when they are in the mouths of 
American telegraphers, they are pronounced by strange and 
lovel American rules, and the practical result is that they are 
iowly spelled out, letter by letter. As very many of them 
onsist of nine or ten letters, this is a wearisome process and it 
nds to introduce errors. In the selection of the words, care was 
ken that each one should differ from every other by at least two 
tters. This is, however, a difference which is chiefly effective to 
^ eye. It is more practical to select cipher words which sound 
fferently to the ear. A large number of the cipher messages 
- received and sent by telephone. I think every user of this 
de is more or less dissatisfied with the selection of its words, 
hough all recognize the great merits of the general principles on 
ich it is based. 

The words of the first 200 pages are used as follows: 
o^edizo stands for 583, Grozzer for 24,01 1, etc. There are forty 
>usand such words used to express the numbers i — 40,000. 
ey occupy 200 pages. A much simpler method to express 
-h numbers is to form two tables (printed on two pages only), 
I to make each cipher-word out of a prefix and an affix. 
t>le I would give over 500 prefixes^ each of three letters; as 
/", Baky Bat, .... Baz ; Daf^ Dak, Dal, .... Daz ; 
?/", Waky fVat, .... JVaz, etc. Each one of these is 
^bered i — 500. In choosing such prefixes, it would be 
-e^sary to reject those likely to produce confusion to the ear. 
Us Bag" and Bak, Bas and Baz should not both occur in the 
Her-code; initials G and J should not both be employed; 
f^inals am and ayi should not both be included; and so on. 
^cr similar precautions, familiar to users of cipher-codes, must 
observed, so far as the resources of the language permit. 
Table II would give 99 affixes, each of five letters, as 
^*^ide, — aglee, — omous, — ulate, etc. These would be num- 
"^d I — 99. Any number of five figures, less than 50,000, can 
iHade up of a cipher- word (always of eight letters) composed 
^ny prefix plus any affix; as Bafomous, Dakasidt, Walulate, 
■- This is pure jargon, of course; but it is no worse than the 
stations just given from the Sciaice Observer Code. No 
^S^h-speaking telegrapher will have any trouble with it. A 
^her-code is necessarily a jargon. If its words are chosen 



« Pmaiiu^xtzams ^ ^ 



*rr-,ri -rfiirji irAt ^ fat sirriil -nc3cs ic isiiezroiiT. sudi 

iT^jrhitr s»-r::.«>!^ i::*! ic ''^ry ^tSt^'tzr zrr'.i'vzueSk. In any eve 
the uocu^r-cvie iZtv^i 'rjt is iciin ii ««:s&.:o£. 'Dii merdv oractlic 

Ir. ''>r'i«' t.» *h.->Tr rht: i :::«5* :t rrc- pifcr« s practzcable ar 
ckT. uk.* :!:<: p-li^it :c 'jl^ — -.if: j:c^?r ocoe ot the Scien 
ObuiTz^r. I r^ccos-t to vrit* 5c-::f: ^ -xie c-ct ia toll at a tutu 
/iiti*: — r>ot, ry>-»*r.-*r. -sith arj lo-ea. tzit it sooaJd cor replace ll 
itv^Dtrr. ^-r.:I^ to Arnerisns. bet sisipCv to Llastrate the princip 
to '/t :>/I.OTi*ri ::: =rjch codes. 

p;ir: II oc' th-ft ScUnce Orirrz'ir Cyle s a " Phiase-Code. 
Th*: arr^itrary ciph^'-'arord stands in one coIucxul, and opposi 
:t Ln th^ correspor.din^ phrase — thus "Uglily** stands £ 
"]\TJz i^": "UnlaTrjI" :or '•These are elliptic elements- 
frt/',. Fart III comprises a lew necesaai%- tables. My own opinit 
in that Fart 1 1 of the Science Obserzer Code contains too ma: 
rath'rr than too few arbitrar*- svmbols. It is alwavs safer 
transmit a message, which has to be handled by rather ignora 
t/:Ir%(raph'rr.s, in plain English than in cipher. This ^i-as w 
illustrated in the famous cipher-dispatches of the President: 
campai;(n of 1876 ^the keys to which I was among the first 
rl*:tect;*. 

The cipher used in most of these political dispatches was s 
excellent one, but the messages were mangled beyond recogniti< 
in many cases. The same lesson (to use plain English when it 
fx^ssible) results from the experience of all army and navy office 
cjmccrni'A in such business. The cost of English telegrams 
.Hotnewhat greater than that of the corresponding cipher-messag( 
but cost is a very .secondary matter compared with freedom frc 
error. The control -words of the Science Observer Code a 
extremely valuable in this regard. 

Thf! proposal to use a cipher -code for the transmission 
important astronomical news, and the idea of introducing contn 
words to insure their accuracy, are due to Messrs. Chandli 
and RlTc:niK. Their code has already rendered material bene 
to a.strononiy. As the service is now conducted, astronomers i 



• Sff my Report of 1879, February 21, to the Chairman of the Select Committee 
Alli'Kcd FrHuds in the Presidential Election of 1876. etc., and also, The /MiermtUui 
Hfview (N. V.) for April, 1879, page 40.5. 



I. 






V 



•^. 



i& 



*^f 



3 6 9/^/5" 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 



69 



sure of receiving early warnings of the appearance of a new 
comet, etc, and orbits and ephemerides can now be quickly 
computed and distributed. To any one who recollects the state 
of such matters previous to 1873, the improvement is most 
striking, and it is almost entirely due to the original suggestion of 
Dr. Peters, to its prompt adoption by the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, and to the subsequent devices and able editorship of Messrs. 
Chandler and Ritchie.* 



ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS. 



Made by Torvald Kohl, at Odder, Denmark, in the years 1894-95, 



Variable Stars. 

Z Cygni. 
1894. 



January 


I : Z < e. 


August 25: 


<d. 




12: < e. 


September i : 


almost 


February 


I : invisible. 


6: 


<e. 




13: invisible. 


23: 


id. 


March 


25: a little < e. 


29: 


: id. 




-Ml 


October 18: 


invisible. 


April 


26 


: id. 




8 : almost d. 


November 10 


: id. 




9: id. 


16 


: id. 




f-b. 
^"^^ \ a little < a. 


22 


: id. 




30 


: id. 




30: — a. 


December 12 


: id. 


May 


/ >a. 


H 
16 


: id. 
: <e. 


June 


3* id. 


30 


e. 


July 


f perhaps a little 







• European teleg^rams of the sort were formerly distributed by the Imperial Academy 
of Sciences of Vienna, according to a code devised by Professor Karlinski, of Cracow, 
in 1B65. (/I*/. Nach , Vol. LXV,col.3i; t^iV/, No. 1785.) The service was much neglected, 
as may be seen by the history of the new star discovered by Schmidt in 1876. It was 
of the utmost importance that this star should be observed at once. Accordingly, Dr. 
Schmidt notified Vienna on November 24th by telegraph. The first account of the 
discovery was printed by the Astronomische Nachrichten on December 23d (a month 
late). The first news reached Berlin on December 3d, and so on. Half the astronomical 
energy of Europe was wasted for lack of a little administrative ability exerted ac- 
cording to an intelligent system. 



70 



Publications of the 



January 



February 



April 



I 

21 

26 
10 

14 

21 
12 
16 

25 



August 



16 

24 
September 9 

20 



January 

March 

April 

July 

August 

September 



October 



January 



a little > e. 

= b. 

= a. 

id. 
f <a. 
'l>b. 

=-b. 

a little > d. 

= d. 

r<d. 

I >e. 
invisible. 
<e. 
= e. 

perhaps > e. 
a little > e. 



1895. 



September 26: 

October 1 2 

30 
November 7 

13 
18 

19 
26 



12: 

25: 
6: 

29: 

23- 
i: 

23: 

29: 

18: 

26: 



21 



26; 
February 10: 
August 1 6 : 

24: 
September 9: 
October 1 2 : 



December 



29 

7 
8 

14 



f 
f 



-Y° Cygni.^ 
1894. 



X'=a. 
= k. 
<k. 
id. 

<i. 

very faint. 

= 1. 

= g- 

id. 



November 



December 



X=> X". 

f<x-. 

1>A. 
id. 
id. 
<k. 

invisible. 

id. 

id. 



1895. 



October 
November 



December 



10: 
16: 

22: 

29: 

30: 

14: 
16: 

27: 
30- 

30: 

13: 

18: 

19: 
27: 
29: 

7: 
8: 



e. 
<ci. 
>ci. 
<c. 

= b. 

perhaps 

id. 

a little 

id. 

id. 

<a. 

>b. 

= b. 

id. 

id. 



X=-= f. 

=^b. 

r>a. 

"1<A 

>A 
f >A 
I <X 

>X 

id. 

id. 

id. 

X^< k 

= 1. 

= h. 

id. 
id. 
a little 

= g- 
id. 

id. 



Vide pHblications A. S. P., Nos. 33 and 34, page 37- 



/ d 



Jty 



•/ 







m 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 



71 



The Stars A and By near X'^ Cygni, 

By examination of the region around X"" Cygni, I have sev- 
eral years ago suspected a slight variation of the star A when 
compared with ^,* as it is seen from the following estimations: 



1878, March 


4: A < B. 


1895, January 


i: A>B. 


April 


21: A>B. 




21: A — B. 


1879, March 


15: A<B. 




26: A = B. 


1 89 1, August 


30: A < B. 


February 


10: A B, 


1894, November 22: A > B. 


November 


29: A<B. 






30: A>B. 


December 


7: A — B. 


December 12: A < B. 




8: A>B. 






14: A — B. 




14: A — B. 






16: A<B. 










30: A— B. 










X Cygni. 








1895. 








-{r:- 


November 7: X a little < a. 


September 


26: 


# 
13: 


— a. 


October 


12: 


a little > a. 


18: 


a little > a. 




17: 


id. 


19: 


id. 




20: 


— a. 


25: 


a little < a. 






/<a. 
l>b. 


29: 


<a. 




30: 


. December 7: 


>a. 










f<a. 








14: • 


\ only a little 
(>b. 






S Ursa % 


ytajoris. 








i8( 

* 


H- 




January 


26: 


S = d. 


September 23: S 


) a little < e. 


February- 


i: 


— e. 


29: 


<e. 




13: 


a little < e. 


October i : 


id. 




21: 


id. 


18: 


— f. 


March 


2: 


— f. 


26: 


<f. 




14: 


<f. 


November 10: 


id. 




24: 


id. 


16: 


id. 




29: 


invisible. 


22: 


id. 


August 


23: 


— d. 


30: 


invisible. 


September 


i: 


id. 


December 14: 


id. 




3: 


perhaps > d. 


16: 


very faint. 




8: 


= d. 


27: 


<f. 




15: 


id. 







* a indicates Uie next bright preceding, b the next following star. 



72 



Publications of the 



1895- 



January 


26: 


S — e. 


September 


6: 


S invisible. 


February 


10: 


id. 




9: 


id. 


March 


2: 


perhaps > d. 


• 


13: 


a little < e. 




17: 


{r.*=c,. 




14: 
20: 


id. 
= e. 




20: 


- c (b > c). 


October 


12: 


= d. 




27: 


{ almost — c 
I (b>c). 




30: 


id. 

> d. < c. 




29: 


id. 


November 


7: 


= d. 


April 


2: 


id. 




13: 


>d. 




9: 


|<c. 




18: 
19: 


a little < c 
id. 




14: 


— d. 




25: 


<c. 




22: 


id. 




29: 


a little > d. 


August 


16: 


— f. 


December 


7: 


— d. 




24! 


> f, < e. 




8: 


<d. 




31: 


a litde < e. 

T Ursa 
i8< 


majoris.^ 
94. 


14: 


a little < e. 


January 


12: 


T — b. 


September 


15: 


T a little > a. 




26: 


f < c, nearly 
\ -d. 




23: 


r quite a little 
I >a. 


February 


i: 


- d. 




29: 


— a. 




13-. 


e. 


October 


i: 


id. 




21: 


<e. >f. 




18: 


— c. 


March 


2: 


— f. 




26: 


a little < d. 




14: 


<f. 


November 


10: 


a little < e. 




24: 


id. 




16: 


— f. 




29: 


invisible. 




22: 


id. 


April 


9: 


invisible. 




30: 


<g. 


August 


23: 


>a. 


December 


14: 


invisible. 


September 


i: 


id. 




16: 


id. 




3: 


id. 




27: 


id. 




8: 


id. 









• Vide Publications A. S. P., No. 2a, page 63. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 



73 



1895. 



January 


26: 


T invisible. 


September 13: 


T very faint. 


February 


10 


: id. 


14: 


id. 


March 


2 


: <g. 


20: 


id. 




17 


: — f. 


October 12: 


<f. 




20 


: id. 


17: 


id. 




27 


. — d. 


30: 


id. 




29: 


a little > d. 


November 7 : 


id. 


April 


2: 


> d, < c. 


13: 


— f. 




9: 


<b, >c. 


18: 


a little < e 




14: 


— b. 


19: 


id. 




22: 


a little > b. 


25: 


< d. > e. 


August 


16: 


<f 


29: 


— d. 




24: 


invisible. 


December 7 : 


— a. 




31: 


: id. 


8: 


id. 


Septembei 


• 6: 


id. 


14: 


a little > a 




9' 


id. 







Shooting Stars. 



No. 


Time, P. M. 


Begin- 
ning. 


End. 


Magni- 
tude. 


NOTK. 


I 
2 

3 
4 

5 


1894. 

Aug. 9 . lo** 0" 0' 

5 30 
8 30 

19 *5 
22 



255+16 

• 

261+39 

318+37 
260+47 




252+13 
26+15 

255+35 
305+35 
246+27 

292-f42 
263 -f 

17 + 57 
297—12 

66+44 


2 

9 

3 
4 
3 


Red Meteor, train. 
Streak. 


6 

7 
S 

S 
ic 


22 30 
24 45 
39 

> 42 

> 47 


312+48 

265+13 

27-f6o 

299— 7 
6o-f50 


2 
2 
2 
2 
2 


Train. 


11 
12 

13 

14 

J5 


49 30 

57 30 

5830 

" 3 30 
19 


350+34 

7+17 

8+25 

50+62 

282-f 7 


344 + 24 

3+ 7 

356+14 

74+68 

273— 4 


2 

I 

9 

I 


Train. 


16 

17 

18 

19 
20 


23 30 
30 

33 15 

34 45 

35 30 


354+44 
336+24 
295+42 

305+15 
227 -f 32 


332+38 

345-1-25 
285+29 

295+ 3 
230+16 


2 

3 

I 

I 

9 


Red Meteor, train. 
Train. 


21 
22 

23 
24 
25 


36 

41 45 

A.,^ 52 30 

^"g.io.io 26 30 
33 


267+ 8 
344+1 » 
328+41 
352+27 
276+55 


267— 1 

329+ 1 

355+34 
345+18 

259+36 


? 

2 
2 

3 
3 


Train. 



Publications of the 
Shooting Stars — Continued. 



No. 


Tim*. P. M. 


Begin- 


End. 


^T.'- 


Noit 






1S91. 1 = " 


^ 








if, 


Aug.io.io34V 34»+33 


323+ 3 


I 


Train. 




27 


36 


4+ 5 


360+ 2 








a8 


37 40 


3'o+44 


303+35 




Sireak. 




a9 


39 40 


300+ '9 


393+6 




id. 




30 


40 50 

50 10 


3^5 + 17 


3'4+ 5 


I 


Train. 




3' 


318-11 


306-18 


21 


id. 




3' 


56 


6 + 18 


360+ 8 








33 


57 


385 + 15 


375+ 7 




Streak, 




34 


II 3 40 


356+ 9 


35H- 5 








35 


5 'O 


295+37 


2S4+2H 


2 






36 


630 


3+16 


358+ 7 


3 






37 


9 


5+33 


358+11 




id. 




38 




330+56 


309+45 


9 


Train. 




39 


t6 30 


354+ 9 


253- I 








40 


» 30 


392+50 


377+33 


% 






41 


15+33 


354 + 17 


Uf 


Sparkling Meteor. 




41 


^9 45 


39a— 1 


286-11 








43 


33 'o 


358+33 


350+34 








44 


41 *5 


z^f'+n 


306 + 1. 


3 






4S 


41 30 


340— 13|339— at 








46 


47 30 


4 ■ lol r— 4 


9 


















Aug. 11. 12 4 40 1 383— 4' 185— 10 








48 


5 40 1 s+'S 359+ 5 








49 


7 30 


8+59 354 +5S 








50 


8 50 
20 40 


236+71 231+53 


I 






5' 


345—11 344—15 


1 






Sa 


3930 


293—11 397—17 


% 






53 


to 55 


350 + 15 341 + 11 


1 






S4 




314+43 301+37 


3 






55 


23 30 


330+62 311+59 








56 


14+54' 360+54 


, 






57 


3D 40 


afi6+i8 2SS+ 7 








58 


3= 40 


... 1 7-1 


■4 






59 


4645 


360+.1 351+ a 








6d 


5' 3" 
56 .0 


3a2+i.s 312+26 


4 






61 


333— ii'333-'S 


■4 






63 


59 2P 


S+4i| 348+33 




Train. 




63 


Allg.I3.ll 6 


356-^3" 346+19 


1 


id. 




64 


S 


^--19' 357+10 








65 


11 45 


33SI- <■ 18 + 11 


9 






Is 


10 


310+40: 297+30 


, 






67 


32 8 


301+ 6 395- 5 








66 


23 15 


317+ 317— n 








69 


27 20 


340+18 326+ 4 




Train. 




70 


30 10 


297 + 14 390+ 4 


3 







Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 
Shooting Stars — Continued. 



No 

7 
1 

6 
8 


Timt, A. M. 


»r- 


End. 


IX' 


Noia. 


\ 1894. 

iAug.ia.ii''32'° o* 

1895. 
Jjan. 35. 9 as 
jflVug.io. 936 

i 44 
75. 46 


334- 9 

ias+i8 

366+46 
285+ 4 


313-17 

135+ 7 
3"3- 9 
348+ '3 
183— 8 




f Red Meteor. 

i Fireball. Train in several 

( sections. 

Train. 


1^ 10 16 15 

77 aa 
7B 38 15 

3 

7 44 5° 

5 55 


366+33 
3-9+ 5 
392-9 

341 + 10 
345+6" 


355+ 8 
300— 6 
388-13 

337+ 5 
3'5+48 




Very fast. 
Very accurate. 


361 + 18 

3'7+ 5 
357+34 


354+ 7 
301- 5 
340+20 
17+ 6 
284+36 




Train. Accurate. 

Train. Extinction near £;. 
Very accurate. 


8t 

lOO 


i 58 30 
5833 

P. M. 

Aug.!,. 95, 
54 30 


11+44 
335- 5 

3"3+57 

387+40 
a6:+ii 


350+34 
336— j6 

215+40 

376+34 
155+ 4 




Accurate. 


104 

"OS 


9 15 
10 45 

___ 15 30 


397 H 
306- 
317- 
28a 
397 


hi7 
'3 

1-41 


233- 

371- 

3S9H 


h33 

■ 8 

■ 1 

■ 4 

h37 




Train. 
Fast. 


109 

no 


34 50 
39 

33 

35 SO 
4a 40 


304+36 
339+10 

3^9+'^ 


391 
333 
15 

40 

^33H 


hi5 
■ 1 
■66 

h56 

h 5 




Train. 

Very short path in direc- 
tion from Polaris. 
YcTy slow. 


m 

114 
115 


4S 30 
51 

^ 4a 45 


338+15 
393+10 
3«+65 
a6+i4 


326- 1 
330+ 4 

40+61 
30+14 


9 




"7 


S^P'-S.sti 


373+15 
298+27 


363+ 5 
280+ 1 


9 

9 





^ ■ ^a is also observed at Copenhagen (259° + 54°-f— — ^ 
248 + 330^ 2 Magnitude). 

Q ■ ^3 is also observed at Copenhagen (271° + 40° H > 

264 H- 350 3 Magnitude). 



Publications of the 
Shooting Stars — Continued. 



No. 


Time. P. M- ^^™' 


End. 


^- 


N<„. 




1894. ! = • 


a 








36 


Aug.io. 10 34°3o' 341+33 


328H 


L 8 




Train. 




27 


36 1 4+5 


360 










28 


37 40 i 310+44 


303^ 


■35 




Streak. 




39 


39 40 ■300+ 19 


393- 


- 6 




id. 




30 


40 50 
50 10 


325+17 


314H 


h5 


1 


Train. 




3' 


318-11 


306-18 


% 


id. 




32 


56 ! 6+18 


360+ 8 








33 


57 ; 285+13 


275+7 




Streak. 




34 


11 3 40 


356+ 9 


352+ 5 








35 


5 'O 

630 


195+37 


384+28 


2 






36 


3 + '6 


358+ 7 


1 






37 


9 


S+23 


358+11 




id. 




38 




330+56 


309+45 


¥ 


Train. 




39 


16 30 


254+ 9 


253- 2 








40 


ao 30 


292+50 


^77+35 


% 






41 


21 ol 15+33 


354+17 


ve 


Sparkling Meteor. 




42 


29 45 ■ 39'— 1 


386—11 








43 


33 10 358+33 


350+24 








44 


41 »5 316+23 


306+11 


3 






45 


41 3D 340-18 


339- J, 








46 


4730' 4 "o 1-4 


$ 






47 


Aug, 11. 13 4 40 1 288— 4 385—10 








48 


5 JO 1 5+15 359+ 5 








49 


7 3D 


8+59 354+55 








50 


8 50 


236+71 231+52 


I 






51 


3040 


345-11 344-15 


, 






53 


29 30 
P.M. 


393-11 297—17 


% 






53 


10 55 


350 + 15 341 + 11 


2 






S4 




314+42 301+37 


3 






55 


23 30 


330+62,311+59 








56 


14+54I 360+54 


J 






57 


30 40 


386 + 18 1S6+ 7 








58 


33 40 




'4 






59 


46 45 


360+11.351+ 2 








60 


5' 3" 


33l + i.s| 313+26 


4 






61 


56 10 


333— ii;333-i5 


'4 






61 


59 30 

A. M. 


8+4r348+3i 




Train. 




63 


Aug.12.12 6 


356+301346+19 


a 


id. 




64 


S 


5 + 191 357 + 10 








65 


1' 45 


33S+ .8 + 11 


9 






66 


20 


310+40I 397+30 


3 






67 


23 8 


301+ 6|295— s 








68 


23 IS 


317+ 0:317—11 








69 


27 20 


340+18 336+ 4 




Train. 




70 


30 10 


297 + 14I390+ 4 


3 







Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 77 

EPHEMERIS OF COMET c, 1895 (PERRINE). 



By C. D. Perrine. 



1 have computed the following ephemeris from the elements 
given by Professor Campbell, in No. 45 of these Publications, 
page 344. 

EPHEMERIS FOR GREENWICH MEAN MIDNIGHT. 
1896. App. a App. 8 ^^^ T log A Br. 

h m O / 

March 1.5 19 47.0 +29 0.248 0.359 '0.15 
5.5 46.8 + 3 15 

9.5 46.3 + 4 21 0.280 0.361 

13-5 45-5 + 5 27 

17.5 44.3 + 6 34 0.309 0.362 0.1 1 

21.5 42.7 + 7 42 

25.5 40.7 -\r S 50 0.336 0.360 

29.5 38.3 +9 58 

April 2.5 35.4 -\rii 6 0.360 0.359 0.09 

6.5 32.1 H-I2 15 

10.5 28.2 +13 23 0.382 0.355 

145 23.9 +14 30 

18.5 19.0 +15 37 0403 0352 0.07 

22.5 13.6 +16 41 

26.5 7.6 +17 43 0.423 0.351 

30.5 19 I.I +18 43 

May 4.5 18 54.3 +19 39 o-44i 0-352 0.06 

1896, February 5* 18^. Correction to ephemeris : 

In a —5". 

In S -f-2'.9. 

As the observations upon which the orbit is based were 
made November 17th, 24th, and December ist, before perihelion 
passage, the present corrections to the ephemeris will not vary 
rapidly. 

Lick Observatory, February 20, 1896. 



78 



Publications of the 



REPORTED EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC 

COAST. 



From Record in Office of Frederick G. Plummer, C. E. 



National Guard of Washington, 
Chief Engineer's Office. 

Tacoma, March 3, 1896. 

Dr. E. S. HoLDEN, Director. I^CK Observatory, Cal. 

Sir : — The following list of earthquakes for the Pacific Coas 
from Alaska to Oregon, is submitted as a memorandum of su 
seismic events as have been tabulated by me from data collect 
during the past eleven years. The list is mainly valuable as 
table to which corrections and additions can be made, and shou 
not be taken as complete or correct. I shall be glad to recei 
any such corrections or additions. 

Very truly, 

Fred. G. Plummer. 



Time. 



Year. 



1786 
1788 
1788 
1788 
1796 
1802 
1812 
'817 
1818 
1826 
1827 

1833 
1836 

1836 
1847 
1854 
1S56 

1857 
i860 
1864 
1865 
1865 
1866 
1867 
1867 
1868 
1870? 



i87i 
1872 
1872 
1872 
1872 
1872 
1872 



Day. 



July 27 
July 27 
May 



April 

June 
June 
June 29 
April 2 
August 



Dec. 26 
Sept. 
May 7 
Oct. 29 
June 12 
Aug. 25 
Dec. 
August 
Jan. 8 
Mav 30 
Late 



May 19 
Dec. 14 
Dec. 14 
Dec. 14 
Dec. 14 
Dec. 15 
Dec. 15 



h. m. s. 



13 40 00 



Night 



Morning 
Night 



21 40 30 

21 46 00 

22 00 00 

23 00 CO 

3 00 00 
S 00 00 



Location. 



Pavloff A. 

Shumagin ...A. 

Sannak Island .... A. 

Ailiaska A. 

Bogoslov A. 

Unalashka A. 

Atka . A. 

Uranak ... A. 

Makushin A. 

Unalashka. . A. 

Copper Island. ..A. 
Fort Nisqually....W. 
Pribyloff islands ..A. 
Pribyl«'ff Islands.. .A. 
St. Paul's Island... A. 

Kaviak A. 

Port Townsend. ..W. 
Birch Bay. .W. 

Port Townsend . . W. 

Victoria B.C. 

Victoria B. C. 

Victoria ... . B. C. 

Dalles O. 

Lower Yukon . . A. 

Klamath O. 

Mukeltco. W. 

Pugel Sound W. 



Tacoma. . . , 
Puget Sound. 
Puget Sound. . 
Puget Sound.. 
Puget Sound.. 
Puget Sound., 
Puget Sound.. 



W. 
W. 
W. 
W. 
W. 
W. 
W. 



M 

8 



X 
X 



II 

X 
X 

VI 
IV 



VI 
IV 

III 

VIII 

vii 



VII 



Remarks. 



With volcanic eruption. 
With tidal wave. 
Overflowed by tidal wave. 
Tidal wave. 
With eruption. 



Two. 



Several. 



Several old settlers insist that tl 
were severe shocks, but none 
state the day or time. Possibly t 
mistake the year tor 187a. 



One shock. 
Three shocks. 
Several shocks. 
Several shocks. 
Several shocks. 
«j nc shock. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 



79 



Time. 



Year, 



872 

87a 

873 
873 
873 
874 
877 
877 
879 
880 
880 
880 
[880 
882 

S3 
883 
1884 



?5 

885 

'885 
885 






Dec. 16 
I cc. 16 
Jan. 9 
Nov. 2a 

Dec. 

? 

Oct. la 

Oct. 12 

■> 

Dec. 6 
Dec. 10 
Dec. 12 
Dec. 20 
April 30 
June ? 
Sept. 28 
Jan. 3 
Sept. 21 
May 3 
Oct 9 
Oct. 10 
Dec. 8 
Dec. 8 
Dec. 18 
Fall 
Mar. 8 
Mar. 15 
Mar. 29 
Sept. 
Nov. 29 
March 
Apr. 17 
Apr. 17 
Feb. 16 
^ug^. 14 

^«i>. 25 



h. m. s. 



9 17 30 



21 00 00 



9 CO 00 

13 53 00 

17 54 00 
5 00 00 

20 40 00 

23 16 00 

22 42i 00 

00 00 10 
20 40 00 

22 30 00 

23 30 00 
8 00 00 
I 30 00 

22 12 00 

22 40 00 

o 30 00 

18 00 00 

20 00 00 

14 30 00 

15 15 00 

21 30 00 

14 55 00 
J4 55 00 



'% 



00 

5 <J7 00 

20 56 00 

22 30 00 

4 4- 00 

4 47 00 
4 47 00 



Location. 



Huget Sound W. 

Eugene O. 

Tacoma W. 

Tacoma W. 

Olympia — W. 

Tacoma W. 

Cascades O. 

Cascades . . O. 

Portland O. 

Puget Sound W. 

Puget Sound.. W. 
Victoria to Portland 

Puget Sound W. 

Portland O. 

Tacoma W. 

Portland O. 

Portland O. 

Tacoma W. 

Olympia W. 

Olympia W. 

Portland (>. 

Victoria B. C 

Tacoma W. 

Tatoosh Island... W. 

Puyallup W. 

Olympia W. 

Roslyn W. 

Roslyn W 

Tacoma W. 

Tacoma . . . ... W. 

Kalama W. 

Tacoma W. 

Castle Rock W. 

Sidney W."* 

Toutle River . W. ' 
Green River Mines. W. 

Ellensburg W. 

Tacoma W. 

Portland O. 

Tacoma W. 

Green kiverMines. W. 



c 



II 
III 

IV 
II 



IV 

IV 

VII 

IV 

III 



II 

HI 
II 



II 

III 

III 

III 

II 

II 

II 

II 

II 

IV 

IV 

III 

II 

III 

III 

V 



Remarks. 



One shock. 
One shock. 



Three shocks. 



Two shocks. 
One shock. 

At intervals for two hours. 

Three shocks. 

Several. 



Several. 
Two shocks. 

Two. 
Two. 

Vertical. Rumblings. 
Lateral. Rumblings. 
Ten seconds. 

Three shocks. 
Three shocks. 
Three shocks. 



A.«. 



-A.lj^ska. B. C— British Columbia. W.=. Washington. O.— Oregon. 



C>BSERVATIONS OF M//^A CETI (1895-96). 



By Miss Rose O'Halloran. 

[Abstract.] 



^-"^iiig made a diagram of the telescopic stars surrounding 
® ^^^* in the beginning of 1895, I was able to identify it early in 
last ^^ctober, when at its dimmest phase, or of the same magni- 
the gray-tinted orb which is 11 6 seconds distant from it. 



tude 



TnougrY^ observed on every clear night since, I select from the 
record only those dates when a decided increase or decrease of 

ongrxtness was detected, as the omitted observations are chiefly 

TCpe^tions. 



So Publications of the 

The names of the stars with which it has been successive!]; 
compared will be given, as authorities differ somewhat in the£ 
estimates of magnitudes. 

October 27th, November 8th and i6th, it seemed, respectively 
three-tenths, seven-tenths, and one magnitude brighter than ii 
companion star. Towards the end of the month it seemed rathe 
to decline than to increase, but resumed its advance in December 
and on the loth was but one magnitude fainter than 66 Ceiiy ana 
on the 20th, though still nearer to the brightness of that seventt 
magnitude star, was invisible in an opera-glass of medium 
power. 

December 21st. It was visible in the same opera-glass, thoug 
fainter than 66^ 70, 7/, and dy Ceii. 

December 26th. It was brighter than 7/ Ceti. 

December 28th. It was as bright as 66 Ceti. 

December 31st. It was brighter than the last-named star, b« 
was not discernible to the naked eye on that night. 

January i, 1896. It was nearly one magnitude brighter ths 
66, and became dimly visible, without magnifying power, for t\r 
first time since its increase. 

January 3d. It was brighter than 70 or y^ Ceti, 

January 5th. It was equal in magnitude to i* Ceti, 

January 6th. It was brighter than v Ceti, but was more tha* 
half a magnitude fainter than 8 Ceti, 

After an interval of cloudy weather, it was observed on Jan 
uary i8th, and seemed brighter than 8 Ceti, 

January 21st. It was much brighter than S, but not so bright sb 
y Ceti, which is generally classed as of third magnitude. At the 
date Mira had probably attained its maximum brightness for thi 
season, as careful comparison with the two last-named member 
of the same constellation revealed no decided change until Febi 
ruary 3d, when a slight decrease was noticed. 

February 5th. It seemed to have recovered its previous 
brightness, but on February 6th declined slightly, and ther 
remained unchanged until February 12th. 

February 13th was cloudy. 

February 14th. It was very little brighter than 8 Ceti, 

There was no decided change until February 27th, when ii 
was seen to be of the same brightness as 8 Ceti, which, however, 
being a Sirian star, may have been more affected by the moon- 
light and twilight than the deep-tinted variable. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 8i 

^March i ith, Mira had decreased somewhat, and on March 14th, 
thiough of fifth- magnitude, it was scarcely discernible without 
ma^^ifying power; and further observations of the interesting 
process of decline will have little value, owing to the increase of 
atmospheric disadvantages. 

San Francisco, March 19, 1896. 



PERSONAL EQUATION. 



By R. H. Tucker. 

[Abstract]. 



The effect of errors due to personal equation upon the deter- 
mination of star places is, in general, included in two classes: 

In one, the effect is eliminated. In the other, the error can 
actually be determined by observations similar to those affected, 
and the proper correction can be applied. 

If the personal equation in transits remains constant, for the 

^nie conditions, the effect upon the observation of the stars from 

^hich the clock correction is obtained is the same as that for the 

s^ars whose Right Ascension is to be determined. While there 

'^^y be variation in the amount of error, and iilvestigations of 

^'^^ personal equation for the same observer at different epochs 

nave actually given, in some cases, discordant values, these 

"Variations must, in general, be included with the accidental errors 

^* observation. The constant or systematic error is eliminated. 

If the error has a variation depending upon the magnitude, 

^«is ^^^ jjg investigated by the use of screens for some of the 

Observations of bright stars; the results for stars thus reduced in 

^^^nitude being compared with corresponding observations made 

^^^h full brightness. 

The effect of the direction of motion can be observed upon 
^^ at the zenith, reversing the position of the observer, as is 
o^e in the observations for bisection error, described later. 

The effect due to the rate of motion is harder to deal with, 

^^ cannot be obtained directly from the observations. The 

^^ults, however, when compared with the Ephemeris Right 

^^ensions of fundamental stars, at various distances from the 



S2 Publications of the 

Pole, will indicate the amount of this variation, accepting th 
system of Right Ascensions as standard. 

For the Declinations, the personal equation in reading th 
graduated circle is evidently differential, whether the Declination 
are made to depend upon observed zenith distances or upoi 
observations of fundamental stars. 

In the former case, the error in observing the coincidence c 
the Declination wire, over the nadir, could be found by takin 
nadirs facing north and south alternately. But, from the mai 
ner in which this coincidence is usually obtained, by placing tT 
wire alternately on both sides of its image, there is not mui 
likelihood of there being a serious amount of personal equati^: 

If, also, circum polar stars are observed at both culminatio : 
to give the value of the latitude to be used in determinations 
star places for the same epoch, this error is eliminated. 

The bisection error is a form of personal equation that i^ 
important to consider. If there is a tendency to place the ^i^i-' 
too high or too low, or in case a pair of threads is used to pl.^ 
the star above or below the center of the pair, every obser^ 
zenith distance would be affected. 

If the determinati )ns are strictly differential, and the decli^ 
tions are made to depend upon those of stars near, the effec* 
eHminated. 

It would be doubled for determinations of stars on one s3 
of the zenith, depending upon fundamental stars on the otfc" 
side, and consequently doubled for determinations of south sta- 
depending upon a latitude from circumpolars at both culmin 
tions. The effect would, however, be eliminated from Declination 
observed at both culminations. 

As one conclusion from these relations, it is obvious that t 
free a set of south stars from this form of personal equation, whicl 
may be classed as a systematic error of observation, it would b 
best to use stars south of the zenith as fundamental. The cir 
cum polar stars would be freed from its effect, by taking the mea 
of determinations at both culminations. 

There would remain a zone of stars between the zenith an 
the limit at which observations below Pole can be made. For the:: 
stars it would be necessary to know the bisection error, and t 
correct for it. 

The error is indicated by observations of the same star, abo\ 
and below Pole; but these are generally made with an interval < 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 83 

six: months, and, as there is a method of obtaining this correction 

by observation of zenith stars, it is advisable to use both means. 

To give this method in its simplest form : If two stars, cul- 

ininating at the zenith are observed, one with the face north and 

the other with the face south, the effect of bisection error is 

doubled for a determination of the latitude from each. If, on 

another night, the same pair of stars are observed, each in the 

contrary position for the observer, the combination of the results 

of the two nights gives double the bisection error, free from 

any error in either star's Declination; and all systematic errors of 

observation other than that sought for are eliminated. 

This process should be often repeated, that accidental errors 
of observation may have as little effect as possible upon the final 
result 

Repetition at intervals is useful, in order to check any variation 
of habit. For the present series of observations with the meridian- 
circle there have been made three sets of determinations, to be 
fallowed by others before the completion of the work, in order 
that the entire series may be represented. The first set consi^ed 
of a pair of stars on each of sixteen nights, four pairs being used. 
These were included in the regular observing programmes. The 
later sets have been made on special nights, with five or six pairs 
each night. 

The transits, observed at the same time, should exhibit a 
<^fference, amounting to double the error due to direction of 
motion. While these observations are reduced, for the greater 
part, the combination of results will not be made until the close 
of the work, lest the knowledge of what error may be indicated 
should have some slight prejudice upon current observing. 



^ 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 85 




NOTICES FROM THE LICK OBSERVATORY. 



Letter from Mr. Sydney D. Townlev. 
A letter received from Mr. Sydney D. Townley, a member 
of the A. S. P.. formerly Hearst Fellow in Astronomy at the 
I^iCK Observatory, may be of general interest to members of the 
Society. 

"Jaegerstr. 27, iv, Berlin. 
" 'Dear professor Holden: 

"It has occurred to me that I might possibly be of service to 
American astronomers while abroad by offering to look for old 
books for them. I have made a number of excellent purchases 
for myself, I am going to Leipzig, Munich, etc., in the spring, 
so that I shall have an opportunity to search for books there as 
well as in Berlin. 

******* 
" I am hearing lectures by Professors Foerster, Lehmann- 
FlLHES, and Scheiner, and have some work in spectrum 
analjws at the Potsdam Observatory. Please give my con- 
^ntulations to Mr. Perrine on the discovery of his comet, and 
with kindest regards to all at Mount Hamilton, believe me, etc., 
"S. D. Townlev." 

Meteor of January 4, 1896 (Minturn, Cahfornia). 
On January 4. 1896. at 6:48 p.m. (I think that was the exact 
time), I had the good fortune to witness another beautiful meteor. 
I was two miles southeast of Merced at the time. The general 
direction of the flight was about the same as the one of '94; it 
was visible fully five seconds, and it turned night into day. 1 ex- 
pected to see some account of it in the papers, but as none 



86 Publications of the 

appeared, I concluded it was purely a local affair, though at the 
time, from its brilliancy and height of starting, it seemed as if it 
must be visible to all the country. 

Frank H. Webster. 

MiNTURN, Cal., February 2, 1896. 

Bright Meteor Observed at Napa, February 2, 1896. 

*'Napa, February 2, 1896. 

"Dear Sir: — My wife and I observed a bright meteor this 
evening at 6:33 (about). Its course was from about R. A. 23** 30", 
Dec. — 15° to R. A. 3*^ 20", Dec— 28° It was moderately bright. 
It moved in a very slow and leisurely fashion, taking at least thirty 
seconds before it disappeared. No report was heard. The path 
was of the same size and brilliancy throughout. 

* * Respectfully, 

To Dr. E. S. HoLDEN. **H. D. CURTIS.'' 

The Trouvelot Astronomical Drawings, with Descrip- 
tive Manual, by E. L. Trouvelot. Charles Scrib- 
ner's Sons, Publishers, 153-157 Fifth Avenue, New York. 

This series consists of fifteen large colored plates, about thirty- 
six by thirty inches, with a descriptive manual. A private letter 
from the publishers informs me that they have reduced the price 
of the very few sets on hand to ten dollars, delivered in New 
York. Some of our members may like to know this. 

£. S. ri. 

Explosion of an Aerolite in Madrid (February 10, 1896). 

"An aerolite exploded above this city to-day. There was a 
loud report, followed by a general panic. All buildings were 
shaken, and many windows were shattered. According to the 
officials of the Madrid Observatory, the explosion occurred twenty- 
miles above the Earth. 

The sun was shining clearly at the time of the explosion, and 
the only thing visible in the sky was a white cloud, bordered with 
red, which was traveling rapidly across the heavens, leaving- 
behind it a train of fine white dust. When the explosion occurred, 
the populace believed it was an earthquake, or a sign of divine 
wrath. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 87 

Many injuries resulted from the panic which broke out among 
the people, and from the frantic attempts to escape from the fac- 
tories and schools Seventeen persons were injured in one 
tobacco factory by the collapse of a staircase when the inmates 
rushed upon it to escape from the building. At the palace, it 
was at first feared a bomb had been exploded. Much damage 
was done by the force of the concussion." — S. F. Chroyiiclc, 

Elements of Comet a, 1896, by Professor A. O. Leuschner 

AND Mr. F. H. Seares. 

A cipher telegram from the Students* Observatory of the 
University of California, Berkeley, received February i8th, gives 
the following Elements of Comet a, 1896 : 

T=G. m. t., Jan. 31. 79. 
o>=358°2o'-\ 
0=208'' 48' V 1896.0 

^•=155° 43' J 
^=0. 5874 

These elements are based on Mt. Hamilton observations by 
Mr. C. D. Perrine, on February 14th, 15th, and i6th. 

The elements have some resemblance to those of Comet 
1855, II. E S. H. 

Lick Observatory, February 19, 1896. 

[circular.] 

Post Office and Telegraph Department (Observatory Branch), 
General Post Office, Adelaide, 22d November, 1895. 

Dear Sir: — I have the pleasure of informing you that the 
^Vestern Australian Government, as will be seen by the enclosed, 
Have decided to establish an Astronomical Observatory at Perth, 
and Mr. W. Ernest Cooke, M. A., the Assistant Astronomer at 
Adelaide, has, on my recommendation, been appointed Govern- 
ment Astronomer to that colony. 

As the infant institution has no library, may I ask your kind 

assistance in supplying the new observatory with copies of your 

publications? 

I have the honor to be. Sir, 

Your Obedient Servant, 

Charles Todd, 

Government Astronomer, 
Postmaster-General and Superintendent of Telegraphs. 



88 Publications of the 

Comet c, 1895 (Perrine). 

This comet was last observed at the Lick Observ 
December 12th, G. M. T., before it passed the Sun gc 
ward. It was again glimpsed for a few minutes in th< 
of December 20th, but so close to the horizon that no 
tion was possible. Cloudy weather about this time j 
its being seen again until January 30th, when it had agaii 
a morning object. The weather has been good and a n 
observations have been secured since. It is following 
computed for it by Professor Campbell very closely, ; 
seen from the corrections to the ephemeris published < 
in this number. 

It is considerably fainter than at discovery, but is si 
visible in a three-and-a-half inch telescope. The stella 
has been plainly visible although much diminished in bi 
and a short fan -shaped tail has been observed with th< 
inch equatorial. 

The Observatory for January prints the following 
from Cape Town to the "Times'* under date of Decem 

**A comet has been visible during the last few < 

which Dr. Gill says is the comet discovered by Mr. ] 

on November 17th. It is moving northward and lesj 

eastward, and is diminishing in brilliance nightly." 

C. D. Pei 
Lick Obskrvatorv, February 27. 1896. 

Comet a, 1896 (Perrine). 

The discovery of this comet was the very unusual rej 
error due to a mistranslation of a telegram received at t 
Observatory on February 14th, from Boston, giving an 
tion of Comet r, 1 895, at Kiel. Observations of Comet r, 1 
been obtained here since January 30th, and it was fou 
following its ephemeris quite closely. The morning of I 
15th (next following the receipt of the observation froi 
while observing Comet r, 1895, ^ looked up the new 
which agreed with ours in Declination, but was aboi 
minutes preceding in Right Ascension, and not far away 
new comet, moving rapidly north and east. An ob 
showed the following position: 

February 15.0839 Gr. M. T. 
a 19^ 2i'» 57.9' 
8-2° 49' I" 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 89 

From observations on February 15th, i6th, and 17th, by the 
vriter, an orbit was computed by Professor Leuschner and 
Mr. SsARES, of the University of CaHfornia, and the following 
elements obtained: 

T = 1896, January 31.79 
o) = 358° 20' 



20 "\ 

48 \ 



O = 208 48 \ Mean Eq. 1896.0 

i = 155 43 ^ 

^ = o. 5874 

The comet's apparent motion increased rapidly as it 
approached the Earth. Its nearest approach occurred on the 
25 til inst., and its apparent motion is now decreasing. 

The comet at dbcovery, on the 15th, was at least twice as 
^rigr^t as Comet r, 1895, its light being about equal to that of 
an eighth-magnitude star. It was quite large, with a decided 
condensation in the head, but no stellar nucleus could be seen. 
It ha.cla short, faint tail, which had almost disappeared a few 
comings later. 

The comet is now far enough north to be visible in the evening 
after sunset 

There b some similarity between the elements of this comet 
^^^ ^hose of 1855 I^- A series of photographs has been 
s^ur«i by Mr. A. L. Colton. 

C. D. Perrine. 
:cK Observatory, February 27, 1896. 



Brightness of Comet a, 1896 (Perrine). 

A.t the time of discovery of this comet, on February 15th, I 

estxnaated its brightness as about equal to that of an eighth-mag- 

iwtude star. Its theoretical brightness increased to about 1.32 on 

**^V>ruary 25th, since which time it has been (theoretically) 

^^creasing rapidly. On March 10.5 Gr. M. T. its brightness is 

computed to be about a 23 that at discovery. To-night I exam- 

^^ this comet for the first time in two weeks, and was surprised 

^ find it brighter than at discovery. It is certainly as bright 

^^w- ^ a seventh-magnitude star, and seems a little more con- 

^^nsed. C. D. Perrine. 

^iCK Obsbrvatorv, March 10, 1896. 



90 Publications of the 

Remarks on the Progress of Celestial Mechanics Since 
THE Middle of the Century, by Dr. George W. Hill. 

The Presidential Address delivered by Dr. George W. Hill 
before the New York Mathematical Society, on December 27th, 
1895, ^^s been reprinted in Science for March 6, 1896. Its title 
is given here, in order to call the attention of those of our mem- 
bers who are interested in celestial mechanics to a resume of its 
history since 1850 (especially to an analysis of the new methods 
of Gylden and Poincare) from the hand of a master. 

£. S» H. 

A Small Crater in Cyrillus Discovered on Liqk 
Observatory Photographs by Professor Weinek. 

Professor Weinek continues to find new craters in his enlarge- 
ments of the negatives taken at the Lick Observatory, of which 
the following may be taken as an example: 

In his enlargement of the negative taken at the Lick 
Observatory on June 27, 1895, Professor Weinek found (on 
January loth of this year) a new crater, about i.i km. =0.7 
English miles in diameter. 

M. Gaudibert (on January 20) writes: **This evening from 
five to seven o'clock I have seen, most beautifully, the craterlet 
on the top of the central mountain of Cyrillus, At five hours 
I could see only half of it, the rest being still in shadow. At seven 
hours the whole was quite plain and seen very easily with my 
260 mm. telescope. It was seen also with the six-inch aperture.** 

The map of the Moon on a scale of ten feet to the diameter, 
made by Professor Weinek by direct photographic enlargement 
from negatives taken at the Lick Observatory (and also from 
negatives taken at the Paris Observatory), is now well under way, 
some 450 enlargements being on hand. E. S. H. 

Erratum in Publications A. S. P., Vol. VIII, Page 27. 

The instruments mentioned as being made, by Mr. Saeg- 
MULLER, for the College of Notre Dame, are in fact in course of 
construction for the private observatory of Mr. Lucius Hub- 
bard, of South Bend, Indiana. E S. H. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 91 

Telescopes Making for Observing the Eclipse of 

August, 1896. 

Mr. Brashear has just completed a six-inch photographic 
lens (of forty feet focus) for the Lick Observatory, which will be 
used by Professor Schaeberle at the August eclipse in Japan. 

The University of Tokio will have an eight-inch photo- 
graphic doublet, and Dr. Charles L. Poor, of the Johns Hop- 
kins University, a four-inch doublet, both of which are intended 
for use on the same occasion. E. S. H. 

[translation.] 

Astronomical Society of Belgium, ) 
Brussels, February 19, 1896. j 

To Professor Edward S. Holden, etc. 

** I have the honor to enclose several copies of my note 
on the * Observation of Shooting Stars,* and I beg you to 
distribute them to those astronomers of the Lick Observatory 
and to those members of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 
who are interested in such work. " * . . 

Paul Stroobant. 

The Lick Observatory Collection of Portraits of 

Astronomers. 

I beg to return the sincere thanks of the Lick Observatory to 
the many astronomers and friends of the Observatory who have 
been kind enough to present their portraits to the library, in 
answer to our request. The collection is already very large, and 
it has not only a present but a permanent value. 

Respectfully, 

Edward S. Holden. 
Mount Hamilton, 1896, March 21. 

Comet 1855 H. 

This comet was discovered by Donati, at Florence, June 3, 
'^55. and independently by Dien, at Paris, and Klinkerfues, 
3f Gottingen, the following night. It remained under observa- 
tion only a short time, and not enough observations were obtained 

Copies may be had on application to the Secretary of the Lick Observatory. 



92 Publications of the 

to enable a satisfactory investigation of the elements of its orbit 
to be made. In all, about thirty observations were seoured; 
only one of them was made after June 19th. That was the 
Berlin observation of June 30th, which gave very disco rrfant 
results when compared with the ephemerides constructed firom 
elements that were based on the earlier observations. 

DoNATi computed elliptic elements, from the observatiorm s of 
June 3d, 5th, nth, and 17th, as follows: — 

T 1855 May 30.23256 Florence M. T. 



1855.0. 





(l> 


22»39' 5" 


•4 




n 


260 15 7 


.3 




TT 


282 54 12 


•7 




• 

I 


156 52 51 


.6 


log 


9 


9.7542137. 




log 


e 


9.9960301. 






a 


62.40234. 





These elements give a periodic time of 492.95 years. If 
are correct, the previous return of the comet was in 1362. "^-The 
elements of the Comet of 1362 do show considerable re^^^™" 
blance to those above, as was pointed out by Donati; but ™ 
elements of the Comet of 1362 were derived from the rouglm ^^^^ 
uncertain Chinese observations, so that very little depend^^^ 
can be placed in them. 

Shulze also computed elliptic elements of the Comet 1855 ' 
using the Berlin observation of June 30th as his sixth nof^^^^ 
place. His elements gave 14^ years as the periodic time of **^ 
comet He did not regard his elements as satisfactory, for **^ 
second, third, and fourth normal places were not well ref^^^ 
sented. I do not know of any later investigation of these ^^^ 
ments. 

In some respects, the elements of the Comets 1855 II 
1896 a are similar; in others, they are quite different, 
have retrograde motion, and their inclinations and perihel^ 
distances are nearly the same. They differ very considerably 
longitude of ascending node and longitude of perihelion. Tb 
may originally have belonged to the same family of comets; tb* 
certainly are not identical. 

These comets pass considerably within the orbit of Vem 
Venus and Mercury were both in the vicinity of the Com* 
1855 II at the time it was under observation. The least ^y&X2XiC^^^ 





Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 



93 



of" T^^nus was not very great, yet it does not seem probable that 
its p>erturbations could have changed the elements of the comet's 
arbit to any considerable extent. William J. Hussey. 

Nfarch 17, 1896. 

Nf EiRiDiAN Circle Observations of Comparison Stars. 

Tlie following star-places have been published elsewhere, in 
connection with the comet observations, and are collected here, 
that: the list of stars observed, with the numbers corresponding, 
may be complete. Other short lists have been printed in these 
PuS/icatians V, 32; and VII, 42. 

The number of the star gives the hours, minutes, and seconds 
oC Right Ascension for the epoch 190a The initials refer to the 
observer by whom the comet comparison was made. 

1894.0. 



No. 


R.A. 


Decl. 






090^46 


9^ 6* 22.73' 


+44^44'45".3 




Comet d, 1893. 


^3751 


9 37 27.77 


+42 32 16 .9 




R. H. T. 


^5954 


9 59 32.98 


+40 5 50 .2 
1895.0. 


Mag. 




OH414 


i^ 13" 59- lo' 


+ 7^ 50' 35". I 


s% 


Comet e, 1894. 


^i»738 


I 17 22.42 


+ 8 II 19 .9 


8 


£. £. B. 


OH820 


I 18 5.16 


+ 8 31 45 .5 


9% 




OI2IX3 


I 20 57.85 


+ 8 59 4 .8 
1895.0. 


9 




003045 


0^ 30" 29.58' 


+ 5° 47' 3".4 

1895.0. 


8^ 


Comet a, 1895. 
C £. B. 


^'3759 


1*37" 43-79' 


+ 4°33'36".9 


9 


Comet a, 1895. 


^14707 


I 46 51.61 


+6 I 57 .5 


9^ 


W. W. C. 


^^4915 


I 48 59- 67 


+ 6 32 47 .7 


9 




^15004 


I 49 48.34 


+ 6 45 20 .0 


8?< 




^^5153 


I 51 37.80 


+ 6 34 38 .8 


9% 




^20342 


2 3 26.85 


+ 7 55 34 .3 
1896.0. 


8)4 




^21532 


2M 5- 19.53' 


+ 9°3i'46".9 

1896.0. 


sy. 


Comet a, 1895. 
W. W. C. 


^35102 


13"* 50" 49.78' 


+ 0° 7' o".i 


sy2 


Comet c, 1895. 


^35215 


13 52 3.28 


+ 10 6 .2 


9 


R. G. A. 






« 


R. 


H. Tucker. 



Publications of the 



Statistics of Some Foreign and American Universit 
The following very instructive table is found in Nature 
January 23, 1896. At the suggestion of Dr. HoLDEN, I 1 
copied it here, changing foreign money into American curr© 
correcting a few errors of computation, and adding a line foi 
University of California, the data for which refer to the fiscal 
academic years ending July i, 1895. 














— -;i._ — 






















* 


t'^ 






SfBN 








•■z 


D«; 








Si 

5l 


% 


11 


11 




PSK Ahi 




Book* 


: 










s. 


(-° 






Pirli 


* jy-™ 


n,m 


»67 


'3^+ 


(5BO.000 


ti3,500 


p 




650.000 














vi,„„, 


6!714 


81 


159+190 


115.000 


4!650 




o-"'"'}c;i'i'... , 


318,805 


iv...&.«i 


Si 


70 4- 




16.190 


1 


C.»l,H-,.i^;I-; 


JJ7.7SO 


J,M.;',-s„„J 


SI 


B0+ 


I 


10.™ 


* 


Hirvard 


1,300,000 


3.783 












"••IP'lB 


450,™i 


>.M7 


151 


1.M+6S 


IJD.OOO 






Edinburgh 
















London 


105.0^0 










5" 




Ggrndl 




..686 




77 + So 




lAoc 


Ptdut 


IM.Ooo 


1,671 




61+60 






Gf« 


119,000 


1.561 


64 


8J+J8 


SO .000 


fii.« 












111,500 


Mc 


Bologni 
















HddXbetg 


19",ooo 


1.41a 




96+15 








Toklo 


350,000 


1,396 


151? 




115.000 






T"l>lr.fl«n 






178 


69+. S 








Dublin 
















ITrlnlly ColKgo). 
















'"".irriv." . 
















!U§.900 


1,114 








3.5S0 




Stnttburg 










130,000 


l4,7SO 




Grtlftwild. 




G91 




04+11 


65,000 






tZiiHcb 








61 +56 




(s.;; 


"■•J^n 






381 


50+' 


16S.000 








7S6 








6,850 


GiMion . 


190.000 


598 


318 


55+9 


65!ooo 


4.S00 


lohm Hopklnt . 




5S9 




11+4J 






HoUock 




4» 


190 






5.150 


St. Andrw'i. ... 


59.3*0 


199 




is+i 


50.000 


%i 


'; 



n Pror«sois and » 



Robert G. Aitke 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 95 

Index to the Vierteljahrsschrift der Astronomischen 
Gesellschaft, by General Alexis von Tillo. 

A very much-needed index to the first twenty-five volumes of 
^c V^« J- S. der Astronomischen Gesellschaft has just been made 
by General von Tillo, and issued by the Society. E. S. H. 

Elements of Comet Perrine, 1896 a. 

From Mr. Perrine's observation at the time of discovery, 
the morning of February 15th, and my observations of the morn- 
ings of February 20th and 25th, I have computed the following 
elements of Comet 1896 a: — 

T 1896 Jan. 31.77508 Gr. M. T. 

«> 358° 21' 24". 7 

O208 52 26 .1 y j8^^^ 

ir 207 13 50 .8 

i 155 45 37 .2 
log q 9.768844. 

CO-C): AV cos ff = + 2".o; A^' = - 2".o; 

tan(V- 0O 

; 7^ = 1. 060. 

sm p 

^^ ^phemeris has been computed from these elements, and 
tne ^os^ ovations made in March show the comet to be following 
It very closely. The brightness of the comet is diminishing 
rapiaiy^ and it will probably not remain visible more than two or 
^^^^ months longer. W. J. Hussey. 

^^rch 17, 1896. 

**Ahts of Faint Stars for Magnitude Comparison 

(Third Series). 

. *^^ adjoining four small charts close the set of twelve, as 

S^Hally planned for the thirty-six-inch telescope, furnishing one 

^ut each two hours of Right Ascension. Their completion 

^^n delayed, owing to the demands of other work, on the 

, ^^^y ^^w good nights that occur at the season of year when 

^/^ are in position. In order to finish them, some of the 

. ^^*ng has been done at rather large zenith distance; one of 

''^ *^ at fifty degrees zenith distance when on the meridian. 

^**1 the charts represent the reach of the thirty-six-inch tele- 



R. A. 


Decl. 


1^ 56- 


+ 2° 15' 


3 53 


— 13 49 


5 31 


— I 16 


8 41 


+ 6 49 



96 Publications of the 

scope under average conditions*; on the best nights, and dc 
the zenith, undoubtedly some few additional stars woul 
shown. As in the series previously published,* the charts i 
some bright star by two minutes, and are four minutes lo 
Right Ascension by ten minutes wide in Declination, exte 
five minutes each side of the bright star, north and south. 

These are located : 

I follows a Piscium 
II *' y Eridani 

III ** c Orionis 

IV *' c Hydra 

The set of charts was first prepared at the Harvard O 
Observatory, and stars down to the fifteen magnitude are 1 
sented by the observing done there. 

With the twenty-six-inch telescope at Washington 
additional stars were plotted, and in one of the charts the sixt 
magnitudes are completely represented. 

With the thirty-six-inch telescope the greater proporti 
stars added have been of the lowest class, sixteenth and s 
teenth magnitudes, but a number have been classed in the 
higher, fourteen and fifteen. 

In this series of four, two hundred new stars have been pi 
with the thirty-six-inch telescope, and one hundred and sev 
four have been identified of those previously noted. The; 
respectively, within the following classes: 

1 9. magnitude and brighter, 6 stars 

2 ID and 1 1 magnitude, 33 

3 12 and 13 " 54 

4 14 and 15 ** 118 

5 16 and 17 ** 163 

and one nebula. 374 stars 

These classes, used in the charts previously published, 
be taken to represent the reach of telescopes of one, three 
fifteen, and thirty-six inches. 

The combined set of twelve charts covers an area of two s< 
degrees. Since they are spaced at nearly equal intervals, 
girdle about the sky, they probably present, roughly, some 



A. S. p., Vol. V, 33. and Vol. VI, 37- 




K.H.TlCKtR Jk- I"'-- 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 97 

of the general distribution of the stars. They present a great 
variety, ranging in number of stars from 29 to 459; the average 
being 116. 

In some, there are evident tendencies towards clustering; 
others have a fairly uniform distribution. In III of this latest 
series, there is a sudden diminution in the last two minutes, 
forming a decided blank, a feature of the sky which is familiar to 
all who have had large regions under continuous observation. 

The total number of stars charted with the thirty-six-inch 
telescope is 1396; about 700 to the square degree. While this 
is not sufficient basis for expanding to the whole sky, it may 
serve to g^ive an idea of proportion. The total count gives the 
distribution in classes, as above: 

1 16 stars 

2 91 

3 192 

4 327 

5 770 

The total number of stars included, down to each type, is a 
test that has been quite thoroughly made for the brighter part of 
the magnitude scale. The various Uranometries and the several 
sections of the Durchmusterung have furnished the material for 
such count. 

For these faint stars, in this limited area, 

I per cent, are 9 magnitude, or brighter. 

O <( (< *' I I ^* ** ** 

^^<( ti '^II '* *' *' 

M^ (t It *'TC ** *' *' 

With 700 stars to the square degree, there would be about 

29 million to the 17 magnitude. 

13 ** ** " 15 
6 ** ** ** 13 

2 ** *' ** II " 

and 300,000 of the 9 magnitude. 

These figures are not far from estimates which place the ninth- 
magnitude stars between two and three hundred thousand; while 
the estimate of the photographic chart to the eleventh magnitude 
is about two millions. 

The ratio of increase in numbers, which has been found to 
hold good down to the ninth magnitude, breaks down here, as 



9^ Publications of the 

the fainter stars are included. Thus, expressing the total number 
of stars down to the magnitude m inclusive, by the well-known 
form a b^, b has been found to be 3.9 down to the ninth 
magnitude. 

It is also true for the lower grade of the Cordoba Durchmus- 
terung, as that includes a large proportion below the tenth 
magnitude. In this count of fainter stars, b drops at once below 
3: and averages 1.5 from 11 magnitude to 17 mag^tude If the 
ratio in the number of fainter stars fails to increase, it would 
appear to indicate that our telescopes are reaching the confines 
of the stellar system. And that in place of extending to greater 
depths, the smaller or less bright objects, intrinsically, within the 
limits already explored, are being brought within our ken. 
No hypothesis of this character admits of proof at present. 
If the stars are, in general, uniformly distributed, and if their 
brightness depends mainly upon their distance from us, the 
number of fainter stars should keep up the ratio. 

But we know that the brightest stars are not universally the 
nearest; and uniform distribution cannot be proved. There is 
undoubtedly great variety of size, and probably of intrinsic 
brightness. Should a count of faint stars, based upon more 
complete material, fail to show more of an increase in number 
than could fairly be assumed as due to the variety of size and 
brilliancy of the stars in regions already known, it would seem 
probable that we are penetrating no farther into space. 

R. H. Tucker. 

15-lNCH Refractor for the Observatory of 

KOENIGSBERG. 

A private letter from Professor Hermann Struve, Director 
of the Observatory, notifies that there is a prospect that the 
Koenigsberg Observatory may soon possess a refractor of 
fifteen inches aperture. E. S. H. 



Suspension OF THE *' American Meteorological Journal." 

The editors of the Americayi Metereological Journal announce 
that the publication will cease with the number for April, 1896, 
(which completes volume XII). The Journal has been carried on 
at a loss (which has been borne by the editors) and the present 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 99 

step has been decided upon because there seems to be no present 
prospect that the periodical will b^ self-supporting. 

The Journal has been of distinct benefit to science in many 
respects and a credit to its editors and to the United States. Its 
suspension is very regrettable. But it is a wise step. There is 
no reason why private persons should bear the serious expense of 
producing it. The successive editors deserve, and will receive, 
the thanks of their fellow-men of science. E. S. H. 

Errata in Star Catalogues. 

BD.— 6° 5269. This star is stated to be in Weisse's Cata- 
logue of Bessel's stars, but is not found there. 

Weisse*s Bessel I, 19** 1088. 

RuNKLE in his list of errata published in the Astronomical 

Jaumaly Vol. Ill, page 115, changes the Declination of this star. 

I used it as a comparison star in observing Comet f, 1895, and 

find that its place as given in Weisse's catalogue agrees with 

the Munich reductions of Lamont's observations of this star, 

and ako with Bessel*s original zone observations. Hence, 

RuNKLE*s correction seems to be erroneous. 

C. D. Perrine. 
Lick Observatory, March 21, 1896. 

Elements of Comet r, 1895, (Perrine). 

The following elements are based upon Mr. Perrine' s 
observations of November 17 and December 7, 1895, and March 

10, 1896, at Mount Hamilton. 

* 

T= 1895, Dec. 18.32670 Gr. M. T. 
CO = 272° 40' 23".4 -x 
0=320 30 47 .6 (.1896.0 
/= 141 36 39 .5 3 
log ^ = 9.283259 

x= r [9.963187] sin ( 35° 31' 42".i + v) 
y = r [9.996428] sin (128 42 5.4 + v) 
z = r [9.618080] sin (235 5 54 -i + v) 

Residuals for the middle place (o — c) 

COS /3 A \ =:+ i".5 A ^ = + i".9. 

R. G. Aitken. 
Lick Observatory, March 24, 1896. 



loo Publications of the 

Progress of Work on the Crossley Dome. 

The present winter has been a very open one, and it has 
possible to do a considerable amount of work on the Crossly 
Dome by choosing favorable days. A solid brick pier has \y^ef^ 
built to receive the iron mounting. A new iron base-plate to 
receive the former base-plate has been cast, and is now in place 
on the pier. Its function is to change the inclination of the 
polar-axis from that at Halifax (53° 40') to that required at Mt. 
Hamilton (37° 20'). It was made in San Francisco, under the 
direction of Messrs. Percy & Hamilton, architects. It weighs 
about 1700 pounds. 

The track is in place, bolted to the stone cap, and level. The 
rolling gear and bottom ring of the dome were placed on the 
track March 13th. The two main girders and several of the 
smaller ribs are now (March 21st) in place. In a few days the 
workmen will commence to rivet the covering on the ribs. In a 
few weeks all the heavy work of erecting the dome and mounting 
will be finished. 

It is worthy of note that the large derrick and all the necessary 

machinery have been made by the mechanics of the Observatory 

(Mr. Macdonald, machinist; Mr. Bane, carpenter,) and that the 

whole business of handling the heavy pieces and securing them 

in place has been done by the Observatory workmen, without 

employing any mechanics from the outside. 

Edward S. Holden. 
Mt. Hamilton, March 21, 1896. 

Honor Conferred on Professor Holden. 

The Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Vene- 
zuela has transmitted to the Director of the Lick Observatory 
the diploma of the Order of Bolivar ("Orden del Busto del 
Libertador"), III Class, conferred by the President of the 
Republic, February 24, 1896, for services to science. This order 
was founded by the Republic of Peru in 1825, and adopted by 
Venezuela in 1854. The decoration of the III Class is bestowed 
upon Presidents of States, and presiding officers of their legisla- 
tive assemblies; on the Rectors of the Universities; the Judges 
of High Courts of Justice, etc. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. loi 

^^>^xjTES OP THE Meeting of the Board of Directors, 

HELD IN THE RoOMS OF THE SOCIETY, MaRCH 28, 

1896, AT 7:30 P. M. 

President Burckhalter presided. A quorum was present. The 
'^^nutes of the last meeting were read and approved. The following 
''^embers were duly elected: 

List of Members Elected March 28, 1896. 

Wr. E. F. BiGELOW {5 Wave'->y Avenue. Portland. 

Mr. Henry J. Crocker 508 California St., S. F., Cal. 

Library OF THE Mechanics' Institute. 31 Post St., S. F., Cal. 
Mr. Fred. G. Plummer Tacoma, Washington. 

Mr. W. H. Devine, of Nagasaki, and Mr. A. E. Kennelly, of 
Philadelphia, were elected to life membership. 

The Library Committee recommended that copies of the Library 
Catalogue, No. 18, be sent to members who have joined the Society 
since October, 1891; and that a supplement, comprising the bound 
volumes added to the library since that date, be published and sent to 
all members. 

Also, that supplementary catalogues be published in future, from 
time to time, according to the judgment of the Library Committee. 

The following resolutions were, on motion, adopted: 

Resolved^ That the Astronomical Society of the Pacific will exchange its Publica- 

iians fox the journals named below, which are regularly sent to the library; and that 

the Committee on Publication is authorized to carry these exchanges into effect : 

Tlkr Astrophysical Journal, Chicago. Illinois; The Observatory, Greenwich, England; 

77k^ Observer, Portland, Connecticut; Strtus, Cologne. Germany. 

Resolved, That the Committee on Publication is authorized to send the PubH 
cations A. S. P. for review, to the following California periodicals, namely: The 
Overland Monthly, Call, Chronicle, Examiner, of San Francisco: the Tribune, of 
Oakland; the Times, oi Los Angeles; the Mercury, o( San Jose; the /Record- Union of 
Sacramento. 

Whbrbas, The library of the Mechanics' Institute. San Francisco, has become a 
member of the Society, to date from March 28, 1896, 

Resolved, That this name be transferred from the list of corresponding institutions 
to the list of active members. 

Adjoifmed. 



I02 Publications of the 

Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the Astronomical 

Society of the Pacific, held in the Lecture 

Hall of the California Academy of 

Sciences, March 28, 1896. 

The meeting was called to order by President Burckhalter. The 
minutes of the last meeting were approved. 

The Secretary read the names of new members duly elected at the 
Directors' meeting. 

The following papers were presented: 

1. The Address of the retiring President, by Mr. Charles Burck- 

halter, of Oakland. 

2. Reports of Committees: On the Comet-Medal; on Nominations; on 

Auditing; and Annual Report of the Treasurer. 

3. Personal Equation, by Mr. R. H. Tucker, of Mount Hamilton. 

4. Ephemeris of Comet r, 1895, by Mr. C. D. Perrine, of Mount 

Hamilton. 

5. Planetary Phenomena for May and June, 1896, by Professor M. 

McNeill, of Lake Forest. 

6. Telegraphic Announcements of Astronomical Discoveries, by Dr. 

Edward S. Holden, of Mount Hamilton. 

7. Astronomical Observations in 1894 ^"^ ^^95 ^V Mr. Torvald 

Kohl, of Odder, Denmark. 

8. A List of Some Reported Earthquakes on the Pacific Coast, by 

Mr. F. G. Plummer, of Tacoma. 

9. Observations of Mira Celt, 1895-96, by Miss Rose 0*Halloran, 

of San Francisco. 

The Committee on Nominations reported a list of names proposed 
for election as Directors as follows: Messrs. Edwards, Holden, 
HussEY, Molera, Miss O'Halloran, Messrs. Pardee, Perrine, 

PlERSON, StR INGHAM, VON GeLDERN, ZiEL. 

For Committee on Publication: Messrs. Holden, Babcock, Aitken. 

Messrs. Cushing and Percy were appointed as tellers. The polls 
were open from 8:15 to 9:00 p. m., and the persons above named were 
duly elected. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 103 

Report of the Committee on the Comet-Medal, 

Submitted March 28, 1896. 

This report relates to the calendar year 1895. The comets dis- 
covered in 1895 have been: 

Comet a: (unexpected comet, 1895, II), discovered by Dr. L. Swift, 
on August 2oth. 

Comet b: (Faye*s periodic comet, 1896, ), discovered by M. 

Javklle, at Nice, September 26th. 

Comet c: (unexpected comet, 1895, IV), discovered by Mr. C. D. Per- 
RiN£, at Mount Hamilton, November 20th. 

Comet d.' (unexpected comet, 1895, III), discovered by Mr. W. R. 
Brooks, at Geneva, N. Y., November 21st. 

The Comet-Medal has been awarded to the discoverers of Comets 
a, Cf and d, in accordance with the regulations. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Edward S. Holden, 
j. m. schaeberle, 
William J. Hussey, 

Committee on the Comet-Medal. 



I04 Publications of the 

The Treasurer submitted his Annual Report, as follows : 

Annual Statement of the Receipts and Expenditures of the 

Astronomical Societv of the Pacific for the 

Fiscal Year ending March 28, 1896. 

general fund. 

Receipts. 
Cash Balance March 31, 1895 % 406 83 

Received from dues $i*9ii 54 

** " sale of publications and reprints. 41 75 

*' ** sale of stationery i 90 

" " advertisements 8500 

'• " Security Savings Bank (interest) 04 

** *' Life Membership Fund (interest) 60 48 



$2,100 71 

Less transfer to Life Membership Fund 350 00 i»750 71 

Expenditures. 

For publications. % 865 00 

" general expenses 711 8i $1,57681 

Cash Balance March 28, 1896 580 73 



LIFE MEMBERSHIP FUND. 

Cash Balance March 31, 1895 Si«35o 61 

Received from General Fund 350 00 

" " interest 6048 



I2.157 54 



$1,761 09 
Less Interest transferred to General Fund 60 48 

Cash Balance March 28, 1896 $1,700 61 

donohoe comet-medal fund. 

Cash Balance March 31, 1895 $ 644 61 

Interest 2971 



Cash Balance March 28, 1896 $ 674 32 



ALEXANDER MONTGOMERY LIBRARY FUND. 

Cash Balance March 31, 1895 $ii793 83 

Interest 82 45 

$1,876 28 
Expended for maps and binding 18 90 

Cash Balance March 28, 1896 $1,857 38 



FUNDS. 
General Fund. Balance on deposit with Donohoe-Kelly Banking Co..$ 278 76 

" " Balance on deposit with Security Savings Bank 301 97 $ 580 73 

Life Membership Fund. Balance on deposit with San Francisco 

Savings Union ,,700 61 

Donohoe Comet-Medal Fund. Balance on deposit with San Francisco 

Savings Union gy^ ^^ 

Alexander Montgomery Library Fund. Balance on deposit with San 

Francisco Savings Union $ 891 40 

Alexander Montgomery Library Fund. Balance on deposit with 

German Savings and Loan Society. 965 98 1,857 38 



$4,813 04 



San Francisco, March 28, 1896. F. R. ZIEL, Treaiurer, 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 105 

The Committee appointed to audit the Treasurer's accounts reported 
as follows, and the report was, on motion, accepted and adopted, and 
the Committee discharged : 

To the President and Members of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific : 

Gbntlbmbn— Your Committee mppointed to mudit the accounts of the Treasurer for 
the fiscal year ending; March 28, 1896, have made a careful examination and find same to 
be correct. We take pleasure in adding that the books of the Society are neatly and 
carefully kept, and the business system excellent. 

Yours respectfully, 

D. F. TiLLiNCHAST, Chairman 
Chas. B. Hill, 
L. C. Mastbn. 

President Burckhalter then read his Annual Address. 
Mr. Tucker read a paper on Personal Equation. 

The following resolution, was on motion, adopted : 

Resolved^ That all the acts appearing in the minutes of the meetings of the Board o' 
Directors of this Society, as having been done by said Board during the past fiscal year, 
are here now by this Society approved and confirmed. 

The thanks of the Society were returned to the California 
Academy of Sciences for the use of the lecture hall. 

Adjourned. 



io6 Publications of the 

Minutes of* the Meeting of the Board of Directors 

OF THE Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 

held in the Rooms of the Society, 

March 28, 1896, at 10 p.m. 

The new Board of Directors was called to order by Mr. Burck- 
HALTER. A quorum was present. The minutes of the last meeting 
were approved. 

The business in hand being the election of officers for the ensuing 
year, the following officers — having received a majority of the votes 
cast — were duly elected : 

President: Mr. W. J. HussEV. 
First Vice-President: Mr. E. J. Molera. 
Second Vice-President: Mr. E. S. Holden. 
Third Vice-President: Mr. O. von Geldern. 
Secretaries: Messrs. C. D. Perrine and F. R. Ziel. 
Treasurer: Mr. F. R. Ziel. 

Committee on the Comet- Medal: Messrs. Holden (ex-officio), 
Schaeberle, Campbell. 

The President was authorized to appoint the various Standing Com- 
mittees of the Directors, and accordingly made the following selections: 

Finance Committee: Messrs. von Geldern, Pierson, Stringham. 
Library Committee: Miss 0*Halloran, Messrs. Molera and 

BURCKHALTER. 

The Committee on Publication is composed of: 
Messrs. Holden, Babcock, Aitken. 

It was, on motion : 

Resolved, That the Directors of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific extend to 
Mr. BuRCKHALTER their thanks for his valuable services as President of the Society. 

Adjourned. 



Asironomical Society of the Pacific. 



OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY. 

W. J. Hus5«v(t.icit ObKrviiary), 

E. J. MoLKiiA (6<« CUiy Str«<. S. F.) ... 



C. I>. Pbbhihk (LiCb! Obttm 

Sunt oy" Dirrelari—WaiT^ 
Mcun. Pkkdbi, Pbihii 



OFPICERS OF THE CKICAQO SECTION. 

t CrmmitM—Mr. RuTMvi^ W. PrK«. 

S OP THE MEXICAN SECTION. 



1 fubtcriplioDj p»id on cJcciioi, covers the eaitndar year only 5ub«quFnI anniul 
arc due no January lU of each succeeding calendar year. I'hii rule » neceuary in 
kake our book'knping ai limple as pouiblc. Due* sent by mail ihonld be directed lo 
ic*] Society of the Pacific !i9 Market Street. San FranciKO. 



iTCiem Ihe copiei of Ihe /'■'MK'afnBU oT iha Society »t«il lo then. Once each yenratii 



L^ihpiete volumci Tor pi 



nentoftwodollatc 



ibe PtiUkitiK 
fint ohich an 






icaltd to cither of the Secretaries 



The (iiiei of papera for readini should be conununicaled to eithe 
IS possible, aa well as any changes in addrcsKa. The Secretary in . 
uy member oE the Society Aoitable uationery. stamped with the seal of the Sociely.al cosi price, 
u foHows: a block of leuer paper. 40 cents; of note pa^. is cents; a package di enrelopes. is 
sntk Thes* prices inciode p«taEe> and ihould be remitted by money-order or in U. S. ptHtage 
■wan. The lending* are at (tie risk of the member. 

Those members who ptopose 10 aliend the meeiingi at Mount Hamilton during the summer 



PUBLICATIONS ISSUED BI-MONTHLY. 
(Febnutry, April, Jmu, Augiut, Octobtr, Dtcimbtr.i 






PUBLICATIONS 



OF THE 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 

Vol. VIII. San Francisco, California, April i, 1896. No. 49. 



A CIPHER-CODE FOR ASTRONOMICAL MESSAGES.* 



By Edward S. Holden. 



PRINCIPLES OF THE CIPHER-CODE. 

Table I consists of 510 cipher-words of three letters each; as Hil= 100. 

When a word of three letters occurs in a message, it signifies a local 

date; as Hil=ioo\,\i day of the year = April 10 (in common years, April 9 

in leap-years). The words of Table I are usually employed as prefixes 

to one of the five-letter affixes of Table II ; as Hilofant= \ofyj2^ making 

a numder-word. In certain (specified) cases these numbers signify 

<^egrees and minutes o( arc\ as /Itladt2e= 100° 05' (the prefix always 

gives the degrees ; the affix, the minutes). In certain other (specified) 

cases, the number- words are used to denote an accurate date (always in 

Oreenwich days and hundredths of a day); as jRokalone= 286^,15 = Octo- 

^f ^3* 3** 36" G. M. T. (in any common year). See Tables III and V. 

All number- words have eight letters. The use of Table III is ob- 
^ous. Table IV contains in the second column certain arbitrary cipher- 
^ords (each one of six letters and of two syllables) ; and, in the third 
^'umn, certain phrases or sentences, each corresponding to a single 
Cipher-word. The third column of Table IV is essentially a copy of 
'^^ II of the "Science-Observer Code." The whole table contains 
'''ore phrases than I should myself select, were the work to be done 
^ inifz^^ Table V will be found convenient. 

Any expert in cipher-codes will remark various precautions against 
?js^lces of eye and ear which have been adopted in what follows. 
*hey Have been suggested by experience in the use of the "Science- 
^oserver Code " for transmitting astronomical telegrams, and of other 
^^es Tor other uses. 

I liave to thank my colleagues at Mount Hamilton for valued advice 
^a assistance in preparing these tables. 

^c great merit of the "Science-Observer Code*' is in its system of 

^'^UKcaHoms A. S. P., Vol. VIII, page 64. 



no Publications of the 

control-words, or checks. The present code contains the same chf 
and has the additional advantages (among^ others) : 

Firsts that all the words of the telegram contain either three, six, 
eight letters (except in the case of proper names), and thus that 
cipher-words are short, and of uniform lengths. 

Second^ that all local dates (month and day only) are expressed ^ 
words of three letters. 

Thirdy that all arbitrary cipher-phrases are denoted by words of s^ 
letters. 

Fourth, that all accurate dates (G. M. T.), and all numbers, 
expressed by cipher-words of eight letters. 

The system of cipher adopted enables one to replace the first 20^^ 
(quarto) pages of the ''Science-Observer Code" by our Tables I, II, III^ 
which are printed on three (octavo) pages, thus saving much needles^^ 
turning of leaves. The rest of the present code is simply an adaptatioci* 
of the *' Science-Observer Code." Members of the Astronomical Societ)^ 
of the Pacific, and others, may find the present code convenient iom^* 
communications between themselves, and with the Lick Observatory. 





GENERAL RULES FOR ASTRONOMICAL TELEGRAMS. 

Dates. — When the date is given to the nearest day only, by a threi 
letter word from Table /, the date is always the local date of the o 
server (not of the person who sends the telegram). This avoids ambi 
uities. When the date is given to the decimal of a day, by a compou\ 
word from Tables I and II, it is always expressed in Greenwich m 
days and decimals. All days begin at noon. 

Rif^ht Ascensions, differences in R. A., motions in R. A., are alwa 
expressed in time, (thus avoiding one of the chief annoyances in the u 
of the "Science-Observer Code." See its page 10, word 5, forexampl 

Declitiations from -f 90° to — 90° are always expressed as Nan 
polar-distances. 

Positions are understood to be referred to the apparent equinox 0/ 
the date (except when otherwise especially noted in the precepts). 

N. B. — Always send the full complement of words, filling (other- 
wise) blank spaces by the words Baf (Table I), nicht (Table II), or 
voidness, zerotion, etc. 

The code is particularly useful in sending certain standard forms of 
telegrams (explained in what immediately follows), though it can ^ 
employed for any astronomical news. It will give little trouble to 
English-speaking folk; and can be used by Europeans. Finally, it is to 
be recollected that no cipher-telegram is suitable to replace a letter, or 
to convey very complex messages ; and, therefore, the telegrams n»*^* 
be made short and correct, and information that can wait (as accurate 
ephemerides, etc.) transmitted by letter. 

It may prevent mistakes to write five figures to correspond to cV'^ry 
number-word ; as, 00172 for 172, 01724 for 1724, 135® 05^ for 135® 5^, ^^ 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. m 

SEVENTEEN-WORD DISPATCH. 

Gi\-ir*iG ELEMENTS AND EPHEMERis. (See Table IV, No. 51051). 

Wor-ci No. i = Time of perihelion passage = T. 
Word No. 2 = Distance of perihelion from node = <o = 7r — O. 
\-Vord No. 3 = longitude of node = 0. 

Word No. 4= inclination (which may range from 0° to 180°) = /. 
N- B-— The elements 2, -3, 4 are referred to the mean equinox of the 
beginning of the year. 

^Vord No. 5 = perihelion distance = ^ (not log q), 
^Vord No. 6 = control-word = X the sum of the five number-words i, 
2, 3« 4, 5. 

Word No. 7 = first date of the ephemeris {Greenwich date)^ and the 
light for that date. 

Word No. 8 = First R. A. 
VVord No. 9 = First N. P. D. 
W'ord No. 10= Second R. A. I Four-day intervals are to be un- 
'^Vord No. ii=Second N. P. D. \^ derstood in the ephemeris. Po- 
Word No. i2 = Third R. A. / sitions refer to Greenwich mean 

Word No. 13 = Third N. P. D. midnight. 

Word No. 14 = Fourth R. A. 
Word No. 15 = Fourth N. P. D./ 

Word No. 16 = last date of ephemeris and light iox that date. 
Word No. IT = local mean dates of the observations on which the 
elements depend. (See Table IV, No. 51 122). 

« 

Detail of Seventeen- Word Dispatch. 

*Vord No. I. — The time of perihelion passage is given by an eight- 
letter number-word (made up of a prefix from Table I and of an affix 
from fa.ble II). This gives the day of the year and the hundredths of a 
~^' Thus T = Nov. 7^91 G. M. T. =3ii**.9i is expressed by Sinugale 
(seera.bleslandlll). 

*'^Ord No. 2. — Distance of perihelion from node, =cD = 7r— O. This 
T ff^*"^^^^ by ^" eight-letter number-word in degrees and minutes. 
X gives the degrees, Table II the minutes. Thus, (0 = 99° 34' is 
^xpres^^^j by Hikelope. 

Q ^^rd No. 3. — Longitude of node, in arc, as for word No. 2. Thus, 

\r^^ 50" is Safilade. 

W^Ord No. 4. — Inclination = I, in arc, as above. Thus, 1 = 7° 22^ is 
^^-^^<ie. 

'^rd No. 5.— Perihelion distance =^. This element is to be ex- 
P ^ss^^ jjj ynj^g Qf jjjg fourth decimal place. Thus, q= 1.1049 is Hori- 
jest. 

^Ord No. 6. — This word is inserted to enable the receiver of the 

^^^^e to be certain that the foregoing elements have been correctly 

*^^d (and translated). Errors in transmission can sometimes be 

^^^ted by its aid. It is determined by adding all the numbers cor- 

^^nding to words i, 2, 3, 4, 5, and by dividing their sum by 4* 



1 1 2 Publications of the 

N. B. — In making this addition, be careful to express such angles as 
135° f/ in the form 135.05, etc. 
Example: T = 3ii 91. 

«= 99 34. 

^ = 300 50- 
/= 7 22. 

^=110 49. 

Sum = 829 46. 
)i sum = 207 36, and the control-word is Lunendow. 
Word No. 7.— The first date for the ephemeris, and the light for that 
date. This will be expressed by a number-word of eight letters, as 
Pinafive = 2^12^. The affix (24) gives the Greenwich day corresponding 
to the first date of the ephemeris. The month itself must be inferred 
from the date of the telegram. If this is dated May 20, the first date of 
the ephemeris is May 24. The light of the comet at discovery is always 
assumed to be i.o. The prefix of word No. 7 gives the light on the 
first date of the ephemeris, expressed in units and tenths (not hundredths). 
Thus, B = 25.i. 

N. B.— If the date of discovery is not known, the light of the comet 
at the first date of the ephemeris is to be assumed to be i.o, and in this 
case (and in one other case only) the prefix to Word No. 7 will be BU, 
The other (very improbable) case is when the comet does not change 
its brilliancy between discovery and the first date of the ephemeris. 

Word No. 8.— First R. A. of ephemeris. This will be expressed by 
a single number-word of eight letters; as J/<7y«W2r^= 23162, which is to 
be read as 23*» 16™. 2; i. e.^ the three figures on the right always express 
minutes and tenths of minutes of time^ and the remaining figures, hours 
of R. A. (o*' 7".o should be written oooyo= Ba/ocean ; n^ o™.o should be 
written 1 1000 = Hornicht ). 

o". I is the most convenient unit for R. A. positions in an ephemeris 
sent by ttUxraph, The object will always fall in the field of the eye- 
piece employed for comets. It is entirely unnecessary to give the R. A. 
to i^ of arc. 

Word No. 9.— First N. P. D. This will be given by a number- word 
of eight letters, which corresponds to degrees and minutes of arc. Thus, 
5 = 46° 56^ or N. P. D.=43° o\' ^ Ditadieu, (S= — 47** 5i' = N. P. D. 
nt l\' ' JolilantY 

Word No. 10.— Second R. A. \ 

Word No. ii.-SecondN.P.D. I ^""^ ^'" ^® expressed by a 

Word No. 12. -Third R. A. I number-word of eight lettere. 

Word No. iv-Third N. P. D. f Pf^c'sely as for words No 8 and 

Word No. i4.-Fourth R. A. ^o. 9. correspondrng to four-d^ 

Word No. 15. - Fourth N. P. D.^ 'nervals in the ephemeris. 

Word No. 1 6. —Last date and light of the ephemeris. This, like 

Word No. 7. will be expressed by a number-word of eight letters ; as 

Sit^dize-^\v^^. The day of the month is 05, and must correspond 

(see Word No. 7) to June 5. since the last date of the ephemeris is 

tweh'C davs later than the first (May 24), which constitutes a rough 

iH>ntrol. B=3i.2. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. ii3 



Word No. 17.— Local mean date of first observation {prefix), and 
interval in days between the first and second observations (first figure 
of affix-) ^ and between the second and third observations (second figure 
of affix-). The cipher-word will be a number- word of eight letters; as 
Juneting^ = 14741. The first observation was on May 27 (147*), if the year 
vras not a leap-year; the second observation was four days later (May 
31) ; the third observation was one day later (June i). 

N. B. — Should any interval be greater than nine daySy write the 
word nicht as the affix. Thus, Junnicht= 14700 indicates that the first 
observation upon which the orbit is based was made on May 27 (147**), 
and that at least one of the intervals between the first and second, and 
second and third observation, is greater than nine days — and thus, that 
the ephemeris is likely to be accurate. See Table IV, No. 51 122. 

Example : Elements and ephemeris of Comet Pechule, 1880, (from 
"Science-Observer Code," page 8). N. B.— 1880 is a leap-year. 



I. 
2. 

3- 
4- 

5. 



ELEMENTS. I. 

T=Nov. 9.62 G. M. T. = 3 14 62 = Sod'irize, 
io = 13® 21 01321 = Bit-aship, 

n = 249° 39' 249 39 = Pik-eroon, 

i = 60° 41 ' 060 4 1 = Faf-eting, 

^=0.6775 067 Js = Fa2-ogtve, 

Sum, 705 38 
% sum, 176 ^^ = Kul-ehpe, 



II. 
(Manceps). 
(Aguijoso). 
(Hellhag). 
(Bifidate). 
(Bostezante). 

(Efforts). 



7. 
S. 

9- 
o. 

I. 

2. 

3- 
4. 

5. 
6. 

7. 



EPHEMERIS. 

Jan. 7 = 7; Brightness = i .0, 01007 = Bilaflow, 

R. A. 2o*» 32"".4 207,2^ = Lud-ative, 

N. P. D. 67° 10^ o^-j 10 = FaZ'ag low, 

R. A. 20'* 49". 9 2o^<)() = Lu/'useep, 

N. P. D. 65° 29^ 06529 = Far-egate, 

R. A. 21^ 6". 9 . 2io6()= Ma/-oblal, 

N. P. D. 63° 56^ o62,s^ - Fan-inary, 

R. A . 21^ 23". 4 2 1 234 = Mal-elope, 

N. P. D. 62° 32^ 06232 = Fal-ejekt, 

Jan. 19=19; Brightness = 0.66, 007 19 = ^fl^r-tfwj^. 

First observation, 

Dec. 18 = 353* 

Second observation, \^^^»q. t-.,,/ .-/v./,/ 

Dec. 22=4* later ^35348= Tud-ifold. 

Third observation, I 

Dec. 30=8* later y 

Column I gives the required message expressed by the present code. 
It is pure jargon, arranged on a systematic plan. The telegrapher and 
the receiver (over a telephone-wire especially) must pay attention 
throughout, and every word w//5/ contain eight letters, neither more nor 
less. Column II gives the same message expressed in the "Science- 
Observer Code.'* I submit that its jargon has all the disadvantages of 
Column I, and that it has others peculiar to its own fundamental system. 
The message as in Column I can be written with one opening of the 
book, and in a very much shorter time than that in Column II. In 






(Breastwork). 
(Macropod). 
(Bordadora). 
(Malhetada). 
(Bochista). 
(Manifatura). 
(Blanquero). 
(Marooned). 
(Bisneto). 
(Enviscar). 



(Nagueres). 



114 Publications of the 

practice, the form on the left of the page is first prepared ; next, the pre- 
fixes are entered from Table I, and, lastly, the affixes from Table II. 



SIX-WORD POSITION-MESSAGE. 

All such messages, and only such, begin unlh the name of a tnonth. 

Following is a scheme of a six-word position-message, which is well 
adapted to send either an accurate or an approximate position. 

Word No. I.— Month of the date of the observation (in English; as 
January). 

Word No. 2. — A number- word of eight letters, giving the Greenwich 
day and thousandths of a day. Thus, »S'/^-^riWJ= 30989 = 30**. 989 G. M. T. 
(day begins at noon). 

Word No. 3. — A number-word of eight letters, which gives the hours, 
minutes, and the tens of seconds of time of the position in R. A. Thus, 
MUodate=22yji = 22'» 37™ i_!. 

Word No. 4. — A number- word of eight letters, which gives the 
N. P. D. to the next less i^\ as Kinarine= 161° 2C/. 

Word No. 5. — A number-word of eight letters, which gives — Jirstf 
the fourth decimal of the day (date) ; second, the units and the tenths of 
seconds of time (R. A.) ; third, the seconds of arc (N. P. D.). Thus. 
Rif-eroon = 2'j%2i9y meaning o**.ooo2 (to be added to the data of Word No. 
2, making the date 3o*.9892). and 7'.8 in R. A. (to be added to the data 
of Word No. 3, making the R. A. 22'' 37" i7".8), and 39^^ in N. P. D. (to 
be added to the data of Word No. 4, making the N. P. D. 161® 20^ 39"). 

Word No. 6. — A number-word of eight letters, used as a control, and 
representing one-fourth of the sum of words 2, 3, 4, and 5. 

N. B.— To send an approximate position, proceed precisely as above, 
except that Word No. 5 must be replaced by the arbitrary cipher-word, 
Nearness, which shows the receiver that an approximate place is in- 
tended. 

N. B.— See Table IV, No. 51121. 



THIRTEEN-WORD MESSAGE. 

ANNOUNCEMENT OF A DISCOVERY. 

N. B. — Always fill up the full complement of words. The six-word 
message will find its application here. 

Word No. I.— Phrase- word (Table IV) of six letters and two sylla- 
bles, naming the object discovered ; as bushel = A comet was discovered 
by at on . 

Word No. 2.— Discoverer's name; if unknown, put guest ion. 

Word No. 3.— Discoverer's station ; if unknown, put unknown. 

Word No. 4. — Date of discovery ; if unknown, put nix. 

If the day of discovery (only) is known, Word No. 4 will be of three 
letters; as November 20, local date (common year) = 324* = ^«/"/ other- 
wise, of eight letters, giving: the Greenwich day and hundredths of a 
day ; as Su/-egate = 7,24'^. 2g G. M. T. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 115 

Words Nos. 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10. — Six-word position-message, exactly as 
above (words of eight letters from Tables I and II). 

Word No. II. — Daily motion in R. A. in seconds of time, which will 
always be given by a number-word of eight letters ; as Dilatrip = ^o7$*. 

N. B. — If unknown, write voidness. 

Word No. 12, — Daily motion in N. P. D. in minutes and tenths of 
minutes* (not degrees and minutes) of arc, which will always be given 
by a number-word of eight letters, as Bak-imany = i^.^\ 

N. B. — If unknown, wnie zero/ ion. 

Word No. 13.— Direction of motion in R. A. and N. P. D. Send one 
of the five words (from Table IV) following : 

dee//e=ihe daily motions are north and west. 

beggar^ the daily motions are north and east. 

behave =-\h^ daily motions are south and west. 

behest^ the daily motions are south and east. 

^^rcwf^= the daily motions are unknown both in amount and direc- 
tion. 

N. B. — Always fill up the full complement of thirteen words. They 
are sometimes unnecessary, it is true ; they always cost slightly more 
than eight or ten ; but if all the information can be sent it is important; 
and if any item of it is unknown that fact should be explicitly stated. 



Example of Announcefnent of Discovery Message. 

The message to be sent is : "A faint comet was discovered by Bar- 
nard at Nashville on October 14. Its position October 15 at 9** 30" 15" is 
R. A. 2'* 27" i3".5, N. P. D. 27° 13^ 23'^. Its daily motion in R. A. is 
(—72-), and in N. P. D. (—SO- 

Word I = Phrase-word, Table \\ = Butter {^o. 51082). 

Word 2 = Discoverer's name = Barnard. 

Word 3 = Discoverer's station = Nashville. 

Word 4 = Date October 14 = 287'' (not leap yezx) = Rol. 

Word 5 = October = October. 

Word 6 = 15'' 9'' 30" 15'= 15.396 {o) = Kan-upate. 

Word 7 = R. A. 2* 27" \-—*-o22'ji-BoZ'Odate. 

Word 8 = N. P. D. 27° 13^ (27,' ') =02-717, = Bun-alist. 

!= Fourth decimal of the day = o 
= Seconds of R. A. a'-S =035 \. ^Daration. 
= Seconds of N. P. D. 23^^ =00023 
Aggregate = 03523 
Word 10. — Control- word = Duz-ogoon. 
Formed thus : 15396 

02271 
02713 

Sum, 23903; j^ sum = 05976. 



•The tenths, not necessar>' here, are used so as to be consistent with Table IV, 
No. 51029, where they are necessarj'. 



ii6 



Word II.- 
Word 12. 
Word 13." 



Publications of the 

-Daily motion in R. A. = — 72*= Baf-ofant, 
-Daily motion in N. P. T>. = —<^\o= Baf-oluie. 
-The motion is north and v/tst= beetle, 

REMARK. 



The control-words in the various messages can be employed to cor- 
rect errors of transmission as well as to detect their existence. 



SHORT INDEX TO TABLE IV. 



Aberration and Parallax . . 5 
Auxiliary Constants .... 5 

Bonn DM 5 

Brightness 5 

C.G.H. DM 5 

(C-0)= 5 

Catalogues of Stars and 

Nebulae 5 

Charts of Stars(photographic)5 

Colored Stars 5 

Comets (Orbits of) 5 

'* (Spectra of) .... 5 

Computer 5 

Constants (Auxiliary) .... 5 

Control-words 5 

Cordoba DM 5 

Correspondence -J ^ 

Daily Motions 5 

Dates 5 

Discovery \^ 

Distance 5 

DM. Stars (Catalogues) . . 5 

Elements 5 

Elliptic Elements 5 

Ephemeris 5 

Ephemeris (Var. Star) ... 5 

Error 5 

Exchange of Signals .... 5 

Greenwich Time 5 

Longitude Campaign .... 5 

Magnitudes (Stars) . . . . j ^ 

Map of Moon (Schmidt's) . . 5 

Maps of Stars 5 

Maximum (Var. Stars) ... 5 

Meteors 5 

Minimum (Var. Stars) ... 5 
Miscellaneous 5 



215 
070 

001 

196 

004 

072 

001 
007 
184 

033 
166 

122 

070 

296 

005 

105 
248 
023 
000 

079 
120 
022 
001 

033 
071 

042 

129 

268 

239 
000 

239 

147 
190 

158 
007 

129 

140 

130 

190 





Mistake 51262^^ 

Moon (Changes in its Surface)5ii5^ ^ 
" (Photographs) .... 510a 
'* (Schmidt's Map of) . . 5111 

Motion (Daily) 5103 

Nebulae (Catalogues of) . . 5i( 
New Stars 511: 

Observations 15!!^! 

Observatories 5121 

Observer 511^ 

Occultations 5115 

Orbits— 5^^ Elements, etc. 
Parallax and Aberration . .5121; 

Photographic Maps 5100^ 

Photographs 5117^ 

" (°f Moon) . . { SJ^r 

Position (a R. A., etc.) . . .51012 

Position Angle 51021 

Radiant Point 51 142 

Red Stars 51 189 

Spectroscopy 51 162 

Stars (Catalogues of) .... 51001 

(Colored) 51184 

(Magnitudes of) .... 51 147 

(Maps of) 51007 

(New) 51124 

(Red) 51189 

(Spectra of) 51162 

(Variable) 51 123 

Sun (Comets near) 51153 

" (Spectrum of ) 51162 

** (Spots on) 51 149 

Time 51000 

Transit of Objects over the 

Sun? 51151 

Variable Stars 51 123 

Visible to Naked Eye .... 51202 
Weather 51232 



(* 



(( 



(( 



<< 



C( 



(( 



l( 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 117 



Phrases, TABLE IV. Arbitrary Cipher-Code. 

It is sometimes convenient, and it always saves expense, to have a 
^se-code in which arbitrary words in the telegram stand for whole 
'tences in the translation. 

In my opinion, such tables are generally too long. 
The following table is essentially a copy of the ** Science-Observer 
e" sentences (and precepts), with different cipher-words, however, 
ry cipher-word belonging in this table has two syllables and six let- 
; no more, no less. I have added a few needed phrases. 
!£ach word in Table IV is numbered, as babble =^\ooo. By previous 
agreement between two correspondents the cipher-words (second 
column), may be used to transmit the numbers in the first column. The 
bl^ixik spaces in the third column can be filled in, by agreement, as new 
iwaxits arise. 



1^0. 



51000 



51001 

51002 

51003 
51004 
5 1005 

51006 



51007 



Cipher- 
Word. 



babble = 



baboon = 

badger = 

ballad = 
ballot = 
bandit = 

banyan = 



banker = 



Corresponding Phrase. 



The exact Greenwich mean time (day begins at 
noon) is or was 

N. B. — The time is to be expressed in days and decimals of 
a day. Example: Babble Roneglet=the G. M. T. is 288^.30 = 
Oct. 15* i^ i2«. Babble Roneglet Bodakute=Oct. 15* 7* 12" i2«.2 

(-|-0*.0OOI412). 

The object is in the Bonn DM. (between +90° 
and 4-0° Decl.). 

The object is in the Bonn DM. (between 0° and 
— 23° Decl.). 



The object is in the C. G. H. [photographic) DM. 
The object is in the Cordoba (visual) DM. 



N. B — The Cipher- words for DM. stars will be followed by 
two n umber- woras. 

First.— 'The prefix to the first word gives the Decl. of the 
zone. (See the top of the page in the DM.). 

Second.— 'K\\e. affix to the first word gives the magnitude of 
the star, in tenths of a magnitude, where 9.9 is assumed to be the 
magnitude of every star fainter than 9.8. 

Ihird. — The second word gives the star's number in its zone. 
Thus, if there were a Bonn DM. star of 9.6 mag. — \t* Decl., 
No. 4417 in that zone, we could denote it by 

badger, bitupate dodamope. 

13» 96 4417 

The object is on the photographic plates taken at the 

Observatory of 

N. B. — The cipher-word is followed by the name of the ob- 
servatory; as Harvard, Paris, Naples. 



Ii8 



Publications of the 



No. 

51008 
51009 

51010 



ClPHKR- 
VVORD. 



5IOII 
5IOI2 

5IOI3 
5IOI4 
5IOI5 



51016 
5IOI7 
5IOI8 

5IOI9 

51020 
5IO2I 
51022 
51023 

51024 

51025 

51026 

51027 

51028 



51029 



barber = 
barley = 

barrel = 



barrow = 
barter = 

basely = 

bashaw = 

basket = 



bathos = 

battle = 

bawble = 

beaccm = 

beater = 
beauty = 
beaver = 
become = 

beetle = 

beggar = 

behave = 

behest = 

behold = 



CORRBSPONDINC PHRASB. 



behoof= 



The object is not on the negatives taken at- 



The object is in Dreyer^s Nezu General Cataiogt^* 
Nebulce^ No. (if followed by a number-wo: 

The object is in Dreyer's Index- Catalogue of 

ulce, 1888-94, No. (if followed by a num. 

word), 

N. B —The cipher-word may be followed by a number-woi 
eight letters, which gives the number of the object in the <: 
logue referred to. 



The object follows the (star) next named by- 
seconds of time (prefix;. 

The object precedes the (star) next named by- 
seconds of time (prefix). 

The object is north of the (star) next named by 
minutes of arc (affix). 

The object is south of the (star) next named by- 
minutes of arc (affix). 

N. B —Two of the cipher- words will be followed by a nuKxa" 
word whose prefix gives A R. A,, and whose affix g^ves A S- 

N. B.— Name the comparison star afterwards. For ^-^ 
positions, sec page 114. 

and is north-preceding {the object next named ir^ 

message). 

and is north-following {the object next named ir^ 
message). 

and is southfollowing {the object next named f>r 

message). 

and is south-preceding {the object next named if* 

message). 

the position with reference to 

the position angle is (number-word; deg.andmd 

the distance is (number-word; seconds of arcy - 

The daily motions are unknown both in amount ^ 
direction. 

The daily motion of the comet {or object ) is towcz 
north and west. 

The daily motion of the comet {or object) is tower 
north and east. 

The daily motion of the comet {or object) is towcf 
south and west. 

The daily inotiopi of the comet {or object) is iowcr 
south and east. 

The amount of the daily motion in R. A. is {in - 

onds of time). 
N. B.— The cipher-word is to be followed by a numbcr-i»r 
always of eight lellers. which expresses the daily motion in- 
onds of time. This will always be less than 50999*. 

The amount of the daily motion in N. P. D. is 

minutes and tenths of minutes of arc). 
N. B.— The cipher word is to be followed by a nuraber-i»r^ 
always of eight letters, which expresses the daily motio 
N. P'. D in mmutes and tenths of minutes of arc. This 
he less than 5<x>9'.9. 



?f 
A- 



of 



.Ct 



^\ 






in 

£11 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 119 



1^0. 



51030 
5103 1 

51032 
51033 
5103^ 
51035 
51036 
51037 

51038 
51039 

51040 
51041 

51042 
51043 
51044 
51045 

5104S 
5 1 047 

5104.S 
5104.Q 

5^030 

Srosx 

or 



5r 

5r 

5r 

51 

51 

51 
5tc>^ 

5^ 
5^ 



Cipher- 
Word. 

1 


(See 51071). Corresponding Phrase. (See5ii22). 


beldam = 




belfry = 




bellow = 




belong = 


The elements of Comet a are (See 51068). 


bemoan = 


The elements of Comet b are 


benign = 


The elements of Comet c are 


bestir = 


The elements of Comet d are 


betake = 


The elements of Comet e are 


betray = 


The elements of Comet fare 


better = 


The eletnents of Comet g are 


bewail = 




beware = 


• 


beyond = 


The ephemeris of Comet a follows. 


bicker = 


The ephemeris of Comet b follows. 


biffin = 


The ephemeris of Comet c follows. 


billet = 


The ephemeris of Comet d follows. 


billow = 


The ephemeris of Comet e follows. 


binder= 


The ephemeris of Comet f follows. 


bisect = 


The ephemeris of Coiuet g follows. 


bitter = 




blazon = 




bobbin = 


The elements and ephemeris of Comet a follow. 


bodice = 


The elements and ephemeris of Comet bfollozv. 


bodkin = 


The elements and ephemeris of Comet c folloiv. 


bolter = 


The elements and ephemeris of Comet d follow. 


bonnet = 


The elements and ephetneris of Comet e follow. 


border = 


The elements and ephemeris of Comet f follow. 


borrow = 


The elements and ephemeris of Comet g follow. 


bother = 




bottle = 




bounty = 


An ephemeris of three positions at four-day intervals. 


boxing = 


An ephemeris of four positions at four-day intervals. 


boyish = 


An ephemeris of six positions at four-day intervals. 



I20 



Publications of the 



No. 

51063 
51064 
51065 
51066 
51067 
51068 



Cipher- 
Word. 



51069 
51070 



51071 



brandy = 
brassy = 
brawny = 
breezy = 
brewer = 
briber = 



bridal = 
broken = 



brutal = 



51072 


bubble = 


.SI073 


bucket = 


51074 


budget : 


51075 


buflrer= 



CORRBSPONDING PHRASB. 



An ephemeris 0/ eight positions at four-day intervals. 
An ephemeris 0/ three positions at eight-day intervals. 
An ephemeris of four positions at eight-day intervals. 
An ephemeris of six positions at eight-day intervals. 
An ephemeris of eight positions at eight-day intervals. 



Compare the elements sent you with those of the 

Comet of . (See Publ. A. S. P., No. 50). 

N. B.— The cipher-word is followed by a number. word of eight 
letters. 

/"lyjA— Write out the number corresponding. 

Second.— Q.}x\, oft the last figure, which gives the number of the 
comet in the year. 

yAirrf.— The first four figures give the year A. D. 



The auxiliary constants for the equator to be used in 

computing an ephemeris are as follows: 

N. B.— The cipher-word will always be followed by seven 
number-words ot eight letters, the first six representing a be, 
A, B, C, in the equations. 

x = rsinasin (A+v) 
y = r sin d sin (B-fr) 
z = r sin c sin (C + v) 
The angles are expressed in degrees (corresponding to the 
prefix) andminutes (the figures of the affix always represent the 
minutes). 

The seventh number- word is a cont rol- word, and represents 
one-fourth of the sum of the preceding six words. 

Example: a = 81'=' 21'. b = ^(P 23'» <:=i6° 20'. A=i7o° 41', B = 
262° 17', = 49'"* 11' would be represented by 

broken 

1. Fnyaship =081 21 

2. Fokation =076 23 

3. Bokarme =016 20 

4. Koreting = 170 41 

5. Pozamope =262 17 

6. Dopakold =049 II 

One-quarter of (655 33) = 163 83 = Kiiomous^ 
which is the control -word. 

These are elliptic elements which folio w: 

N. B.— The cipher-word will be followed by two number- 
words of eight letters. The first gives the eccentricity {e) to the 
nearest fourth decimal place ; the second gives the periodic time 
expressed in years and hundredths of a year. 

The deinaiion (C—O) of the middle place when + in A 
and -f '" fi is 

The deviatiou (C—O) of the middle place when -|- in \ 

and — in y3 is 

The deviation {C—O) of /he middle place when — in \ 

and -\- in 3 is 

The deviation [C — O) of the middle place when — in \ 

and — /;/ ji is 
N. B. — The cipher-words will be followed by a number- word 
of eight letters, the first three figures of which give A A cos fi, 
and the last two figures of which give Aj8, both expressed in 
minutes and tenths of arc. 

A A cos /3 A /3 

Example : 1 C—O) = — iS'.S — o'.6 is expressed by 

buffer Li fa dote 

i^ 06 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 121 



Wo- 



5107^ 



CiPHBR-WORD. 



5i< 



510S0' 

510B2 
51033 
51084. 
51085 



bullet = 

T. Add to buUet the word bubble 
forAR.A.+,AN.P.D.+; (C— O). 

2. bucket for AR.A.+, AN.P.D — 

3. budget for AR.A.— , AN.P.D.+ 

4. buJB^er forAR.A.—, AN.P.D — 



5 



5 loss 
5i< 



51 
51 



bunker = 
burden = 



bushel = 

buskin = 

hustle = 

butter = 
byword = 
dagger = 
damage = 



damask = 

damsel = 

danger = 
dapple = 



dawdle = 
dazzle = 



CORRBSPONDINC PHRASB. 



The ^sition of the observed place 
Tvtth reference to the preatcled 
place {C—O) is, approximately, 

N. B. — The cipher-word will be followed 
by a cipher-word (see adjacent column) and 
by one number- word of eight letters. The 
affix eives (C— O) in R. A. expressed in 
seconds of time. 

The prefix gives (C— O) in north polar 
distance expressed in minutes and tenths of 
minutes of arc. 

The {C—0) is not known. 

The physical appearance of the ob- 
ject ts as follows: 

N. B.— The cipher-word will be followed 
by English words describing the appearance 
as "bright," 'circular," '^arge, etc., as 
desirab 



ign 
fe. 

A comet was discovered by- 
at . on . 



A bright comet was discovered by 
, at , on . 

A very bright cmnet was discovered 
by , at , on . 

A faint comet was discovered by 
, at , on . 

A very faint comet was discovered 
by , at , on . 

A planet was discovered by , 

at , on . 

A planet fainter than ij mag. was 
discovered by , at , on 



N. B.— The cipher-word will be followed 
by three words giving i°; name of discov- 
erer 2°) his station 3°) a date-word of three 
letters from Table I (the day is expressed 
in local mean time (day begins at noon). 

A comet was found on the negatives 
of . 

A planet was found on the negatives 
of . 



The periodic comet of 

observed by , at- 



•has been 
. on 



N. B.— The cipher-word is followed by 
four words giving 1°) name of comet 2°) 
observer 3°) his station 4°) date-word of 
three letters (the day is expressed in the 
local mean time of the observer). 

Possibly a comet. 
Probably a comet. 



Publications of the 



NO. 


ClPHBB- 




5109a 


deacoti - 


Not a comet. 


51093 


dealer = 


Possibly a planet. 


SI094 


debase = 


Probably a piatul. 


51095 


debater 


Possibly a nelmla. 


SI096 


decree - 


Probably a nebula. 


51097 


deface = 


The comet was looted for, but not found. (See 51333). 


51098 


defects 


TJie planet u/ai looked for, but not found. (See 51333). 


51099 


defend = 


Please observe markings of. (Mercury, Venus, 


51 100 


defile^ 


(Greenunch dole). 


51101 


dejecta 


Please ohstne (photograph) changes in the tail of 


51101 


deluge = 


Please obsmt ekatiges in the head of Comet 

inow in progress). 


51103 


dental = 


Bright projedion on Mars' terminator at (Green- 

u-ith daU). 


51104 


depend = 




51105 


depict = 


Please send by mail an observation of as early a daU 

in the year as you can. 


51106 


deploy = 


in the year as you can. 


51107 


depose = 


Please send by mail any observation. 


5110S 


depute = 


Please send by mail two observations. 


51109 


deride = 


Please send by mail three observations. 


5" 10 


desert = 


Please send by mail rltuunls and ephemeris. 


51111 


design = 


Mease ItlcErapli an obseri'ation of as early a date in 


511" 


desist = 


Please tcksraph an observation of as late a date in the 


51113 


despot = 


Please telegraph any observation. 


51114 


detail = 


Please telegraph tu-o observations. 


51115 


detect = 


Please telegraph three observations. 


51116 


detests 


PU-ase telegraph anydatayou can. 


SI "7 


device = 


Please telegraph elements. 


Sni8 


devoid = 


Please telegraph ephe'meris. 


SI119 


devour - 
differs 


Please telegraph elements and ephemeris. 


511*3 




51121 


digests 




SI 133 


dilate = 


Was computed by {at , on ). 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 123 



No. 

^1 ■■ - 

51123 
51124 

51125 
51126 



51127 
51128 
51 129 
51130 



51131 
51132 

51 133 

51 134 



5 1 135 

51 136 

5 "37 

51 138 

5"39 
51 140 

51141 
5"42 



Cipher- 
Word. 



dimple = 
dipper = 
direct = 

disarm = 



dismal ■ 
distil = 
divert = 
divine = 



CORRBSPONDING PhRASB. 



docile = 
doctor = 
dollar = 
domain = 



dotage = 
dragon = 
dreamy = 
dressy = 
drivel = 
drover = 
duster = 

fabric = 



A variable star was found on the negatives of- 
A new star was found on the negatives of 



The zariabiliiy of the star (object) was discovered by 
(at , on ). 



(at- 



on 



A new star was discovered by 

). SeeNo. 51144. See Nos. 51 147-8. 

N. B. — The two cipher-words just preceding will be followed 
by three words i°) the discoverer's name 2°) his station 3°) a date- 
word of three letters from Table I (the day should be expressed 
in local mean time of observer). 

Possibly this object is variable. 

Probably this object is variable. 

The epoch of maximum and period are 

The epoch of minimutn and period are 

N. B.— The two foregoing cipher-words will be followed i*)by 
a number- word, which will give the epoch in Greenwich days 
and hundredths of a day, and 2^) by a number-word, which will 
give the period in days and hundredths of a day. 

A minimum, occurred on 



A mintmum^ ztnll occur on- 
A maximum occurred on- 



A maximum will ouur on- 



N. B.— These cipher-words will be followed by 1°) a date-word 
of three letters giving the local mean day, or 2°) by a number- 
word of eight letters giving the day and hundredth of a day 
(G. M. T.). 

The epoch and period are not known. 

The period is short. 

The period is long. 

The variable is of the Algol type. 

The variable is of the Eta Aquila type. 

A shower q/" meteors is now in progress. 

A shower of meteors will probably occur (Greenwich 
date). 

The radiant is or was . 



N. B. — The cipher- word will be followed by two number- 
words, giving x**) R. A. in hours, minutes, and tenths of minutes ; 
a**) N. P. D. in degrees and minutes. 



124 



Publications of the 



No. 



51143 



51144 

51 146 

51 147 

51 148 



Cipher- 
Word. 



facile = 



factor = 
falcon = 
fallow = 
famish = 

father = 



CORRSSrONDING PHRASB. 



5 1 149 


fathom: 


51150 


fatten = 


51151 


faulty = 


51152 


feeble = 


51153 


feline = 


51 154 


fencer = 


51155 


fender = 


51 156 


ferret = 


51157 


fetter = 



The variation in tnagnitude is . 

N. B.— The cipher-word will be followed bv a number-word of 
eij^ht letters i**) the first three places ^ve the max. brightness 
in mags, and tenths 2*') the last two places (mags, and tenths) 
added to the max. brightness give the minimum brightness 
in mags, and tenths). 

Example: The variability of BD+i**, 3406 was discovered bv 
Sawvrr, at Cambridge, February 17 (local date). The epoch 
of minimum is July 17, 15^ 45* G. M. T., and the period is o* ao^. 
The variation of mag. is from 6.0 to 68. The variable is of the 
Algol type. These facts are expressed as follows: 

Direct The variability of the star was disc, by . 

Sawyer 
rati {.Cambridge) 
[on] Don [The date of discovery is P^. 17=48* ] 

baboon [The star is in the B. D., north of o*'.] 

BakiptUt [DecL + i^, mag. 6.0.] 

Dapafras I The number in the zone 3408.] 
IThe epoch of minimum w .] 



fc 



Divine 

Lonitous 

Ba/omous 

Facile 

Fafafras 

Dressy 



\ 



July 17, 15* 45"= 198*.^) 
The period is 0^.83] 



The variation in brightness is ,\ 

The max. brightness is 6.0. the min. 6.8.] 
|The variable is of the Algol type,\ 

N. B.— Be careful to give similar messages in this precise order. 
Has suddenly appeared. 

Will appear in the Northern Hemisphere. • 

Will appear in the Southern Hemisphere. 

The magnitude is as follows {when brighter than 

J 0.0 mag.). 

The magnitude is as follows [when fainter than 

1 0.0 mag.). 

N. B.— The cipher-words will be followed by a number-word, 
or by several number-words each of eight letters. Each number^ 
word is to be written out in figures. The first three figures 
represent the day of the year (G. M. T.). The last two figures 
give the mag. directly (when the star is brighter than 10), or they 
give the (mag.— lo.o) in case the cipher-word is "father." 

There is a large^ or remarkable^ spot on the sun. 

There is a remarkable protuberance on the sun. (See 
No. 51021). 

There seems to be an inter-mercurial planet on the sun. 

There seems to be a comet on the sun. 

A bright comet is near the sun. (See 51012, etc.). 



Please observe a probable occultation by Comet 

(G. M. T.). 

The planet next named will occult a star on (Green- 
wich date). 

Please observe an occultation on (Greenwich 

date). 

Changes in the Moon's surface are reported by . 

(See 51158-61). 



Astronomical Society of the Pcuific. 125 



No. 


CiPHBR* 

Word. 


5 "58 


fickle = 


5^59 


fidget = 


51160 


fillet = 


51161 


finder = 


51 162 


finger = 


51163 


finite = 


51164 


fisher = 


5"65 


flaj^on = 


51 166 


fiashy= 


5"^ 


fiaxen = 


51168 


flinty = 


51169 


floral = 


5>i7o 


flower = 


5"7i 


fluent = 


51 172 


flurry = 


5"73 


foment = 


51 174 


forage = 


5"75 


forger = 


51 176 


formal - 


5"77 


fossil = 


5"78 


freely = 


5"79 


frenzy = 


51180 


frigid = 


51181 


frolic = 


51182 


frosty = 


51183 


frugal = 


51184 


fuller= 


5ii»5 


fumiel = 


51186 


furrows 



Corresponding Phrase. 



The object is oti Schmidt* s lunar map tn +A and +/5, 
The object is on Schmidt* s lunar map in +A and — )3, 
The object is on Schmidt* s lunar map in — A and +)3, 

The object is on Schmidt* s lunar map in —\ and — )3. 

N. B.— If cipher-words 51158-51161 are followed by a number- 
word, Wi^prefix gives A, the affix ^, expressed in degrees. 

The spectrum is continuous. 

The spectrum is nortnal. 

The spectrum is moftochromatic. 

The spectrum is peculiar. 

The spectrum is like that of a comet. 

The spectrum is like that of a nebula. 

The stellar spectrum is type I (Secchi), 

The stellar spectrum is type II (Secchi), 

The stellar spectrum is type III (Secchi), 

The stellar spectrum is type IV (Secchi). 

The stellar spectrum is type (Wolf-Rayet). 

The hydrogen lines ate bright. 

The hydrogen lines and Ds arc bright. 

The spectrum contains bright lines or bands. 

The spectrum contains dark lines or bands. 

Please observe the following line{s) . 

N. B.— Each namber-word (of eight letters^ following these 
cipher- words gives the wave length of a single line (or band), in 
millionths of a millimeter. 



The spectrum has been photographed at- 

The object has been photographed at 

The region has been photographed at 



The object has been photographed here. 
The spectrum has been photographed here. 
The region has been photographed here. 

The color of the object is white. 

The color of the object is very blue. 

The color of the object is blue. 



126 



Publications of the 



5 
5 



No. 

187 
i88 
189 



5] 

5^ 

5 

5 

5 

5: 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5: 

5 

5' 

5: 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5: 

5: 

5 

5: 

5 

5- 

5: 

5 



190 
191 
192 

193 
194 

195 
196 

197 
198 
199 
200 
201 
202 
203 
204 
205 
206 
207 
208 
209 
210 
211 
212 
213 
214 

215 
216 

217 



ClPHKR- 
WORD. 



fusion = 
halter = 
hammer = 



CORRBSPONDING PHRASB. 



harbor = 
harrow = 
hatred = 
hazard = 
heaven = 
hector = 
helmet = 
herald = 
hermit = 
hollow = 
homely = 
honest = 
humane = 
hunger = 
hussar = 
keeper = 
kennel = 
kidnap = 
kingly = 
lackey = 
lagoon = 
lament = 
lancet = 
larder = 
latent = 
lavish = 

leader = 

leaven = ' 



The color of the object is yellow. 
The color of the object is red. 
The color of the object is very red. 

Miscellaneous. 

The magnitude is not known. 
The magnitude is brighter than — 

The magnitude is fainter than 

The magnitude is equal to . 

The variation is large. 
The variation is small. 



(See 51 147-8). 



The brightness is increasing. 

The brightness is decreasing. 

The brightness is increasing rapidly. 

The brightness is decreasing rapidly. 

The brightness has increased rapidly. 

The brightness has decreased rapidly. 

It is visible to the naked eye. 

It will become visible to the naked eye. 

It will become very brilliant. 

A suspicious object. 

Greater than. 

Less than. 

The earliest observation knozvn is. 

The latest observation known is. 

At several observatories. 

By several astronomers. 

On several nights. 

The following observatories. 

The following observations. 

CotTCcf ions for parallax and aberration haze been 
applied. 

Corncfiofis for parallax ana aberration have not 
been applied. 

is a ropgh approximation. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 



No. 


St'o".-.- 


COBBKIPONDING PHRASB. 


Si3i8 


ledger = 




51319 


legate = 


is quite auurate. 


5iaao 


lentils 


The position is 


51321 


levant = 


TkeposUion used is 


51333 


levite = 


The posilion is not known. 


51333 


lictor= 


The ohyectuias looked for, but not found. (56651097). 


51334 


limber = 


The object has been seen. 


51*35 


linden = 


The object has not been seen. 


51336 


lining= 


The object has not been seen here since discovery. 


51 "7 


linnet = 


The object has not been seen by any one else. 


51 m8 


lizard = 


The object was not observed till 


51339 


loafer = 


The object has not been observed since 


5I3JO 


locker = 


The object cannot be observed until 


51 33 1 


locusi = 


Weather; Longitude Campaign. 


5"33 


lodger = 


On account 0/ moonlight, or twilight. 


5"33 


lordly = 


On account of clouds. 


5"34 


lubber = 




51 '35 


lumber = 


It is cloudy here. 


51336 


madman^ 


It has been cloudy here. 


51337 


magnet = 


n probably will be cloudy here. 


51338 


magpie = 


Is it cloudy at your station f 


51339 


maiden = 


Signals will be sent to-night at G. M. T. 


51940 


malice = 


Signals wUI be sent to-morrow at G. M. T. 


51341 


manful = 


Repeat exchange of signals to-night at G. M.T. 


51243 


mangle= 


No more signals to-night. 


51243 


marble = 


Was exchange of signals satisfactory? Answer int- 

mediately. 


51344 


marine = 


How many more nights' work needed at this station? 


51245 


market = 


Your signals are not satisfactory. 


51246 


marmot = 


My clock-correction is well delertnined. 


51247 


marrow = 


My clock-correction is not well determined. 



Publications of the 



So. 


Wo""" 








Correspondence. (Seepage 113). 


51748 


martin = 


Our letter. 


5 "49 


marvel = 


Our Irlegrain. 


51250 


masier= 


Your tf tier. 


5"5r 


matron = 


Your telegram. 


51252 


meddle = 


Your letter has been recnvfd. 


5 "53 


medium = 


Your lel-xmiu has been reeeii^ed. 


5 "54 


menace - 


Answer by letter. 


5 "55 


menial = 


Avsitvr/iy lekgraph. 


5 "56 


method = 


U'e have written. 


5 "57 


midway = 


We will write. 


5 "58 


mildew = 


We haw telegraphed. 


5 "59 


miller= 


We will lekgraph. 


5 "60 


mingle = 


We are sure. 


51361 


mirror= 


We are not sure. 


5"6; 


mishap = 


Is right. 


5"fi3 


missal = 


Is not right. 


S"64 


mister = 


ICas found to be. 


5 "65 


modest = 


Is supposed to be. 


5"fi6 


morbid = 


Is not supposed to be. 


5"S7 


mortal - 


Please repeat your last telegram. 


5 "63 


mother = 


There was an error in my telegram. 


S"S9 


motley = 


There was an error in my Utter. 


5 "7° 
5"7t 


muddle = 


Instead of , read 

N. B,-Th= cipher-word Is lo be followed by two woHs- ilie 
first givM llie erroneous datum; the 5«ond the correct one. 


S"72 


murder = 


Will be sent. 


5 "73 


muslin = 


Cannot be sent. 


5 "74 


mutton = 


Cannot be sent by teh-grapii (see my letter). 


5 "75 


mystic = 


Doyou want positions ? 


51376 


[mx] = 


We do not know the date of discovery— used In the 

thirteen-word message. See ante. 


51277 


oblong = 


We have one position. 


5i3;s 


obtain = 


U'e have tsvo positions. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 129 



51296 



51297 
51298 

51299 



No. 


Cipher- 
Word. 


51279 


offend = 


51280 


office = 


51 281 


oflfeet= 


51282 


onward = 


51283 


oppose = 


51284 


orphan = 


51285 


outcry = 


51286 


outfit = 


51287 


outset = 


SI 288 


packet = 


51289 


palace = 


51290 


pallid = 


5 1 291 


parade = 


51292 


parcel = 


51293 


parent = 


51294 


parish = 


51295 


parrot = 



parson = 



pastor = 
patent = 

patrol = 

pebble = 



Corresponding Phrase. 



51301 pedant = 



We have three positions. 

We will took for the object. 

Please look for the object. 

The announcement of the discovery of a comet (or 
planet) by has been received here, 

N. B. — The discoverer's name follows the cipher-word. 

Please forward the information by telegraph to 

Please do not forward the information to 

Please distribute this information by telegraph. 

Please do not distribute this information by telegraph. 

It is for your private information only. 

Please verify before distributing. 

The foregoing appears to be sotnewhat doubtful. 

For further information apply direct to . 

Please observe the object visually. 
Please observe the object photographically. 
Please observe the object spectroscopically. 
Aurora Borealis. 
Zodiacal Light. 

Control-Words. 

The sum of the numbers corresponding to all the 
number- words of eight letters (excluding words of 
three letters), in this message, up to and exclud- 
ing the control- 1 Qj.^^^^g [following is 

The following control -word is % of the sum of the 
two number-words of eight letters preceding it. 

The following control-word is ^ of the sum of the 
three number-words of eight letters preced- 
ing it. 

The following control-word is % of the sum of the 
four number-words of eight letters immediately 
preceding it. 

The following control-word is \ of the sum of the 
five number-words of eight letters immediately 
preceding it. 

The following control-word is -J of the sum of the 
n number-words of eight letters immediately 
preceding it (1. e., of all such). 



Publications of the 



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p«riNf< MWfIMN 'O'OfOtO'O 



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132 Publications of the 



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Pretrpis : In leap-years, add 
one day after February iS. This 
table is to be used in connec- 
tion witll Table I to obtain the 
iocal mean date to the nearest 
day. Thus, August to = 222 
davs=il//>. 


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134 Publications of the 



APPENDIX. 



Figure-Code Employed on the Continent of Europe. 



Note.— By the kindness of Professor Kreutz, of Kiel, the following 
circular of the Central Bureau of Astronomical Telegrams is reprinted 
here. So far as I know, it has never been published in America. The 
system described is perfectly practicable in Europe, where five figures 
(as 78742) are accepted and paid for as one word ; and where the charges 
for telegrams are moderate. The expense is prohibitory over the trans- 
atlantic cables (where three figures are counted as a word), or throughout 
the United States (where every figure counts as a full word). 

The cost of sending a six-word dispatch (giving an exact position) 
from San Francisco to Cambridge is $1.00 (five francs) by the Lick 
Observatory Code. By the code in use at Kiel it would be about $2.40 
(twelve francs). E. S. H. 



Bureau Central 
des dip£ches astronomiqurs. 

Sternwarte Kiel, 29 Kvrier 1888. 

Nous pouvons affirmer, par une experience de cinq ann^es, 
que Temploi des chiffres dans les t616grammes est un mode de 
correspondance vraiment sdr, tant est faible le nombre des erreurs 
qui se sont gliss6es dans les d6p6ches tr^s nombreuses que nous 
avons exp6di^es. D'ailleurs, plusieurs de nos correspK)ndants 
non-seulement approuvent ce mode de correspondance, mais 
s^opposent, d'une mani^re formelle, i I'emploi de tout syst^me 
plus compliqu6 qui exigerait Tusage d'un **code"; nous 
n^apportons done aucune modification k notre syst^me. 

En cas de doute, comme, par exemple, dans le cas d'un 
d6saccord entre les nombres et le nombre de contr61e inscrits 
dans la d^p^che, nous exp6dierons imm6diatement une deuxi^me 
d^p^che, en r^ponse au mot : '* R^p6tition." Voici Tadresse du 
Bureau central: ** Sternwarte Kiel." 

Nous prions MM. les Correspondants qui nous envoient des 
communications de vouloir bien s'en tenir au mod^e ci-apr^, ou 
de nous t616graphier conform^ment aux termes du ** Science 
Observer Code," syst^me Chandler et Ritchie. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 



■£f:^R,a5J!£'3-SS£a*'8,3,5SSS«.S:S.SlB 






jsrsRSR a55;?s^!;5-! 



Asss^.srs.sssss'^i's 



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■=rSS'ft=3% = 'S,'=3'S5'a°3 

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S|ffa'S'^^.?i8 = 2 :??;:;■£ E;'"? aTS!?^irfit!«if S^::^3 



13^ Public aiians of the 

IL CoMMuxiCATiox d'Uxe Positiox Observee, 

Cette communicatioa sera, en general, plus courte que la 
precedente, puisque, pour la plupart du temps, (g) et (h) n'y 
figureront pas. Le paragraphe (a) peut ^e rendu plus concis 
par Temploi du seul mot: '*Com^te" ou "plan^te" On peut 
faire suivre le nombre de contr61e de diverses remarques. 

L' ensemble de quatre groupes de 5 chiffres chacun, y compris 
le nombre de contr61e, indiquent une position approchee ; cinq 
groupes, au contraire, le nombre de contrdle inclus, donnent la 
position exacte de I'astre. Deux groupes de plus en d^terminent 
le mouvement diume. 

Le dernier groupe de 5 chiffres forme toujours le nombre de 

contr61e, c'est-^-dire, la somme de tous les nombres de 5 chiffres 

prec6demment inscrits. On devra toujours indiquer ce nombre 

de contr61e. 

Signature au bos de la d^piche. 

III. Communication d*Une Position PRfeDiTE. 

La dep^che donnera les indications des paragraphes (a), (b), 
(c), (d), (e), (g), (h) et (i) c. ^. d. le nombre de contr61e, soit 
seulement celles des paragraphes (a), (b), (c), (d), (e) et (i) ; 
parfois aussi le mot * * augmentant ' * ou **diminuant" (ces mots 
se rapportant ^ I'^clat de I'astre). 

La teneur du paragraphe (a), le nombre rond du paragraphe 

(b) — 12000 ou 00000— et r indication du paragraphe (c)— 

Berlin, Greenwich ou Paris— montreront qu'il s*agit d'une 

position pr^dite. 

Signature au bas de la dipiche. 

IV. Communication de Toute Autre Observation ou 

Decouverte. 

En gcndral, les paragraphes qu'on devra communiquer seront : 

(b) et (c) ; (d), (e). (i), savoir: epoque et lieu de Tobservation, 

AR., NPD. et nombre de controle. Le reste du t616gramme 

sera donno explicitement. 

Signature au bas de la d^pcche, 

V. Communication des Elements d'Une Orbite. 

Lorsqu'on voudra communiquer les elements d'une orbite, on 
se conformera au modMe suivant : 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 137 

(a) Objet, avec ou sahs le nom de Tauteur, de la ddcouverte— 
etc. 

(b) Le mot: parabole, 

ou : ellipse (hyperbole) ; puis un groupe de 5 chiffres 
(dont 4 d^cimaux) donnant Texcentricite de 
I'orbite. 

(c) Mois du passage au pdrihelie. 

(d) Groupe de 5 chiffres (dont 3 d^cimaux) donnant le jour 
du passage au p^rih^lie, en temps moyen de Berlin. 

(e) Groupe de 5 chiffres pour a>, distance du noeud au p^rihd- 
lie, 6valu6e en degr^s et minutes. 

(f ) Groupe de 5 chiffres pour li, longitude du noeud ascendant, 
6valu6e en degrfe et minutes. 

(g) Groupe de 5 chiffres pour /, inclinaison de Torbite, evalu^e 
en degr^s et minutes. 

Dans le cas oii le mouvement est retrograde dans Torbite, on 
prendra pour T inclinaison Tangle supdrieur ^ 90° et Ton ^valuera 
w en consequence ; (e), (f ), (g) se rapportent ^ T^quinoxe moyen 
du commencement de rannde. 

(h) Groupe de 5 chiffres, dont quatre ddcimaux, pour q^ 
distance au perih61ie (et non pour log q), 

(i) Groupe de 5 chiffres formant le nombre de contrdle. II 
est, com me pr6c6demment, la somme de tous les nombres inscrits. 

Signature au bas de la d^piche. 



EXEMPLE I. 



6 Groupes de chiffres. D^ouverte, position approch^e, indication du 

mouvement. 

Coro^te Pechulei6d€cembreo65oo Une com^te a ^t^ d^couverte par 
Copenhague 28215 07929 36129 Pechule: 

35745 '45'^ brillante, circulaire, d^c. 16 6'' 5o".o T. M. Copenhague. 
condensation. AR. = 282** 15' 

Pechule. NPD. = 79 29 

Mouv. diurne en AR. : + 1° 29^, 
en NPD.: —2° 15^ 

Com^te brillante, circulaire avec 
condensation. 

Pechule, 

EXEMPLE 2. 

5 Groupes de chiffres. Position exacte. 

Com^te 17 f<Svrier 12287 Paris 11555 La nouvelle com^te a ^t^ observ^e 
10229 7470^ 08773 Bigourdan. par Bigourdan : 

Mouchez. tevrier 17 12*' 28". 7 T. M. Paris 

AR. app=ii5° 55' 47^' 
NPD. app. = 102 29 2 

Mouchez. 



138 



Publuations of the 



EXBMPLE 3. 

7 Groupes de chiffres. D^couverte, position exacte, indication du 

mouvement. 



Plan^te Palisa 21 septembre 15343 
Vienne 34858 09715 75525 35947 
36007 05395 douzi^me. 

Weiss. 



Une plan^te de la i2« erandeur a 
^t^ d^couverte par Palisa. Posit- 
ion de la plan^te : 
septembre 21 i3''34".3 T.M. Vienne 
AR. app. = 348*58^55^^ 
NPD. app. = 97 15 25 
Mouv. diurne en AR. : — 13^, en 
NPD.: +7^ 

Weiss, 

EXEMPLB 4. 

6 Groupes de chiffres. Position pr^dite, indication du mouvement 



Com^te 22 aoAt 12000 Berlin 17 142 
04733 36429 36301 06605 augmen- 
tant. 

Hepperger. 



La nouvelle com^te occupe le 22 
ao(it, minuit moyen de Berlin, la 
position suivante : 

AR. = i7i'*42^ 
NPD.= 47 33 
Mouv. diurne en AR. : + 4® 29', 
en NPD.: +3° i^ 

L'^Iat de la com^te va en aug- 
mentant. 

Hepperger, 

Remarqur.— La date mentionn^e dans le Ul^gramme sera, en gi^n«!ra], anttfrieure i 
celle de la position pr<^dite. 

EXEMPLE 5. 

6 Groupes de chiffres. Elements paraboliques d'une com^te. 
Com^te parabole novembre 19752 Elements paraboliques de la nou- 



1 1755 181 2 1 14448 19261 83337. 

Oppenheim. 



velle com^te : 
7^= novembre 19.752 T.M. Berlin 

Equinoxe moyen 

du commencement 

_ de Tann^ 

^=1.9261 

Oppenheim, 

EXEMPLE 6. 



I =noveinDre 

«=ii7*'55M 
0=181 21 \ 

t = i44 48 J 



7 Groupes de chiffres. Elements elliptiques d'une com^te. 

Com^te ellipse 09902 novembre 
19779 I 1757 18123 14449 19250 
93260. 



Oppenheim. 



Elements elliptiques de la nouvelle 
com^te : 

7"= novembre 19.779 T. M. Berlin 

Equinoxe moyen 

du commencement 

de Tann^. 

^=1.9250 

tf= 0.9902 

Oppenheifn, 



«=ii7'57') 
= 181 23 \ 
/=I44 49 J 



Remarqi.'R. — Les exemples 5 ct 6 sc rapportent aux dMments paraboliques et 
elliptiques de la comcte 1881 VIII communiques par M. le Dr. S. Oppenheim dans les 
A. N. 2692. 

A, Krueger, 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 



OFFICERS OP THE SOCIETY.] 

W. J, Hti(«iy (Lick ObHrmtory), PmidiHi 

£. J. MoL>» (6<>6Clay Slr«t, 5. F.) ..... 1 

E- S. HoLDBM iLicK ObKrviioty), j yict.Pmidtmli 

C. D. Pebkiik (Lick ObHmtoryJ. Sttrtlari 

F. R. ZlKL |4ioC>lifom»St[«t.S.F.l Sicnlary and Trtiaurti 

Bamr^ <if DirttlirTt—IAam. Edwaids. Hdlden. Huhfiby. Moim*. MLu O'Hallokah 

Mcun. Paudu, Piriiins. Pihsoh. STUiHCHAy, von Gildbiih. Ziil. 
Fmt^tCtmmUUr-lAttm. voh GaLDiti., Piirioh. Stdincmam. 
Ctm-milla « Pmilualiti^iifaxn. Huldkn. Bibcock, Aitkin. 
Litnry CtmmitJtt—Mia OHiLLV"' Mtun. Molua. Bubckhaliir. 
C«H>»J«H<i <^ Comtl-Mrdal—Utan. Holdin (ti^jniioj. Schaibuli. CAHriiij. 

OFPICBRS OF THK CHICAGO SECTION. 
Citrmlnv C-mmillrr—Mi. Ruthvix W. Pikl. 

OFFICERS OP THK MEXICAN SECTION. 
fzH-HhW CimmiUa—Maui. Cahilo Gonialei. Fiakcisco Rodhicuii Riv. 



S3e""m 



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the number* logclher Inlo * volume. Contpleie toIudki for jwai yejin wiJI alio be supplied, la 
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Tbe Committee on Publication deiim to uy tlul the order in which pipcn ire prinled in 
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l!7 '""^^^ 



e titles of papers for reading iboitld be cummanicated to either of tbe E 
iUe. as well a> any changes in addresses. The Secretary in Sau Fia 
-'- — ' -Sc Society suiuble slalioner>, stamped with the seal of the Society, al 



u follows: a block of lelt 
XUS. Theie prices include | 
■aamH Tbe tendings are al 
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•>• 50™, P, S. T. 1889. Junt 3, i6i> JO", p. S, T. 
E. S. H. ddL 



DIAGRAMS OF THE PLANET ysXUS. 



PUBLICATIONS 



OF THE 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 

Vol- VIII. San Francisco, California, June i, 1896. No. 50. 



TABLES OF THE ELEMENTS OF COMET ORBITS. 



Compiled by W. C. Winlock. 



The foUowing tables of the elements of cometary orbits have 
been prepared at the suggestion of Professor Holden, to facilitate 
comparison of the orbits of newly discovered comets with those 
already known. 

The data for Table I had been taken from a number of sources, 
but largely from Dr. Valentiner's interesting little book 
"Kojneten. und Meteore," * before the lately published and 
laiifi obmplete and admirable work of Dr. GalleI came into 
Mr.Juuids, when the latter served at once as a check upon the 

Jifaribts: 

ft:'"^IkUe I. — ^Approximate elements of all computed orbits of 
0IHKIS from B.C. 372 to a. d. i896.-7-The approximate elements 
£te1iere given of the orbits of all comets that have been sufficiendy 
d^iermined to the end of the year 1895; arranged according to 
the date of perihelion passage. 

The current numbers in the first column are those adopted by 
Dr. Galle in his latest list (to avoid the unnecessary introduc- 
tion of new notation), and serve for convenient reference from the 
succeeding tables. A consecutive series of numbers is used 
throughout, so that the periodic comets receive a new number at 
each observed return. Each of the well-known periodic comets 

• ** Die Kometen and Meteorc," von W. Valkntiner. 240 pages, lamo, Leipzig, 1884. 

t " Verzeicbniss der Eletnente der bisher berechneten Cometenbahnen nebst Anmerk- 
ungen und Literatur-Nachweisen zum Jahre 1894,'' von J. G. Galle. 20 + 315 pages, 410, 
Leipzig, 1894* 



142 Publications of the 

is designated as well by a special name, usually that of the 
discoverer, abbreviated as follows (see Col. i , Table I) : 

d'A = d* Arrest's comet. 

B = BiELA*s (the two components, B* and B®). 
Br = Brorsen's comet. 
E == Encke's comet. 
F = Faye's comet. 
Fi = Finlay's comet 
H = H alley's comet. 
O = Olbers' comet. 
P-Bs = Pons-Brooks comet 
T, = Tempel, comet 
T, = Tempel, comet 
T3-S = Tempel J- Swift comet 
Tu = Tuttle's comet 
W = Winnecke's comet 
Wo = Wolf's comet 

The orbit elements are given in succeeding columns as follows: 

T = time of perihelion passage. 

01 = ** argument of perihelion '*• = ir — SJ, where «• = 

longitude of perihelion. 
Q, = longitude of the ascending node. 
i = inclination of the comet's orbit to the ecliptic 

(counted from 0° to 180°). 
q = distance of the comet from the Sun at perihelion, 

the mean distance of the Elarth from the Sun being 

taken as i. 
a = semi-major axis of the orbit, the mean distance of 

the Earth from the Sun being i. 
U ^= period of revolution about the Sun, in years. 
e = eccentricity of orbit. 

Where more than one comet is recorded in a year, the Roman 
numerals I, II, III, etc., indicate the order in which they passed 
perihelion. The month, day, and tenth of a day of perihelion 
passage (7") are also given, the time being strictly that of the 
Paris meridian, as in most lists of comets, but the correction to 
reduce this to the Greenwich meridian is entirely inappreciable 
here, amounting to but — 0.006 of a day. 

The abbreviations for the months are: 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 143 

Ja = January. Jl = July. 

F = February. Ag = August. 
Mr = March S = September. 

Ap = April. O = October. 

My = May N = November. 

Je = June. D = December. 

The angle w, which has been called the ** argument of peri- 
helion," has been used in the elements, as it has a simpler 
geometrical signification than the longitude of perihelion x, and 
is now much more commonly used by computers. 

The inclination /, as proposed by Gauss, is counted from 
qP to 180°, avoiding the necessity of designating an orbit as 
•'Direct" or "Retrograde.'' 

The last column of Table I gives the discoverer's name. 
Table IL — Comets arranged in order of a>. — The comets 
catalogued in Table I are here arranged according to the ** argu- 
ment of perihelion," a>. The first column gives the limiting 
values of w, and the second the reference numbers to Table I, or 
for well-known periodic comets the adopted abbreviation. The 
comet numbers within the given limits for w are also arranged, 
approximately, but not strictly, according to the increasing 
values of oi. 

Table III. — Comets arranged in the order of the longitude of 
the ascending node, Q,. — The first column gives limiting values of 
Si, the second column reference numbers to the complete elements 
in Table I. 

Table IV, — Comets arranged in order of inclination, /. — 

In the first column the values of i are given for each degree from 

0° to 180°, the second column reference numbers to Table I 

of all comets having inclinations within each degree; e. g., 

i =40° includes inclinations from 40^.0 to 40^.9. 

Table V. — Comets arranged in order of perihelion distance, 
^, in terms of the Earth's mean distance from the Sun. 

Table VI — Comets arranged in order of semi-major axis, a, 
in terms of the Earth's mean distance from the Sun. 

Table VII — Comets arranged in order of the period of revo- 
lution, Uy about the Sun, expressed in years. 

Table VIII — Comets arranged in order of eccentricity, e. 



144 



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I70 Publications of tlu 

PLANETARY PHENOMENA FOR JULY AND AUGUST 

1896. 



By Professor Malcolm McNeill. 



July, 1896. 

The Earth is in aphelion on July 3d, at 2 P. m., P. S. T. 

Mercury is at greatest west elongation on July 3d, and remai 
a morning star until July 31st, when it comes to superior 
junction with the Sun. For the first twenty days of the mon 
it rises at least an hour before the Sun, and may be seen uncH. ^ j 
good weather conditions. On the afternoon of July 13th, It 

passes seven minutes south of the third-magnitude star juu 

Geminorum^ and, on the morning of July 29th, it is almost 
exact coincidence with the fifth-magnitude star 1; Cancri. 
that time, however, it is too near the Sun to be seen. 

Venus is very close to the Sun throughout the month, passm xig 
superior conjunction with the Sun on the morning of July ^ 
and changing from a morning to an evening star. It does 
move very far from the Sun during the month, and at the ^n^ 
sets less than half an hour later. It is in perihelion on tb^ 
morning of July 23d. 

Mars, at the end of the month, rises before midnight. !>«-!''' 
ing the month it moves about twenty degrees east and se^^^*^ 
degrees north from the western to the eastern part of *d^^ 
constellation Aries, It is beginning to draw nearer to the Ea.:*"'^" 
somewhat rapidly, and to gain materially in brightness, but J^ 
still nearly twice as far away as it will be at its opposidoa ^^ 
December. 

Jupiter is too near the Sun for good observation, and, by 't^^ 
end of the month, it sets only half an hour later. During ^tJ^^ 
month, it moves seven degrees eastward and southward in -^^^^ 
constellation Cancer, 

Saturn is in fair position in the southwestern sky in the e^^^^** 
ing. It is nearly stationary among the stars, moving a »^^^ 
minutes westward, and then turning and moving a few min- ** ""^ 
eastward. It is, throughout the month, about two deg^c^" 
north and a little west of the third-magnitude star a Litres, 
apparent minor axis of the outside ring is about seven-ei 
of the diameter of the planet. 




Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 171 

Uranus is near Saturn^ crossing the meridian about half an 

bour later. It is about seven degrees east and four degrees 

south of Saturn. No conspicuous star is very near; but the fifth- 

magnitude { Libras is two degrees east and one degree north of 

the planet. The planet itself is sixth-magnitude, and may be 

seen on a clear, moonless night, if one has reasonably sharp 

eyesight. 

Neptune is a morning star, in the eastern part of the constel- 
lation Taurus, It is too faint to be seen without a telescope. 

August, 1896. 

Eclipses, There will be two eclipses during the month. The 
first is a total eclipse of the Sutiy on August 9th. The line of 
totality begins in the North Atlantic Ocean, touches the conti- 
nent in the extreme northern part of Norway, then across the 
Arctic Ocean through Nova Zembla, into and across Siberia 
southeast to the coast, and through the island Yezo, ending in 
Ae Pacific Ocean about longitude 180^, latitude 20^. The ex- 
treme duration of totality is considerably less than three minutes. 
The stations most convenient of access are in Norway, where 
4e duration of totality is less than two minutes, and on the 
island of Yezo, where the duration is about two and one-half 
niinutes. 

The second eclipse will be 2l partial eclipse 0/ the Moon, on the 
^^ght of August 22d-23d, and will be visible in the Western Hemi- 
sphere. The Moon enters the shadow at 9*" 24" p. m., P. S. T., 
^d leaves the shadow at 12** 30" a. m. The maximum obscura- 
^^n, which occurs at lo*" 57° p. m., is about three-quarters of the 
^^on's diameter. 

Occultations, The Moon will again pass over the Pleiades on 
^^ early morning of August 3d, and a number of occultations 
'^^^.y be seen in almost any part of the country. The immersions 
^*H be at the bright limb, and the emersions at the dark limb. 

J^ercury is an evening star, but is too close to the Sun to be 
f ^sily seen, except, perhaps, in the latter part of the month, when 
*^ Sets about an hour later, and may possibly be seen in clear 
^^^Iher. It will come to greatest eastern elongation on Septem- 
^r 13th. 

t^enus is also an evening star, but is still very close to the Sun. 
®y the end of the month it sets only forty minutes later. As it 



172 Publications of the 

is also at nearly its greatest distance from us, it will not be a very 
conspicuous object. 

Mars is rising earlier, at lo'' 35" on August 31st, and is get- 
ting brighter. At the end of the month, its distance from us is 
about equal to the Earth's distance from the Sun. During the 
month, it moves about nineteen degrees eastward and four de- 
grees northward, in the constellation Taurus, passing between the 
Pleiades and the Hyades about August 15th. 

Jupiter is too near the Sun to be seen. It passes conjunction 
with the Sun and changes from an evening to a morning star on 
the morning of August 12th. 

Saturn is still an evening star, but is setting earlier each 
night; by the end of the month, it sets a litde after nine. It is 
in the constellation Libra^ north and a little east of the third 
magnitude star a Litres. During the month, it moves about one 
degree eastward. The apparent opening of the rings is a trifle 
greater than during July. 

Uranus occupies about the same position relative to Salurti as 
during July. Its motion among the stars is about half as great 
as that of Saturn, and is in the same general direction, eastward. 
At the end of the month, it is in about the same position it occu- 
pied on July 1st. The whole motion during the month is about 
half a degree, the apparent diameter of the Moon. 

Neptune remains in about the same position in Taurus, By 
the end of the month, it rises before midnight. 

Explanation of the Tables. 

The phases of the Moon are given in Pacific Standard time. 
In the tables for Sun and planets, the second and third columns 
give the Right Ascension and Declination for Greenwich noon. 
The fifth column gives the local mean time for transit over the 
Greenwich meridian. To find the local mean time of transit for 
any other meridian, the time given in the table must be corrected 
by adding or subtracting the change per day, multiplied by 
the fraction whose numerator is the longitude from Greenwich 
in hours, and whose denominator is 24. This correction is 
seldom much more than 1°. To find the standard time for the 
phenomenon, correct the local mean time by adding the differ- 
ence between standard and local time if the place is west of the 
standard meridian, and subtracting if east. The same rules apply 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. i73 

to the fourth and sixth columns, which give the local mean times 

of rising and setting for the meridian of Greenwich. They are 
roughly computed for Lat. 40°, with the noon Declination and 
time of meridian transit, and are intended as only a rough guide. 
Xhey may be in error by a minute or two for the given latitude, 

and for latitudes differing much from 40° they may be several 
minutes out. 

Phases of the Moon, P. S. T. 

H. M. 

Last Quarter, July 2, 5 23 p. m. 
New Moon, July 10, 11 35 a. m. 

First Quarter, July 17, 8 4 a. m. 
Full Moon, July 24, 9 45 a. m. 

The Sun. 

R. A. Declination. Rises. Transits. Sets. 

189^- H. M. o / „ ^ „ ^ „ ^ 

July I. 6 44 + 23 4 4 41 A.M. 12 4 P.M. 7 27 P.M. 

II. 7 25 +22 I 4 46 12 5 7 24 

21. 85 + 20 20 4 54 12 6 7 18 

31. 8 45 + 18 6 .5 3 12 6 79 

Mercury. 

July I. 5 14 + 19 31 3 25 A.M. 10 34A.M. 5 43P.M. 

II. 61 + 21 59 3 22 10 41 60 

21. 7 17 -h22 52 3 55 II 18 6 41 

31. 8 45 + 19 48 4 57 12 7 P.M. 7 17 

Venus, 

July I. 6 34 + 23 41 4 27 A.M. II 54 A.M. 7 21 P.M. 

II. 7 28 + 22 45 4 46 12 8 p.m. 7 30 

21. 8 20 + 20 42 57 12 21 7 35 

31. 9 II + 17 40 5 28 12 32 7 34 

Mars, 

July 1. 1 53 + 9 50 12 39 A.M. 7 13 A.M. I 47 P.M. 

II. 2 20 + 12 14 12 19 71 I 43 

21. 2 47 +14 25 II 58 P.M. 6 48 I 38 

31- 3 13 +16 21 II 38 6 35 I 32 



174 



Publications of the 



Jupiter, 



1896. 


R. 


A. 


Declination. 


Rises. 


Transits. 


Sets. 


H. 


M. 


c 


» 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. 


Iff. 


July I. 


8 


55 


+ 18 


6 


7 I2A.M. 


2 15 P.M. 


9 


18 P.M. 


II. 


9 


3 


+ 17 


32 


6 43 


I 44 


8 


45 


21. 


9 


12 


+ 16 


55 


6 14 


I 13 


8 


12 


31. 


9 


21 


+ 16 


17 


5 45 


12 42 


7 


39 










Saturn. 








July I. 


14 


44 


- 13 


20 


2 48 P.M. 


8 2 P.M. 


I 


16 A.M. 


II. 


14 


43 


— 13 


20 


2 8 


7 22 


12 


36 


21. 


14 43 


- 13 


23 


I 29 


6 43 


II 


57 PM. 


31- 


14 


44 


- 13 


28 


12 50 


6 4 


II 


18 










Uranus, 








July I. 


15 


14 


- 17 


41 


3 34P-M. 


8 32 P.M. 


I 


30 A.M. 


II. 


15 


13 


- 17 


38 


2 54 


7 52 


12 


50 


21. 


15 


12 


- 17 


37 


2 14 


7 12 


12 


10 


31. 


15 


12 


- 17 


37 


I 34 


6 32 


II 


30 P.M. 










Neptune, 

m 








July I. 


5 


II 


+ 21 


36 


3 14A.M. 


ID 31 A.M. 


5 


50 P.M. 


II. 


5 


12 


+ 21 


37 


2 36 


9 53 


5 


10 


21. 


5 


14 


+ 21 


39 


I 58 


9 15 


4 


32 


31. 


5 


15 


+ 21 


40 


I 20 


8 37 


3 


54 






Phases of the Moon. 


P. S. T. 








Last ' 


Quarter, 


August I , 


H. M. 

ID 34 A. M. 








New 


Moon, 


August 8, 


9 2 P. M. 








First 


Quarter, 


August 15, 


I 2 P. M. 








Full ] 


Moon, 


August 22, 


II 4 P. M. 








Last ' 


Quarter, 


August 31, 


2 55 A. M. 














Th 


E Sun. 


» 






t\ ^ 


R. 


A. 


Declination. 


Rises. 


Transits. 


Sets. 


1896. 


H. 


M. 





f 


H • M* 


H. M. 


H. 


M. 


Aug. I. 


8 


48 


+ 17 


50 


5 4 A.M. 


12 6 P.M. 


7 


8 P.M. 


II. 


9 


27 


+ 15 


4 


5 13 


12 5 


6 


57 


21. 


10 


4 


+ II 


52 


5 22 


12 3 


6 


44 


31. 


10 


41 


+ 8 


23 


5 31 


12 M. 


6 


29 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, i75 



Mercury, 

R. A. Declination. Rises. Transits. Sets. 

1890. H. M. o * „ ^ jj ^^ jj j^ 

Aug:. I. 8 54 -|- 19 17 5 3A.M. 12 iiP.M. 7 19P.M. 

II. 10 II + 12 51 65 1250 735 

21. II 14 + 5 29 6 55 I 13 7 31 

31. 12 7 + I 39 7 21 I 26 7 31 

Venus. 

Au^. I. 9 16 +17 19 5 33 A.M. 12 33 P.M. 7 33 P.M. 

II. 10 4 + 13 24 5 56 12 42 7 28 

21. 10 51 + 8 52 6 19 12 50 7 21 

31- II 37 + 3 57 6 43 12 56 79 

Mars, 

Aug:- I. 3 15 +16 32 II 37 P.M. 6 35A.M. I 33P.M. 

II. 3 41 +18 II II 16 6 20 I 24 

21. 46 +1934 1056 65 I 14 

31. 4 29 +20 42 10 35 5 49 13 

Jupiter, 

Aug-- I- 9 21 + 16 13 5 42 A.M. 12 39 P.M. 7 36P.M. 

II. 9 30 + 15 32 5 14 12 8 72 

21. 9 39 + 14 51 4 47 12 38 A.M. 6 29 

31- 9 47 + 14 9 4 19 II 7 6 55 

Saturn, 

Aug"- ^* 14 44 ""13 29 12 46P.M. 6 op.M. II 14P.M. 

II. 1445 —1338 12 9 522 1035 

21. 14 47 — 13 49 II 33 A.M. 4 45 9 57 

31. 1449 — 14 3 10 56 48 920 

Uranus, 

Aug- I- 15 ^^ — 17 37 I 30P.M. 6 29P.M. II 28P.M. 

II. 15 13 - 17 38 12 51 5 50 10 49 

21. 15 13 -17 41 12 13 5 II 10 9 

31. 15 14 - 17 45 II 36 A.M. 4 33 9 30 



17^ Publications of the 







Neptune. 






1896. 


R. A. 

H. M. 


Declination. 


Rises. 

H. M. 


Transits. 

H. M. 


Sets. 

H. M. 


Aug. I. 


5 15 


+ 21 40 


I I 5 A.M. 


8 33 A.M. 


3 51 PM 


II. 


5 16 


+ 21 41 


12 37 


7 55 


3 13 


21. 


5 17 


+ 21 41 


II 58 P.M. 


7 16 


2 34 


31- 


5 18 


+ 21 42 


I I 20 


6 38 


I 56 



(TWENTY-SECOND) AWARD OF THE DONOHOE 

COMET-MEDAL. 



The Comet-Medal of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 
has been awarded to Mr. C. D. Perrine, Assistant Astronomer 
in the Lick Observatory, for his discovery of an unexpected 
comet on February 15, 1896. 

The Committee on the Comet-Medal, 

Edward S. Holden, 
J. M. Schaeberle, 
W. W. Campbell. 

April 15, 1S96. 



REPORTED VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS. 



From Record in Office of Frederick G. Plummer, C. E., 

Tacoma, Wash. • 



Tacoma, Wash., March 13, 1896. 
Prof. E. S. Holden, Director Lick Observatory, Cal. 

Sir: — The matter contained in my letter of March 3d also 
applies to the table of reported volcanic eruptions submitted 
herewith. 

There can be no doubt that many eruptions are reported 
which might be contradicted if examination were possible. For 
example, the reports of the eruption and change in the summit 
of Mount Tacoma from November 21 to December 25, 1894, 
filled many columns of the press dispatches, and possibly were 
intended for that purpose. December 25th was the most perfect 
day for observation, and, with my 6^ -inch refractor, the crater- 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. ^11 

peak and its surroundings were carefully examined, and no 
change could be seen. No eruption was noted, other than the 
usual emission of steam, which varies with the barometer. How- 
ever, reports came in later from a press party, which claimed to 
have reached the slope of the mountain, and witnessed an erup- 
tion of smoke. The party was about five miles from the sum- 
mit, and my telescope, with low power, brought the summit 
within half a mile. Although this was the clearest and most 
definite report of eruption, yet it is so flatly contradicted by 
the continuous telescopic observations and the later examinations 
of climbers, that it is omitted from the table. 

Very truly, 

Fred. G. Plummer. 



Date of Beginning. 



Year. 


Day. 


1690 
1700 

1741 
1760 
1760 
1760 














1760 




1760 
1762 






1763 
1761 






1768 
1768 




1768 




1770 
1774 
1775 
1775 
1776 
1778 
177S 
1784 

1786 


••••••■ 

• • - 

July 

July 


1786 
1786 




1786 
1790 
1790 




1790 




1700 

1790 
X790 





1791 
1791 
1792 
1793 

1792 
1795 
1796 
1796 
1796 
1796 
1802 


June 
June 

February ? 
June I 




May 




x8o6 
1812 





Name of Volcano. 



Khaginak A. 

On Amak Island . . A. 

Hiamna A. 

Adakh A. 

Goreloi A. 

Chechilno A. 

Atka A. 

Koniushi A. 

Pavloff A. 

Tanaga A. 

Kanaga A. 



A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 



Unalashka 
MedviednikofT 
Walrus . ... 
Amukhta. . .. 
Four Craters . 

Calder A. 

Unimak A. 

Sitignak A. 

Hiamna A. 

Shishaldin A. 

VsevidofT A. 

Chechitno A. 

Seguam A. 

Amukhta A. 

Kanaga A. 

Pavloff A. 

Akutan A. 

Vsevidoff A. 

Kanaga A. 

Semisphnoi A. 

Makushin. A. 

Shishaldin A. 

Tanaga A. 

Kanaga . A. 

Great Sitkin . ...A. 

Goreloi. A. 

Semisopochnoi. . . A 

Unimak A. 

Edgecombe A. 

bogoslov A. 

Four Craters. A. 

Amak A. 

Makushin A 

Bogoslov A. 

Sarycheft A. 



Duration 

OF 

Eruption. 



10 years 



7 years 



3 years 
92 years 



4 years 

5 years 



2 years 
35 yt-'ars 



4 months 



4 years 



Phenomena. 



A crater formed. 
Occasionally active. 



Island rose. 



Sol fat ar as. 



Flames and smoke. 
Flames and smoke. 
Occasionally smoke. 



Flames and smoke. 
North crater fell in. 



Occasionally smoke. 
Occasionally smoke. 



Flames. 

S\V. crater exploded and fell in. 

Terrible eruption of flames. 



Flames and smoke. 
Lava flow. 
Violent eruption. 



178 



Publications of the 



Date op Beginning. 



Year. 



1817 
1817 
1819 

l8iq 
1820 
1824 
1824 
1825 
1826 
1827 
1827 
1827 
1827 
1828 
1828 
1828 
1828 
1828 
1828 
1828 
1830 
1830 
l8^o 
i8'30 
1830 
1830 
1831 
183 1 
1832 
1838 
1838 
1838 
1838 
1838 
1838 

1839 
1840 
1841 
1841 
1842 
1842 

1843 i 

1843 

1843 
1844 

1844 

1846 

1846 

1846 

1847 

i8s2 

1853 

18.S4 
1854 
1854 
1859 
i«5<J 
i860 
186 1 
i86s 
186s 
1865 
1869 

1871 
18S0 

1H80 

i8«^ 

1891 

1891 

1891 

1892 

1802 I 

1893 

1894 

1895 



Day. 



April 



March 10 
October 11 



November 



November 13 
November 13 
December ? 



January 
February 
Auf^ust 
Summer 
August 15 



September 23 

Oct. 19,4 P.M. 
May 

December 
June 16 
Autumn 
August 2 

August 2' 



Marcb 9 
January 17 
Autumn 



Name of Volcano. 



Yunaska A. 

Umnak A. 

Wraneell A. 

Redoubt A. 

Bo^oslov A. 

Shisldin A. 

Yunaska A. 

Isanotski ..A. 

Unimak A. 

Shisldin. A. 

Poi^rumnoi A. 

Koniushi A. 

Kanaga A. 

Little Sitk in A. 

Akhun A. 

Akutan A. 

Tanak ■ Ani^unakh . A. 

Atka A. 

Koniushi A. 

Goreloi A. 

Korovin. A. 

Atka A. 

Yunaska A. 

Umnak. A. 

Unimak A. 

Veniaminoff A. 

St. Helens W. 

Hood O. 

St. Helens W. 

Shishaldm A. 

Four Craters A. 

Makushin A. 



A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 



Akutan ... 
Veniaminofi. . . 

Pavloff 

St. Elias . . 
Cinder Cone . , 

Tacoma W. 

St Helens W. 

St. Helens W. 

Baker W. 

St. Helens W. 

Tacoma W. 

St. Helens VV. 

Korovin A. 

Makushin A. 

Hood O. 

St. Helens VV. 

Baker W. 

Baker W. 

St. Helens VV. 

Baker W. 

St. Helens VV. 

Hood (). 

Baker \V. 

Hood O. 

Baker W^ 

Baker VV. 

Olvmpus VV. 

Shishaklin A. 

Makushin A. 

Hood O. 

Hood i^. 

Tacoma VV. 

Tacoma \V. 

K.ikcr VV. 

Tacoma VV. 

Baker ....VV. 

Chimnev Peak . C. 

Hozotneen VV^. 

VeninminofT. . . . A. 

Bogoslov A. 

Olvmpus VV. 

JelTerson O. 

Boeoslov A. 



Duration 

OF 

Eruption. 



3 years 
2 years 



3 years 
3 years 
2 years 
2 years 
2 years 
2 years 
2 years 



12 hours 



2 months 
10 days 
85 days 



70 days 
2 days 



15 days 
3 hours 
7 days 



2 hours 



3 days 



Phbnombna. 



Violent eruption. 



Flames. 



Cinders. 



Smoke and light ashes. 
Flames and light ashes. 



Slight lava flow. 



Smoke and ashes. 



Steam. 



Flame and smoke. 



Smoke and steam. 
Flames and smoke. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. ^79 



ON ASTRONOMICAL CIPHER CODES. 



To the Secretary of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific : 

In your Publications^ No. 48, Professor E. S. Holden con- 
tributes an article entitled, *' Telegraphic Announcements of 
Astronomical Discoveries, Etc., in America.'* A portion of this 
article is historical, and another part describes the Science Ob- 
server code, with some ideas advanced by the author about the 
proper form of code. 

It seems unnecessary to comment on the criticisms on the 
code, for these may be, after all, matters of opinion merely; but, 
since I am the person who made the bit of history which is 
reviewed, I claim the right to correct, through your columns, the 
version which has been given by Professor Holden, and to set 
forth the real relations between Dr. Chandler and myself, and 
the telegraphic transmission of astronomical information in this 
country. These relations are obscured in Professor Holden' s 
article. The story has already been set forth, first, briefly in the 
preface to the code (a source from which Professor Holden 
drew some of his facts), and more at length in an article signed 
by me in the Astronomical foumal of March 23, 1888. This 
latter article is so clear and plain that there is only need of mak- 
ing a direct quotation from it. 

The article in the Astronomical foumal announces the issue 
of the Science Observer code, and gives a brief history of the 
experimenting with the provisional code-book. 

**In 1882,'' it goes on to say, **upon the formation of a 
European association of astronomers for announcements and for 
collection of news of astronomical discoveries, Dr. Krueger 
expressed a wish that the originators of the code [Dr. Chandler 
and I] would act as the center for the United States; and, shortly 
afterwards. Professor Baird, Superintendent of the Smithsonian 
Institution, tendered to Mr. Chandler and myself the depart- 
ment of international exchange of astronomical information. 
We felt, however, that in undertaking the work it could be most 
conveniently carried on by securing the co-operation of some 
established observatory. The reasons are obvious; and, among 
them, the aid which the instrumental equipment would afford. 
'J'he nearness of Harvard College Observatory, together with the 
fact that Mr. Chandler had meanwhile become, and then was. 



iSo Publications of the 

associated with it, made it the institution most naturally to be 
looked to for collaboration. Professor Pickering, who had 
become interested in the project, kindly tendered the co-opera- 
tion of the observatory; and, in default of any formal association 
of American observatories, like that then just formed in Europe, 
offered to defray the expense of cable messages relating to 
announcements of American discoveries. This offer of its influ- 
ence and financial assistance was cheerfully accepted, and is 
gratefully acknowledged. 

**To facilitate some necessary business arrangements, espe- 
cially with the telegraph companies, which would more readily 
treat with the representative of an institution than with an indi- 
vidual, Professor Pickering suggested the addition of my name 
to the staff of the observatory. The appointment being nominal 
and without compensation, I saw no objection to accepting. 

** Meanwhile, as an undertaking intimately related to the fore- 
going, although independent of connection with any observatory 
in particular, it has been my constant endeavor to make more 
efficient the service which the circulars were intended to render. 
To this end, arrangements have been made from time to time 
with various observatories for the telegraphic interchange of posi- 
tions of comets, for providing material for those who were 
willing to undertake orbit- computation, and, in the case of a 
widely-prevailing storm, for securing positions from observatories 
out of its range. The hearty encouragement and assistance 
met with in every direction in these endeavors calls for my sin- 
cere thanks." 

To define Dr. Chandler's relation to the whole matter more 
precisely than this article in the Astronomical Journal found it 
necessary to state, I may say that the plan of the code and many 
of its details were his, together with much advice and practical 
help in the technical matters connected with the orbits. The 
selection of the words, the preparation of the volume, the pres- 
entation of the plan to astronomers, the business matters relating 
to the transfer from the Smithsonian Institution, and other details 
were mine. It should further be said that, having personal 
acquaintance with Professor Baird, these matters were arranged 
by word of mouth, and, as might be expected in such a case, the 
formal correspondence, as printed in the Government reports, 
does not present the story in all its details. 

John Ritchie, Jr. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. i8i 

Note on the Foregoing, by Professor Holden. 

Those who are interested in the matter discussed by Mr. Ritchie 
should note, yfry/, that if the "relations are obscured'* by anything 
which I have written, the obscuration was not intentional, as 1 took 
special pains to say in private letters addressed both to Dr. Chandler 
and to him ; second^ that the facts 1 give are all from official sources ; 
and, thirds that Mr. Ritchie points out that the official correspondence 
as printed does not present the story in all its details. Mr. Ritchie's 
note should, then, be read in connection with the official papers from 
which I quoted. Edward S. Holden. 



ELEMENTS AND EPHEMERIS OF COMET b, 1896. 



Communicated by Frederick H. Seares. 

The following elements of Comet b, 1896, have been com- 
puted by Professor A. O. Leuschner and myself: 

T = April 17.6516 Gr. M. T. 
12 = 178 15 31 , ^ , 

; ^; > 1896.0. 

TT = 180 O 36 ' 

i = 55 35 26 
log q = 9.75307 
O— C. AX cos i3 = — i". 2. A/3 = -I- 4".4. 

These elements are based upon observations made at the Lick 
Observatory by Professors Hussey and Aitken on April i6th, 
17th, and 19th, which were telegraphed to the Students' Observa- 
tory by Dr. Holden. They do not present any special resem- 
blance to any of the elements given in the available comet cata- 
logues. The following ephemeris has also been computed.* 

University of California, 

Students' Observatory, 1896, April 22. 



OBSERVATIONS OF DARK MARKINGS ON VENL:S, 

1889. 



Bv Edward S. Holden. 



During the months of May and June, 1889, I examined the 
surfaces of the planets Uranus, Saluni, Venus, and Mercury on 



♦The ephemeris (for everj- day from April 23.5 to May 25.5) is omitted here.— 7//<r 
Committee on Publication. 



1 82 Publications of the 

every suitable occasion. Venus was observed every day, du 
daylight, with the twelve-inch or thirty-six-inch equatorial, 
often in the morning twilight with the former instrument, 
most occasions, there was little or nothing to record. On 
dates I made sketches, showing the outlines of dark areas on 
planet* s disc. These diagrams are reproduced in the accc^ 
panying plate.* The dark areas in the plate are many tir^rr 





darker, relatively, to the paper than the corresponding very faa-ir 
and elusive markings on Venus^ relatively, to the brilliant su 
of the planet. The dates recorded are the astronomical d^ 
The best view of Venus was obtained on May 29th, an hour 
so before noon. {See the two upper diagrams in the plate.) 

At 3** 18", Sid. time, with the twelve-inch equatorial, the 
drawing was made. The southern half of the planet was m 
less bright than the northern. The surface was covered wit 
faint shading, and part of this shading (near P) was darker t 
the rest. 

^^ 3*" 53"> S*^- time, with the thirty-six-inch equatorial , 
second sketch was made. {See the plate.) At P, there was 
obvious notch in the terminator. At Q, a second notch 
suspected. Near the south cusp, S, there was much detail wh» 
was too poorly seen to be drawn (at 4** 30" Sid. time). 

At ^ ;i: ;r, the planet is very bright. Some of the dark slxs 




ings may be due to contrast only. I believe the main outlines -^ fo 
represent real features. The notch P seems to be certain. 

At 16*" 30", P. S. T., June 3d, with the twelve-inch ecj^ 
torial, a sketch was made. {See the plate.) Besides the shad: 
at the terminator, there are two regions, a and by well seen. 

At 16'' 50", P. S. T., June loth, with the twelve-inch ecj,"' 
torial, a sketch was made. {See the plate.) 

At X X X, the surface was very brilliant. At R, the term i 
tor seemed serrated, *' perhaps due to irradiation from x x x,' 

At 23'', P. S. T., June nth, with the twelve-inch equatos*: 
a sketch was made. {See the plate.) The image was pO' 
There appeared to be two dark areas, a and 3, as drawn; ar»' 
could not be certain whether or no they were connected at ?. 

I am inclined to think that much, if not all, of the dark sH< 




*They have usually been copied from the observing books by tracing them o 
piece of ground glass placed over the original sketches. The copies are then finish 
photographed, and a paper-print sent to the engraver. I believe this is the most r: 
atvd sure method of copying such diagrams. 




Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 183 

ings of the last two sketches may be due to contrast with the 
very brilliant border of the planet. The shadings of 1889, 
June 3d, may be due to the same cause. Those of May 29th, 
are probably real, and may serve to compare with other draw- 
wgs for the determination of the rotation-time. 



THE COMPANION OF SIRIUS, AND ITS BRIGHT- 
NESS ACCORDING TO PHOTOMETRIC THEORY. 



By William J. Hussky. 



The companion of Sirius was last observed by Professor 
^URNHAM in April, 1890, with the thirty-six-inch telescope of the 
Lick Observatory. In October, November, and December of that 
y^ar, and in October of the following year, he examined Sirius 
^n five nights under good conditions, but was unable to see the 
^onipanion. At that time the companion was within 4". 2 of its 
Pnmary, and the distance was decreasing. Since then, accord- 
^'^ST to the elements that have been computed, it has passed its 
''^^ninium distance, and at the beginning of this year (1896) was 
^^ about the same distance as when last observed in 1890. This 
^'^R' the case, it was expected that the companion could be 
observed again in the early part of this year. I have looked for 
^ith the thirty-six-inch telescope as follows: 
^^96, February 9. — Examined Sirius carefully when near the 



rt\ 



^''idian, using various powers, from 350 to 1900. Seeing good. 
*^*^^ panion not seen. 



2 



ebruary 14. — Seeing good. Companion not seen. 
ebruary 19. — Examined Sirius with powers 270, 1900, and 
T^"*^^^*^^. The micrometer wire was set to the ephemeris place of 
/. ^ crompanion, and the entire region thereabouts examined care- 
3^, Seeing good. Companion not seen, 
-^^arch II. — Examined Sirius with powers 350, 550, 1000, 
, and 2600. Each eye-piece was provided with a diaphragm, 
rately at its focus, covering half the field of view. By this 
ns Sirius could be placed out of view, and the region close 
Vit it still examined. Seeing very good. Companion not seen. 
^iarch 12. — Examined Sirius with powers 350, 1000, 1500, 
, and 2600. Eye-pieces were provided with diaphragms, as 




i84 Publications of the 

before. Searched carefully from position-angle 90° to 270°, and 
at varyfng distances. Seeing good. Companion not seen. 

All the observations were made when Sirius was near the 
meridian. Color screens of various shades were tried each night. 

On the nights of March nth and 12th, Professor Campbell 
also looked for the companion, using various powers. Eye- 
pieces provided with diaphragms. Color screens tried. The 
companion was not seen. On the last date he also examined the 
ephemeris region spectroscopically, with a slit sufficiently narrow 
to exclude most of the light of Sirius. The spectrum of the 
companion was not seen. 

The companion of Sirius was first known by the disturbances 
it produced in the motion of Sirius. This was shown by Bes- 
sel's investigations in 1844. ^^ was discovered visually early in 
1862, and between that time and the date of the last observation 
in 1890 it described about 85° of position- angle. This arc is not 
sufficient to enable a certain determination of the elements of the 
orbit 10 be made. The various systems of elements that have 
already been computed differ considerably among themselves. 
For example: the periodic time according to Auwers* elaborate 
investigation is 49.399 years {Astr. Nach., Nos. 3084—85); 
according to Howard's graphical construction, 57.02 years 
(^Astr. Journal, No. 235); and according to Gore's determina- 
tion, 58.47 years {Monthly Notices, June, 1889). The other 
elements vary similarly. 

With the parallax of Sirius as determined by Gill and 
Elk IX, o".3S, Auwers has found — 

Mass of Sirius =2.20 

Mass of companion =1.04 

the mass of the Sun being taken as unity. From this it appears 
that the mass of the companion is nearly half that of Sirius 
itself. That some such relation between the masses should exist 
was pointed out by Professor Safford in 1863,* before it had 
become certain that the companion was the body indicated by 
theory; and more accurately by M. O. Struve in 1866, who 
wrote t as follows: 

" Admitting that the observed satellite is identical with Bes- 
sel's obscure body, its mass must be estimated approximatelv 
half that of Sirius itself. If both bodies had the same physical 

* Procerdiui^s of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Vol. VI. 
t Munthy Notices, Vol. 26, p. 270. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 185 

constitution, this relation of the masses would assign to the globe 
of the satellite a diameter only 1.26 times smaller than that of 
the principal body, and, therefore, considering the extraordinary 
brightness of the large star, we should be induced to place also 
the satellite in the class of first magnitude. With this conclu- 
sion, the observed brightness of the companion forms a manifest 
contradiction. It is commonly said to be of the ninth or tenth 
magnitude; and only in the spring of 1864 I have noted it once 
as of the eighth magnitude, probably on account of the extra- 
ordinary favorable state of the atmosphere. Hence, it follows 
that, to maintain the identity, we must admit that both bodies 
are of a very different physical constitution. That the light of 
the satellite is increasing, as I was inclined to suppose from the 
comparison of my observations of 1864 with those of 1863, has 
not been confirmed by later observations; but in our latitude* 
the estimation of the brightness depends too much on the condi- 
tion of the atmosphere to admit of an accurate judgment in this 
respect. ' ' 

According to Auwers* investigation, the mean distance of the 
companion from Sirius is 19.92 astronomical units, or, approxi- 
mately, the distance of Uranus from the Sun. It is doubtful 
whether a planet at that distance from its primary, and at the 
distance of Sirius from the Earth, would be visible if shining by 
reflected light alone. It is not without interest, however, to 
know what would be the variations of brightness of a planet so 
situated. I have, therefore, computed the brightness of the 
companion on this hypothesis, and give the results in the accom- 
panying table. The brightness at the time of visual discovery 
has been taken as unity, and the results are given through one 
complete revolution. Howard's elements have been used as the 
basis of the calculation. 

In the case of a double star, the inclination as given does not 
uniquely determine the position of the plane of the orbit, but 
simply indicates two positions, one of which is the correct one. 
On this account, there are two cases to be considered. The 
values for both positions have been computed, and are given 
under the headings I and II, respectively. 

Two sets of values for each position are given. One has been 
computed by Euler's and the other by Seeliger's photo- 



• The latitude of Polkowa is 59° 46'. The declination of Sirius is — x6^ 34'. The 
meridian zenith distance of Sirius at Pulkowa is, therefore, ^(P 20'. 



1 86 



Publications of the 



metric formula. In accordance with Euler's theory, the bright- 
ness varies as 

cos '>^a 

and with Seeliger's theory as 

I — sin ^ a tan j4 a loge cot % a 

where r is the distance of the companion from Siritts and a the 
phase-angle, or angle at the companion between Sirius and the 
Earth. 

Mt. Hamilton, Cal., May 25, 1896. 

Brightness of the Companion of Sirius in Terms of its 

Brightness at Discovery. 



^^ . MBK 


EULBR'S 


Theory. 


Sbeliger' 


5 Theory. 




Date. 










Remarks. 




I. 


II. 


I. 


II. 




1862.2 


1. 00 


1. 00 


I.OO 


I.OO 


Discovery. 


64.0 


1.08 


0.96 


1.08 


0.95 




66.0 


1. 18 


0.94 


I.I9 


0.92 




68.0 


132 


0.92 


1-35 


0.89 




1870.0 


1.49 


0.92 


1.52 


0.88 




72.0 


1.70 


0.92 


1-75 


0.87 




74.0 


1.99 


0.93 


2.05 


0.87 




76.0 


2.37 


0.96 


2.47 


0.88 




78.0 


2.89 


1. 01 


3.04 


0.91 




1880.0 


3.62 


1.05 


3.87 


095 




82.0 


4.73 


I. II 


5." 


0.98 




84.0 


6.46 


1.20 


7.12 


1.04 




86.0 


9-39 


1.29 


10.60 


1.09 




88.0 


14.70 


1-35 


17.18 


1. 12 




1890.0 
90.27 


24.74 
26.91 


1.29 
1.27 


30.52 
33.21 


1.05 
1.03 


Last observation. 


92.0 


42.51 


1. 14 


54.73 


0.91 




94.0 


50.39 


2.47 


59.26 


2.00 




96.0 


27.65 


4.97 


30.52 


4.31 




98.0 


10.65 


4.81 


11.03 


4.50 




1900.0 


4.53 


3.77 


4.50 


3.71 




2.0 


2.60 


2.93 


2.41 


2.98 




4.0 


1. 51 


2.33 


1.50 


2.41 




6.0 


1.14 


1.94 


1. 13 


2.01 




8.0 


0.96 


1.65 


0.95 


1.71 




1910.0 


0.89 


1.45 


0.88 


1.50 




12.0 


0.82 


1.30 


0.81 


1.35 




14.0 


0.89 


1.18 


0.87 


1. 21 




16.0 


0.90 


1. 10 


0.89 


I. II 




18.0 


0.96 


1.03 


0.96 


1. 01 




1920.0 


1.03 


0.98 


1.03 


0.98 






INTERIOR VIEW OF LOWE OB5ERVATORV, ECllO MOUNTAIN. CAL. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 



' ^y^ W^V 



NOTICES FROM THE LICK OBSERVATORY. 



Prepared by Members op the Stapp. 



Memorandum on a Proposed Observatory Atlas of the 

Moon prom Negatives Taken at Mount Hamilton. 

It is proposed to publish a map of the Moor from negatives 
made with the thirty-six-inch refractor, on a scale of three Paris 
feet (= 97.45 cm = 38.36 English inches) to the Moon's diameter. 
This scale is chosen because it is the same as that of the charts 
made (visually) by Maedler and Lohrmann, and exactly 
half the size of the (visual) map made by Schmidt. These 
excellent charts will serve as indexes to the proposed photo- 
graphic map. Three feet is a scale very suitable for observatory 
uses. For other purposes, the large-scale maps now in process 
of construction by Professor Weinek, at Prague, (chiefly from 
Lick Observatory negatives), and by the Paris Observatory 
(from, thdr own excellent negatives), will be appropriate. 

The plan, at present, is to make an observatory atlas of some 
saxty sheets, each about lifleen by eighteen inches, the image 
of the Moon on each being some eleven by fourteen inches. 
Xfareesuch sheets will show the whole terminator on a single 
date.- Some eighteen or nineteen dates will be represented, each 
by at least three sheets. Charts of the full Moon, an index chart, 
and several pages of explanatory text will be added. It is hoped 
to issue the charts in heliogravure, from copperplates, similar to 
the plates in Volume III of the Publications of the Lick Observ- 
atory, quarto, 1S94. Changes will be made in the plan, if de- 
sirable. Edward S. Holden. 

Mount Hamilton, April it, 1896. 



1 88 Publications of the 

Astronomical Telegrams Received by and Sent from 

THE Lick Observatory. 

It is proposed, from now onward, to print in the Notices from 
the Lick Observatory copies or translations of the most import- 
ant astronomical telegrams received by and sent from the Lick 
Observatory. Telegrams received and sent during the years 
1 888-1896 are preserved in a special file at Mount Hamilton. 
All telegrams received here which announce any astronomical 
news of importance have been regularly sent to the San Francisco 
and San Jos^ newspapers by mail; and, in many cases, they have 
also been telegraphed. Astronomical news of importance, based 
on observations at Mount Hamilton, is always telegraphed to the 
Central Office of Astronomical Telegrams for America (the Har- 
vard College Observatory) in cipher; and also communicated, by 
telegraph or otherwise, to the Associated Press and to the United 
Press agents in San Francisco. Whenever it seems desirable 
special notices will be sent to the members of the Astronomical 
Society of the Pacific. Edward S. Holden. 

Mount Hamilton, April 16, 1896. 

Discovery of Comet b, 1896, by Dr. Lewis Swift. 

Pasadena, [Thursday] April 16, 1896.* 

To Lick Observatory, San Jos6. 

Comet Monday. Ascension three thirty-nine, north fifteen 
forty, from circles. Bright, short tail. Very slow westerly. 
Collect. Lewis Swift. 

The telegram indicates that the position refers to Monday, 
April 13th. As a matter of fact, it relates to Wednesday. The 
comet was found by Mr. Perrine, and observed by Messrs. 
HussEY and Campbell, about 8*" 30° p. m. of Thursday. At 
^h 23" p. M., a telegram was received from Boston, which proved 
to be a translation into cipher of Dr. Swift's telegram printed 
above. Three of its cipher -words were distorted. At any rate, 
it was received too late to have been of any use, as no observa- 
tions of the comet could have been made here after about 9 P. M. 



* Received at Lick Observatory, April i6, 1896. 9.27 a.m. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 189 

Observations of Comet b, i8g6, by Messrs. Hussey arid Aitken, 

The observation of Professor Hussey gave the position 

April 16.6896 G. M. T.; R. A. 3'' 38" 20'. 6; Decl. +18° 19' 32", 

aad showed the comet to be moving very slowly westward, but 
northward at the rate of two and a half degrees daily. These facts 
were telegraphed at 11.03 P. M. to Harvard College Observatory, 
to the Students* Observatory, University of California, and to the 
press. 

Telegram sent Friday, April 17th, at lo** 45"* p. m. (transla- 
tion): To H. C. O. — Comet Swift observed by Hussey, 
April 17.6710 G. M. T; R. A. 3*'37"46V3; Decl. +20° 55' 50". 
A re- reduction of the observations the next morning showed that 
for 46*. 3 we should put 46*. i. This correction was sent to the 
H. C. O. on Saturday, April i8th, at ii** 12" A. M. The correct 
position had been sent to Berkeley. April i8th was cloudy. 

Telegram sent Sunday, April 19th, at lo*" i™ p. m. (trans- 
lation): To H. C. O. — Comet Swift observed by Aitken, 
April 19.6691 G. M. T,; R. A. 3^ 35-42'.o; Decl. +26° 19' 26". 

Telegram sent Monday, April 20th, at 12*' 30°* p. m. (transla- 
tion): To H. C. O. — 

Elements and Ephemeris of Comet b, i8g6 (Swift), computed 

try Robert G. Aitken (col. I).* 

I. II. 

T = 1896 April 17.79 G. M. T April 17.65. 
a, = 2° 14' ) 1° 45' ) 

O = 177 58 [ 1896.0 178 16 > 1896.0 

,= 56 o ) 55 35 ) 

^ = 0.5645 0.5663 

The foregoing elements are from observations by Professor 
Hussey (April 16-17) ^"d Professor Aitken (April 19). 
<0— C) AA cos /3 = -5".o; A)3 = -4".o. 

Ephemeris, 

Gffccnwich Dmtc. R. A. N. P. D. Brightness. 

April 20.5 . . 3''33'°-9 61^14' 1.20 

April 24.5 . . 3 23 .7 50 31 

April 28.5 . . 3 7 .6 41 16 

May 2.5 .. 2 46 .0 33 58 0.70 

* Printed in the Seienee Observer Circular ^ No. 112, of April 21, 1896. 



iQo Publications of the 

Telegram sent to H. C. O., Monday, April 20th, at 5* o" p.m. 
(translation): The orbit presents some resemblance to that of 
the first comet of 1822. 

Telegram received from Berkeley, Monday, April 20th, at 
lo** 20" p. M. (translation): 

Elements of Comet by i8g6 (Swift), computed by K. O, 

Leuschner and F. H. Seares.* 

[The elements as received are given in column II above, for 
ready comparison with those of Professor Aitken.] 

The Use of the Science Observer Code in Foreign 

Countries. 

A letter just received from Professor Kreutz, of Kiel, gives 
the following particulars regarding the use of the Science Ob- 
server code in the transmission of astronomical telegrams to and 
from the Central Bureau of Astronomical Telegrams, at Kiel: 

** Telegrams from America are received by the S. O. code. 
Telegrams from Kiel to America, Africa, Australia, and Madras 
are also sent by the S. O. code. On the Continent of Europe a 
number-code is employed, which has worked extremely well. 
Five figures (as 52687) are accepted in European telegraph 
offices as one word. On the Atlantic cables, three figures count 
as one word, while throughout the United States each figure is so 
counted. An experience of several years has shown the number- 
code to be entirely satisfactory throughout the Continent, and the 
S. O. code is seldom or never employed.*' 

The number-code used in Europe was explained in No. 49 
these Publications, It cannot be employed in the United States, 
on account of the expense. E. S. H. 

1896, April 4. 

Comet Telegrams in the Southern Hemisphere. — Ex- 
tracts from the Report of Mr. Tebbutt*s 
Observatory for 1895. 

**The telegrams announcing the discoveries of these come 
(the bright comets discovered by PERRiNEf and Brooks 
were received, respectively, on November 19th and 26th, wit 
the respective motions for the 17th and 21st, but without an 
indication of the direction of motion. 



* Printed in the Astronomical Journal No. 373, of April 30, 1896. 

t Comet c, '95, discovered November 18.1, G. M. T., at Mt. Hamilton. 

X Comet rf, '95, discovered November 21.8, G. M. T., at Geneva, N. Y. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 191 

"An opportunity did not present itself till December 2d, and 
I then swept for Brooks* Comet between 5° and 17° South 
Declination * * * * without success. On the evening of 
the same day, in answer to enquiries, a telegram was received 
from the Melbourne Observatory giving the position for Novem- 
ber 25.644, G. M. T., from which it was quite obvious that the 
search was made too far south. Cloudy weather again set in 
and continued for some days. Towards the close of December 
a very brilliant comet was reported to have been seen * * * at 
various places in New South Wales and Victoria; * * * this 
brilliant object was no other than the comet discovered by 
Perrine. 

"It is much to be regretted that beyond the original announce- 
ment of the discovery of this comet no further particulars were 
cabled to Australia. Had the elements or a few ephemeris 
positions been furnished in time, it is probable that some positions 
might have been secured. ' ' 

Total Eclipse of August, 1896 — Russian Programme. 

Russian astronomers are completing their arrangements for 
viewing the forthcoming eclipse of the Sun. The Pulkowa 
Observatory will send an expedition to the Lower Amur ; the 
Academy of Sciences has chosen Novaya Zemlya for the seat of 
its operations; so has the Kasan Society of Naturalists; while 
the Geog^phical Society will send the Director of the Irkutsk 
Meteorological Observatory, A. V. Voznesensky, to the Ole- 
minsk, on the Lena, for meteorological observations. Professor 
Glasenapp and L. G. Vuchikhovsky propose to go to Finland 
on their own account The young Russian Astronomical Society 
(it was founded only in 1891) directs its chief attention to physical 
observations, and it will have three parties of observers, provided 
with photographic appliances. The chief station will be on the 
Lena, where the duration of the eclipse is longest; and it is pro- 
posed to photograph th^re the corona by Schaeberle*s method, 
with an objective of long focal length, and also to photograph, by 
means of two spectrographs, the spectrum of the corona, as well 
as the limb of the Sun, by means of a camera provided with a 
Rutherfurd prism. At the second station, on the bay of the 
Ob, the corona will be photographed by means of several ordi- 
nary cameras; while at the third station, in the eastern part of 



192 Publications of the 

the Uleaborg province, to the north of Enontekis, the corona will 
be photographed by means of several cameras, following the 
movement of the Sun; and it is intended to establish a compari- 
son between the spectrum of the corona and that of helium. The 
usual determinations of the duration of the eclipse will be made 
at the first and third stations. — Nature, 1896, March 26, p. 492. 

Elements and Ephemeris of Comet b (Swift), 1896, by 

R. G. Aitken. 

The following elements are based on Professor Hussey's^ 
observations of April i6th and 17th, and my own of April 19th: 

T = G. M. T. April 17.7934 
n = 177° 58'-3 ) 

/ = 56 0.2 > 1896.0 

o* = 2 13.8 ) 

q =-. 0.5645 

Residuals for the middle place (O — C): 

AX cos /3 = — 5".o; A/3 = — 4".o 

The ephemeris is printed elsewhere. 
Mount Hamilton, April 20, 1896. 

Point Reyes Light Seen from Mount Hamilton. 

On March 23, 1896, the atmosphere to the west being ver>'' 
free from smoke and dust, owing to the prevalence of south and 
southeast winds, Point Reyes was distinctly visible over the hills 
south of San Francisco. It was particularly plain about sunset 
The next morning, between four and ^\^ o'clock, the light was 
also very plainly seen, flashing at intervals of ^vt^ seconds, and 
was fully iis noticeable as any of the brightest electric lights in 
San Francisco. From Stieler's atlas it is found that the dis- 
tance of Point Reyes from the Lick Observatory is about ninety- 
four miles. The sea horizon is eighty-seven miles distant at the 
altitude of the Lick Observatory. 

The Pacific Ocean was also seen over two low places in the- 
hills to the south of San Francisco. C. D. Perrine. 

March 28, 1896. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, i93 

Note ON the Discovery of Comet b, 1896. 

The following extracts from ^Professor Lewis Swift's letters 
to the Lick Observatory, relating to the discovery of Comet b^ 
1896, will be of general interest: 

Under date of Thursday, April i6th, he writes: **I tele- 
graphed you this A. M. of the discovery of a comet. I ran across 
It while comet-seeking ten days ago; but, after watching some 
time and observing no motion, I pronounced it a nebula. Monday 
night [i. e. April 13th] I ran across it again, and my suspicion 
*"as that it might be a comet after all; but before I could find it 
^itJi the large equatorial, a cloud obscured it, so I only saw it 
^'ith the 4 J^ -inch for about thirty seconds. The next night was 
clc^ndy. Last night [April 15th] I had both telescopes ready, 
arid in bright twilight picked up the object with the 4)4-inch, 
arici soon had it in the field of the 16-inch. I immediately pro- 
nounced it a comet, which, when it grew a little darker, I saw 
^^.ci an excessively faint tail. From the circles I made its posi- 
tioiio= 3*^39'"; S= + 15^40'. It is brighter than it was ten 
d^ys ago. In consequence of the absence of the telegrapher from 
t^^ mountain, I was unable to telegraph last night.** • 

On April 24th, Professor Swift writes again: **That ten 
days was an indefinite quantity, as, after reflection, my memory 
^^lls me it was several days previous to that that I ran across 
^* till the comet-seeker an object, pretty low down in the south- 
^'^^t, which greatly resembled the comet. I assumed this to be 
^- G. C. 1535. Soon after, I ran across a similar-appearing 
^^^€ct, which I took to be N. G. C. 1600, and, again, another, 
^^^ich I thought might be N. G. C. 1453. Now, whether any one 
°^ these was the comet I am unable to affirm. My belief is that 
^^«vie or all were.'* 

Professor Swift adds: ** I think the date of discovery should 
^ April 13th.** 

I have plotted the three nebulae mentioned by Professor 

SvviFT, and also the path of the comet, computing its positions 

^^^ April 3.5 and April 8.5, in addition to its positions since it 

^^^ observed at Mount Hamilton. The chart shows that the 

^^riiet passed about three degrees west of N. G. C. 1453 some 

^^rne during the afternoon or evening of April 5th. It was then 

^t>out one-half as bright as at the assumed date of discovery 

(A.pril 13th). 



194 Publications of the 

The comet's nearest approach to N. G. C. 1535 was about 
April 1st, when it passed some twelve degrees west of it. It was 
at no time nearer than fourteen degrees to N. G. C. 1600. 

It seems quite probable, therefore, that Professor Swift 
actually saw the comet some time about the 4th or 5th of April, 
mistaking it for N. G. C. 1453. R. G. Aitken. 

April 29, 1896. 

Photographs of Comet Perrine a, 1896. 

On six mornings, those of February i8th, 19th, 20th, 22d, 
23d, 25th, I secured photographs of this comet, using; the large 
Dallmeyer portrait lens belonging to Hon. W. M. Pierson, 
which I had temporarily fastened to the mounting of the six-inch 
equatorial telescope. The exposures varied in length from forty 
minutes to ninety-five minutes. All but one of the negatives 
showed the comet with at least a trace of a tail; in the first one 
taken, the tail was nearly or quite a degree long. Unfavorable 
conditions interrupted the series until March 9th, when, the 
comet having become an evening object, visible in the northwest, 
an exposure of three hours was secured. The resulting negative 
represented the comet with a tail about a degree and a half in 
length. No especially interesting features were detected in this 
series of photographs. A. L. C. 

Peculiar Phenomenon Seen at Visalia, April 18, 1896.* 

Yesterday, at 1 1 130 a. m. , the attention of several people was 
attracted to a cloud in the southern heavens, wearing the colors 
of the rainbow. When first noticed, the hues were distinct and 
bright. 

The sky at the time was partially overcast with light cirro- 
cumuli, traveling eastward at a low altitude. Through and above 
these could be plainly seen a horizontal stratum of white cloud, 
which exhibited the effect mentioned. In less than a minute the 
colors disappeared, and the cloud again became white. Twice 
again within fifteen minutes the peculiar change of hue was 
observed, but after the first time red, purple, and a light blue 
were the only shades that became distinct. — From the Visalia 
Delta, April igth. 



* Communicated by George W. Stewart, Esq. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 195 

The Manuscripts of Bessel. 

^ « 

The manuscripts of Bessel* s communications to the Astro- 
nontische Nachrichien, some ninety in number, from volume II 
onwards, are the property of the estate of the late Professor 
C. F- W. Peters. His widow, Mrs. H. Peters (Mittletrag- 
heim, 4, IV, Koenigsberg) offers these manuscripts for sale, as 
Professor Peters left no son. They have all been published, 
and science has nothing new to expect from them. But it may 
be said that modem astronomical science is built on the founda- 
tions laid down in these immortal memoirs; and, out of respect 
for the memory of Bessel, it is to be hoped that his manuscripts 
niay find a permanent home in some university or observatory 
library, and not be dispersed among the albums of autograph 
collectors. Edward S. Holden. 

1896, April 2. 

A Movable Observatory. 

Chicago, May 3d. — Sixty thousand dollars have been ex- 
pended on the construction and equipment of a great observatory, 
and a number of years of the valuable time of two noted astrono- 
mers and their assistants, will be devoted to what is expected 
to prove the most important astronomical expedition of the 
century. Percival Lowell, of Boston, has built the observa- 
tory and great telescope, and will be one of the principal scientists 
on the expedition. Dr. T. J. J. See, of the University of Chicago, 
-will b>e the other. Both are scientists of renown. Their opera- 
tions will begin in July, from the movable observatory to be 
erected on the lofty Mexican plateau near the City of Mexico, 
and will probably be continued, in 1 898, somewhere down in Peru. 

The objects of the expedition are twofold. Mr. Lowell will 
study the planet Mars in a systematical way that has seldom been 
pursued, and Dr. See will search the southern heavens for 
double stars, in the hope of doing there what Burnham, of Chi- 
cago, has done for the northern skies. 

The observatory will have one of the most powerful telescopes 
in the world. The twenty-four-inch lens has just been finished 
by Alvan Clarke, the telescope- maker of Cambridgeport, 
Mass., and, in the test, it was shown to be superior to the 
twenty-six-inch glass at the Naval Observatory in Washington. — 
Th^ Chronicle^ S. F., May 4, 1896. 



196 Publications of the 

A Bright Meteor. (May 9, 1896.) 

On May 9, 1896, I saw a very bright meteor, at lo'* 37" 58* ±: 
5* to 10*' 58" 8* zt 5', P. S. T. It was very near to Aliair 
when first seen, and almost exactly in the direction of that star. 
It was visible for ten seconds, and disappeared at a point which 
was afterwards found from a star-chart to be R. A., 19** 20"; 
Decl. - 5°. 

The meteor was ^\^ or six times as bright as Venus ^ and 
increased in brilliancy towards the end of its path. It was pear- 
shaped, and had a brilliant bluish-white nucleus, but left no train. 
It was not seen to burst, nor was any noise heard, although lis- 
tened for, for several minutes. C. D. Perrine. 

Mt. Hamilton, May 11, 1896. 

Bright Meteor, May 19, 1896. 

A meteor fully ten times as bright as Venus was seen to fall 
almost vertically through Sagittarius on the meridian of 19** from 
about —25° to —45°. It was visible for 3' from 14** 46" 12' P. 
S. T. to 14** 46" 15' P. S. T. The haze in the sky was illumi- 
nated by the meteor and disappearance took place in a stratum of 
cloud near the horizon. Its color was bluish white. 

C. D. Perrine. 

Mt. Hamilton, May 22, 1896. 

Errors in Cipher Telegrams due to the Morse-Code. 

Some of the letters of the MoRSE-Code used by telegraphers 
are liable to be interchanged in transmission. General William 
J. Palmer, President of the Rio Grande Western Railway, 
kindly furnishes the accompanying list of the most common 
errors of the sort, as shown by his own experience. 

E. S. H. 

L for t, or vice versa. 

LI '* m, 

Te '* n, 
Le '* n, 
C for r, or S, or vice versa. 



t i i ( ( i 



i i » > it 



z 


*' se, 






i ( 


C) 


*' ee, 


or 


• 

1, 


i( 


u 


" a, 


( i 






B 


'' d, 


> ( 







( > 



G '* n. 



i t 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 197 

Honor Conferred on Dr. Holden. 

The President of the United States has appointed the Director 
of the Lick Observatory to be a member of the Board of Visitors 
of the U. S. Naval Academy at Annapolis. 

Elements of Comet b, 1896 (Swift). 

The following elements are derived from Mount Hamilton 
observations of April 17th (Hussey), April 30lh (Hussev), and 
May 13th (Hussey and Aitken): 

T April 17.66330 

<a 1° 45' 32-.9 
O 178 20 14 .9 

i 55 33 53 -8 
logq 9-753438 

Residuals for the middle place: 

0-C = AVcos /3' —I ".7 
A/3' -o .5 

C. D. Perrine. 

Erratum in Star Catalogue. 

In JVeue Annalen der Muenche^ier Slemwarie, Band I, No. 
21305 is referred to as being in Schjellerup's Catalogue, but is 

not found there. 

C. D. Perrine. 
Mt. Hamilton, May 22, 1896. 



¥ 
♦ ♦ 



¥• 
* 
* 



1 98 Publications of the 

Minutes of the Meeting of the Board of Directors, 
held at the lick observatory, june i3, 1896. 

President Hussey presided. A quorum was present The minutes 
of the last meeting were approved. The following members were duly 
elected : 

List of Members Elected June 13, 1896. 

Mr. C. F. OK LANHEKo. {P-hO-^B- Ji.^-J-. ^Ute 

Library of the Observatory .... Georgetown College, D. C. 

Library of the University of Penn- \ t>u:i«^^i«u;« i>« 
SYLVANiA I Philadelphia, Pa. 

Library of Yale University New Haven, Conn. 

Prof. J. M. MCIVE. }^'J^*o"its&llabYS.r"'*^' 

Mr. John W. Stetson 906 Broadway, Oakland, Cal. 

It being announced to the Board that Professor Schaeberle, one 
of the members of the Comet-Medal Committee, is to be absent from the 
State on solar eclipse work during some months of this year, it was 

Resolved, That Mr. C. D. Pbrrinr be and he is hereby appointed a member of the 
Comet-Medal Committee, to act in Professor Schabbbrlb's place during his absence. 

It was, on motion 

Resolved^ That the moneys belonging to the Permanent Fands of the Society, 

namely: 

Alexander Montgomery Library Fund I1.857 38 

Donohoe Comet-Medal Fund 65332 

Life Membership Fund i>7SO 61 

be transferred and deposited with the following Savings Banks, namely: 

Alexander Montgomery Library Fund— 

With the San Francisco Savings Union $ 641 40 

'* " German Savings and Loan Society 61598 

'• ** Hibemia Savings and Loan Society 60000 

Si.857 38 
Donnhoe Comet- Medal Fund — 

With the San Francisco Savings Union I 25332 

" '* German Savings and Loan Society 20000 

" " Hibemia Savings and Loan Society 20000 

% 653 32 

Life- Membership Fund — 

With the San Francisco Savings Union I 55061 

" " German Savings and Loan Society 60000 

" " Hibernia Savings and Loan Society. 60000 

Ji,75o 61 
The Treasurer is instructed to carry out these transfers. 

Resolved, That F. R. Zikl, Treasurer of the Society, is hereby authorized to receive 
and receipt for moneys on deposit with the Hibernia Savings and Loan Society, and 
thai all orders musl be signed by him. 

Adjourned. 



• A star signifies life membership. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. ^99 

Minutes of the Meeting of the Astronomical Society 
OF the Pacific, held at the Lick Observatory, 

June 13, 1896. 

The meeting was called to order by President Hussey. The minutes 
of the last meeting were approved. 

The Secretary read the names of new members duly elected at the 
Directors' meeting. 

The following papers were presented : 

1. Reported Volcanic Eruptions, 1690-1895, by F. G. Plummer, of 

Tacoma. 

2. Tables of the Elements of Comets' Orbits, B. C. 372 to A. D. 1896, by 

Professor Wm. C. Winlock, of Washington. 

3. Planetary Phenomena for July and August, 1896, by Professor Mal- 

colm McNeill, of Lake Forest 

4. Observations of Dark Markings on Venus^ by Professor E. S. Holden, 

of Lick Observatory. 

5. The Companion of Sirius, and its Brightness according to Photo- 

metric Theory, by Professor W. J. Hussey, of Lick Observatory. 

Adjourned. 




200 Pttbluations of the AstroHomieal Society &c. 

OFFICERS OP THE SOCIETY.: 

W. J. Hus*iv(l..c« Ob«r.aonr). Pr. 

E, J. MoL«»A 16=6 C 





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NOTICE. 

-|-hc Aitcnii«i of n«r memben i. alltd la Article VI II of the Br.Uwi. which pravidi 

it La nakc tiur boutc.hvepine tt timpk u pooiblr- 1)u4b »ait bf mail iboold be 
It in ivantkd ihu cuh member of Ihe Sociely ilnl] rtceive a copy of vich one c 
'lit nuier. ii it requeued thai ihe 



re have b«a (iwfoniviaMlvl 'nT w| 



the numb^k lORVlhtr iitto a vduew. Conplete voIdbmi for pail yean will alio be supplitd» lo 
memlxnt oaly. w far ai the stock in band ii Bufficitpl, on Iha paymmi of two dollars lo either of 

ifa« rn^h-nliffMi Lk decided lumply by coitvenience. Ip a general way, rhv^e papers are prinivti 
linii whkh are earlier accefaed for publicaliuo. It in ntrijpmikible to wndpniof sheets of paperr* 
lo be printed to aulhort u>hi<>e residence ii, ihh wiihin the Cnited Staiti. llie reipuniibiltiv fuc 
in* vKw<i eniieued in ihe paper* prinieil leiii with the wriiart, and i> not a»iinied by the 

The tillei of papern fiir readini Uiould be conmunicaled lo either of the Secrelarie* ai early 
Ik poi^ble, a> well a> any chingei ii> addttKiA. The Secietarr in Nan tnnciMn will tend to 
any menlier of theSocietymiitabkMaiiaoeiy.iiUmpcd wiihihetealofthe Society, at coat price. 
ax follow!.: a Uuckuf letter paper, 411 cents: of note paper, a; cent*: a package of tnyelopci, ij 




PUBLICATIONS 



OF THE 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 

Vol. VIII. San Francisco, California, August i, 1896. No. 51. 



PLANETARY PHENOMENA FOR SEPTEMBER AND 

OCTOBER, 1896. 



By Professor Malcolm McNeill. 



September, 1896. 

The Sun crosses the equator and Autumn begins about 5 a.m., 
P. S. T., September 22d. 

Mercury is an evening star throughout the month, and comes 
to greatest east elongation on the morning of September 13th; 
but it is also quite far south of the Sun, and the times of setting 
are not an hour apart. It is, therefore, not in very good position 
for naked-eye observation. On the afternoon of September 24th 
it passes a little less than five degrees south of Venus ^ but there 
is not much chance of seeing it except under very favorable con- 
ditions of weather. 

Venus is also an evening star, setting not quite an hour after 
the Sun. It is so much brighter than Mercury^ that there will be 
no great difficulty in seeing it. On September 23d it passes 
about three degrees north of the first- magnitude star Spica 
(a Virginis)y and Mercury is at the same time quite near, two 
degrees south of Spica, 

Mars is beginning to get into position for evening observation. 
By the end of the month it rises before 9:30. It is moving rapidly 
eastward through Taurus from a position about four degrees 
north of the first-magnitude red star Aldebaran (a Tauri)^ on 
September ist, to the eastern part of the constellation, on 
September 30th, about fifteen degrees in all. On September ist 
it is distant from the Earth about the mean distance of the Earth 





202 Publications of the 

from the Sun, ninety-three millions of miles, and at the end 
the month it is less than eighty. It is beginning to be mu 
brighter than before, and has become quite a conspicuous obje 

Jupiter is a morning star rising more than an hour before 
Sun on September ist, and more than three hours before 
September 30th. During the month it moves about six degn 
eastward and southward in the constellation Leo^ and it is qi 
near the first-magnitude star Regulus (a Leonis), On 
morning of September 19th it passes about twenty minutes, \.\ 
thirds of the Moon's apparent diameter, north of the star. 

Saturn is still an evening star, setting about two hours earl m. er 
than at the corresponding date in August. It moves about tka: — -«e 
degrees eastward and southward in the constellation Libra^ a^^^cid 
is a little east and south of the principal star of the consteIlati«ci^ n, 
a LibrcB, The rings are apparently a little wider open thaa in 

August. 

Uranus follows after Saturn about ^\^ degrees east and th.] 
degrees south. It is so low down after sunset that it will not 
easy to see, unless in very clear weather. 

Neptune is in the constellation Taurus in the neighborhoodl of 
Mars. Mars passes about one degree north of it on the moni.i^:^"ng 
of September 24th. 

October, 1896. 

Occultations. The Moon passes over the group of the PieicM^^^^^ 
on the evening of October 23d, and many occultations can. ^ 

seen from almost any part of the United States, although "^::^he 
eastern part of the country is perhaps a little better situated ^^^ 

observation. The Moon is only two days past full, and -^^he 
immersions will come at the bright limb, and the emersions at '•^^ 
dark limb. 

Mercury passes inferior conjunction with the Sun, and chai 
from an evening to a morning star, on the afternoon of October 
Its apparent distance from the Sun rapidly increases, and it C03 
to greatest west elongation on the morning of October 
From October 20th to the end of the month, it rises nearl>^ 
hour and a half before the Sun, and is in pretty good positioa 
observation. At the close of the month it is again near the ^ 
magnitude star Spica^ about four degrees to the north. The 
of nearest approach is October 30th. 

Venus is evening star, and sets an hour and one-half l^ 
than the Sun at the close of the month. On the afternoon. 





Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 203 

>ber 15th it passes a little more than two degrees south of 
tm. It is growing a little brighter, but is not nearly as con- 
Lioas as it is when it is between greatest elongation and 
"ior conjunction. 

Mars rises before 8 P. M. at the close of the month. It is still 
ing eastward among the stars, but is gradually slowing up, 
on November ist it becomes stationary, ready to begin its 
ward motion, which it will keep up until after opposition, 
r the first of the month it is in the western part of the con- 
ation Gemini, The distance from the Earth is diminishing 
dly, and at the end of the month it is only a little more than 
r millions of miles, about ten millions greater than it will be 
pposition in December. The distance at opposition is con- 
rably greater than during the last two oppositions. 
upiter is rising earlier, only a little after i a. m. at the close 
le month. It moves ^\^ degrees eastward and southward 
ng the month, and is in the constellation Leo, 
ujUum is too close to the Sun for good observation. At the 
of the month it sets only a little more than half an hour after 
et, and it will be scarcely possible to see it with the naked eye. 
ill come to conjunction in the middle of November. 
Jranus is about four degrees east and south of Saturn^ and 
only a few minutes later. It is too close to the horizon after 
et to be seen without a telescope. 

Neptune rises at about 8 p. m. in the middle of the month, 
in the eastern part of the constellation Taurus, 

Explanation of the Tables. 

*he phases of the Moon are given in Pacific Standard time, 
le tables for Sun and planets, the second and third columns 
the Right Ascension and Declination for Greenwich noon, 
fifth column gives the local mean time for transit over the 
mwich meridian. To find the local mean time of transit for 
other meridian, the time given in the table must be corrected 
adding or subtracting the change per day, multiplied by 
fraction whose numerator is the longitude from Greenwich 
lours, and whose denominator is 24. This correction is 
om much more than 1°. To find the standard time for the 
lomenon, correct the local mean time by adding the differ- 
between standard and local time if the place is west of the 
lard meridian, and subtracting \i ^2i%\., The same rules apply 



204 Publications of the 

to the fourth and sixth columns, which give the local mean times 
of rising and setting for the meridian of Greenwich. They are 
roughly computed for Lat. 40°, with the noon Declination and 
time of meridian transit, and are intended as only a rough guide. 
They may be in error by a minute or two for the given latitude, 
and for latitudes differing much from 40*^ they may be several 
minutes out. 

Phases of the Moon, P. S. T. 

H. M. 

New Moon, Sept. 7, 5 43 a. m. 

First Quarter, Sept. 13, 8 9 P. M. 

Full Moon, Sept. 21, 2 49 p. m. 

Last Quarter, Sept. 29, 5 58 p. M. 



1896. 



The Sun. 

R. A. Declination. Rises* Transits. Sets. 

Sept. I. 10 44 +80 5 33 A.M. 12 o 6 27P.M. 

II. II 20 + 4 16 5 42 II 56A.M. 6 10 

21. II 56 + o 24 5 52 II 53 5 54 

Oct. I. 12 32 — 3 29 60 II 49 5 38 

Mercur y, 

Sept. I. 12 12 — 2 19 7 35 A.M. I 27P.M. 7 19 P.M. 
II. 12 54 — 8 23 7 59 I 30 71 

21. 13 22 — 12 27 82 I 19 6 36 

Oct. I. 13 21 — 12 20 7 20 12 38 5 56 

Venc/s. 

Sept. I. II 41 + 3 27 6 46 A.M. 12 57P.M. 7 8p.m. 
II. 12 26 — I 40 78 12 6 56 

21. 13 II — 6 46 7 31 18 6 45 

Oct. I. 13 57 — II 38 7 54 I 14 6 34 

Mars, 

Sept. I. 4 32 -f 20 48 10 33 P.M. 5 47 A.M. I I P.M. 

II. 4 53 +21 41 10 12 5 30 12 48 

21. 5 13 +22 21 9 49 5 10 12 31 

Oct. I. 5 30 +22 53 9 25 4 48 12 II 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 205 



Jupiter, 



^ r> _ ^ 


R. 


A. 


Declination. Rises. 




Transits. 


Sets. 


1896. 


H. 


M. 





H. M. 




H. 


M. 


H* Ivl* 


Sept. I. 


9 


48 


+ 14 


5 4 16 A. 


,M. 


II 


4 A.M. 


5 52 P.M. 


II. 


9 


56 


+ 13 


23 3 46 




10 


32 


5 18 


21. 


10 


4 


+ 12 


41 3 18 




10 


I 


4 44 


Oct. I. 


10 


12 


+ 12 


I 2 48 
Sa turn. 




9 


29 


4 10 


Sept. I. 


14 


50 


- 14 


4 10 52 A. 


M. 


4 


4 P.M. 


9 16 P.M. 


II. 


14 


53 


— 14 


20 10 17 




3 


28 


8 39 


21. 


14 


56 


- 14 


37 9 42 




2 


52 


8 2 


Oct. I. 


15 





— 14 55 99 




2 


17 


7 25 










Uranus. 










Sept. I. 


15 


14 


- 17 


45 II 31 A. 


M. 


4 


29 P.M. 


9 27 P.M. 


II. 


15 


16 


— 17 


51 10 53 




3 


51 


8 49 


21. 


15 


17 


- 17 


57 10 16 




3 


13 


8 10 


Oct. I. 


15 


19 


— 18 


5 9 39 
Neptune. 




2 


36 


7 33 


Sept. I. 


5 


18 


+ 21 


42 II 15 P.M. 


6 


33 A.M. 


I 51 P.M. 


II. 


5 


18 


+ 21 


42 10 37 




5 


55 


I 13 


21. 


5 


18 


+ 21 


41 9 58 




5 


16 


12 34 


Oct. I. 


5 


18 


+ 21 


41 9 19 




4 


37 


II 55A.M. 



Phases of the Moon. P. S. T. 

New Moon, Oct. 6, 2 18 p. m. 

First Quarter, Oct. 13, 6 47 a. m. 

Full Moon, Oct. 21, 8 17 a. m. 

Last Quarter, Oct. 29, 7 21 a. m. 







The Sun. 






1896. 


R. A. 

H. M. 


Declination. 

C f 


Rises. 

H. M. 


Transits. 

H. M. 


Sets. 

H. M. 


Oct. I- 


12 32 


- 3 29 


6 OA.M. 


II 49 A. M. 


5 38 P. M, 


II. 


13 9 


- 7 19 


6 12 


II 47 


5 22 


21. 


13 46 


- 10 59 


6 23 


II 45 


5 7 


31- 


14 25 


— 14 22 


6 34 


II 44 


4 54 



2o6 Publications of the 



Mercury, 

R. A. Declination. Rises. Transits. Sets. 

1896. H. M. O ^ „^ y^^ „^ j^^ „^ J,^ 

Oct. I. 13 21 — 12 20 7 20A.M. 12 38 P.M. 5 56 P.M. 

II. 12 47 — 6 2 5 44 II 24 A.M. 5 4 

21. 12 42 — 2 42 4 50 10 41 4 32 

31. 13 25 — 6 46 5 5 10 44 4 23 

Venus. 

Oct. I. 13 57 — II 38 7 54A.M. I 14P.M. 6 34P.M. 

II. 14 45 — 16 3 8 19 I 23 6 27 

21. 15 34 — 19 49 8 42 I 32 6 22 

31. 16 26 — 22 43 9 6 I 45 6 24 

Mars, 

Oct. I. 5 30 + 22 53 9 25 P.M. 4 48A.M. 12 II P.M. 

II. 5 44 +23 19 8 58 4 22 II 46A.M. 

21. 5 53 +23 44 8 27 3 53 II 19 

31. 5 57 + 24 10 7 50 3 18 10 46 

Jupiter, 

Oct. I. 10 12 + 12 I 2 48 A.M. 
II. 10 19 + II 22 2 18 
21. 10 26 + 10 46 I 47 
31. 10 32 + 10 13 I 16 

Sa turn, 

Oct. I. 15 o — 14 55 9 9A.M. 2 17P.M. 7 25 P.M. 

II. 15 4 - 15 H 8 35 I 42 6 49 

21. 15 9 — 15 33 8 I 17 6 13 

31. 15 13 - 15 53 7 28 12 32 5 36 

Uranus. 

Oct. I. 15 19 — 18 5 9 39 A.M. 2 36P.M. 7 33 P.M. 

II. 15 21 - 18 13 9 3 I 59 6 55 

21. 15 24 — 18 21 8 26 I 22 6 18 

31. 15 26 - 18 30 7 50 12 45 5 40 



9 29 A.M. 


4 10 P. M 


8 57 


3 36 


8 24 


3 I 


7 51 


2 26 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 207 







Neptune. 






w _ ^ 


R. A. 


Declination. Rises. 


Transits. 


Sets. 


1896. 


H. M. 


«!■ Mi* 


H« JM • 


H. M. 


Oct. I. 


5 18 


+ 21 41 9 19 P.M. 


4 37 A.M. 


II 55 A.M. 


II. 


5 18 


4-21 40 8 39 


3 57 


II 15 


21. 


5 17 


+21 39 7 59 


3 17 


10 35 


31- 


5 17 


+21 38 7 19 


2 37 


9 55 




MAI 


?5, BY PERCIVAL 


LOWELL. 

.L. 






By W. W. Campbel 





Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1895; 8vo, pp. 228 + VIII, XXIV 
Illustrations. 

[Reprinted from the original in Scienc€.\ 

I am pleased to comply with the Editor's request for a review 
of Mr. Lowell's interesting book. 

The reviewer of a work on organic evolution would find it 
difficult to avoid mentioning Darwin. Schiaparelli holds a 
similar place in the literature of Mars, An intelligent criticism 
of any recent book on Mars must consist largely of a review of 
Schiaparelli* s observations and ideas. Of his predecessors it 
will be well to mention, for the benefit of non -astronomical readers, 
the following: {a) Galileo (16 10), who discovered the phases 
of the planet, thereby proving that its light, though very red, 
is really reflected sunlight; (J>) Huvghens (1659), who first 
observed markings on the surface; {c) Cassini (1666), who 
determined the length of the Martian day, and discovered the 
white polar caps; {d^ Sir Wm. Herschel (1783), who observed 
the waxing and waning of the polar caps with the seasons; 
{e) Beer and Maedler. who published the first map of the 
planet's surface features, and discovered at least three of the 
so-called canals; ( /) Dawes (1864), whose drawings show a 
dozen of the canals: and (^g) Hall (1877), who discovered the 
two satellites. 

Schiaparelli' s work extends continuously from 1877 o^^- 
It is impossible to do justice to his labors in this article. He 
extended our knowledge of the planet enormously in nearly every 
line — in reference to the polar caps, the so-called seas and con- 



2o8 Publications of the 

tinents, but especially in reference to the so-called canals, t 
appearance and disappearance, their doubling, etc. His er 
work bears the impress of a scientific spirit par excellence. 
observations cover the period 1877-92, but his technical results 
comprised in a few papers, and a dozen octavo pages sufiia 
a masterly popular exposition of his general results. His 1 
papers contain at least the suggestion of all the theories rece 
exploited by popular writers, though he was not concerned 
establishing a theory, but rather with ascertaining facts. 

ScHiAPARELLi's remarkable observations of the networl 
straight canals and their doubling were questioned for years, 
the confirmation they finally received at Nice and elsew! 
largely removed the doubt. 

Mr. Lowell's book on Mars is based upon the Flag 
(Arizona) observations made by himself between May 31 
November 20, 1894, and by Professor W. H. Pickering 
Mr. A. E. Douglass between May, 1894, and April, \\ 
Mr. Lowell delivered a lecture under the auspices of the B05 
Scientific Society on May 22, 1894, in which he is repoi 
(^Boston Commonwealth for May 24, 1894) to have announced 1 
his observatory — not yet completed — was for the purpose 
making *'an investigation into the conditions of life in ot 
worlds, including last but not least their habitability by bei 
like or unlike man. This is not the chimerical search some r 
suppose. On the contrary, there is strong reason to believe 1 
we are on the eve of pretty definite discovery in the matter." 

Speaking of Schiaparelli*s canals on MarSy Mr. Low: 
is reported to have said in his lecture, •*The most self-evi( 
explanation from the markings [canals] themselves is prob; 
the true one; namely, that in them we are looking upon 
result of the work of some sort of intelligent beings. * * 
the amazing blue network on Mars hints that one planet bes 
our own is actually inhabited now. * * * we stand upon 
threshold of a knowledge of our closest of kin in the worl 
space, of the most important character.*' 

Mr. Lowell went direct from the lecture-hall to his obse 
tory in Arizona; and how well his observations established 
pre-observational views is told in his book. In outline, his 
elusion is that there is a scarcity of water on Mars; that 
melting of the polar snows is the source of water supply for 
planet; that a network of straight canals conducts the water i 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 209 

the poles over the planet; that what we see and call canals are 
not water, but vegetation along the banks — a suggestion made 
several years ago by Schiaparelli and by Professor Picker- 
ing ; that since the canals are all straight, /. e, , run on great 
circles, and are of uniform width, and in general several of them 
intersect in one point, then they probably are the handiwork of 
the Martian inhabitants; that the planet is probably inhabited by 
highly intelligent beings; and that the irrigation problem is their 
chief concern. 

It will be seen that Mr. Lowell's results agree perfectly with 
his pre-observational views quoted above; but in justice to him 
It must be said that he has written vigorously and at length 
(PP- 1 58-161) of the dangers of bias on the part of those having 
preconceived notions, and in numerous paragraphs throughout 
the book severely criticises those who write on the subject with- 
out having made the observations. So I suppose we shall have 
to forget his remarkable preliminary lecture. 

Before examining Mr. Lowell's evidences of intelligent 

oeing^ on Mars^ let us look at his idea of how the world would 

receive such a discovery. He believes the world would not 

Welcome it. ** To be shy of anything resembling himself is part 

^nd parcel of man's own individuality. * * * the civilized 

thinker instinctively turns from the thought of mind other than 

the One he knows." Various astounding hypotheses ** commend 

themselves to man, if only by such means he may escape the 

^^niuision of anything approaching his kind. * * * It is 

Simply an instinct, like any other, the projection of the instinct 

of self-preservation." 

*~Iere Mr. Lowell is certainly wrong. In my opinion he has 

alcer\ the popular side of the most popular scientific question 

. ^^t. The world at large is anxious for the discovery of intel- 

'^^■^t: life on MarSy and every advocate gets an instant and large 

^^*^nce. Scientific men are quite ready to admit the possibility 

^'^^ wherever the environment is shown to be suitable. While 

^^n safely say that other suns than ours have their planets, and 

*^^ of those planets probably support life, yet only two cases 

-^^^ come under satisfactory observations; the E^rth and the 

^^^n. The former is inhabited; we may safely say the latter is 

. • In size certainly, and in physical condition probably, Mars 

.^^^^mewhat nearer the Moon than the Earth; and while the 

^*'"*^ative side of the question, ** Is Mars inhabited? " will get 



210 



Publications of the 




at least a just hearing, those who advocate that side must prepj 
the burden of proof. 

Speaking of the melting of the northern polar cap of Ma 
ScHiAPARELLi wrote in 1892, **From this arises a singul 
phenomenon which has no analogy upon the Elarth. At t 
melting of the snows, accumulated at that pole during the lo 
night of ten months or more, the liquid mass produced in t 
operation is diffused around the circumference of the sno 
region, converting a large zone of surrounding land into 
temporary sea, and filling all the lower regions. This produ 
a gigantic inundation * * * the white spot of snow is s 
rounded by a dark zone, which follows its perimeter in 
progressive diminution, upon a circumference ever more a 
more narrow. The outer part of this zone branches out into d 
lines, which occupy all the surrounding region, and seem to 
distributary canals, by which the liquid mass may return to 
natural position. This produces in these regions very extensi 
lakes. * * * This inundation is spread out to a great distan 
by means of a network of canals, perhaps constituting the pri 
cipal mechanism (if not the only one) by which water (and wi 
it organic life) may be diffused over the arid surface of 
planet; because on Mars it rains very rarely, and perhaps ev 
does not rain at all. * * * Such a state of things does n 
cease until the snow, reduced to a minimum area, ceases to melr 
Then the breadth of the canals diminishes, the temporary 
disappears, and the yellow region again returns to its form 
condition. The different phases of these vast phenomena ar- 
renewed at each return of the seasons, and we have been able t 
observe them in all their particulars very easily during the opposi- ^ 
tions of 1882, 18S4, 1886, when the planet presented its northernr^ 
pole to terrestrial spectators. The most natural and most simpl 
interpretation is that to which we have referred, of a great inunda 
tion produced by the melting of the snows. * * * W 
conclude therefore that the canals are such in fact, and not only 
in name;' * ^ * that the lines called canals are truly great 
furrows or depressions in the surface of the planet, destined for 
the passajuj^e of the liquid mass, and constituting for it a true 
hydro)Li:^raphic system."* 

At the 1894 opposition, the axis oi Mars was tilted so that the 







•For this and other passages from Schiaparei-li's Italian papers, I am indebted to 
Professor Pickkring's translation in Astronomy and Astro-Physics, 1894. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 2 1 1 

region between the south pole and forty degrees north latitude 
was presented to terrestrial observers, the north polar region 
^ing hidden from sight. Mr. Lowell's observations covered 
one- fourth of the Martian year, from May ist to August ist, 
Martian time. His book pays special attention to the melting of 
the south polar cap, and to what he considers to be the train of 
related phenomena; since around and upon those phenomena 
he builds his argument for intelligent life on that planet. On 
May 1st, Martian time, the south cap was 'Mn rapid process of 
melting. * * * As it melted, a dark band appeared sur- 
rounding it on all sides. Except, as I have since learned, at 
Arequipa, this band has never, I believe, been distinctively noted 
^r commented on before, which is singular, considering how con- 
spicuous it was at Flagstaff." (This last sentence is indeed 
surprising, as scores of drawings published in 1892 and earlier 
show this dark band very conspicuously; it is well known to all 
observers of MarSy and Schiaparelli's description of the same 
phenomena at the melting of the north polar cap is very familiar. ) 
* As the snows dwindled, the blue band shrunk in width to 
<^orrespond,'* and finally when the cap had entirely disappeared, 
*te encircling dark band had also vanished. Mr. Lowell believes 
^*^e dark band was water, and that it disappeared by flowing away 
^*"oni the pole toward the equator in canals, circulating through 
^*^e planet's arid regions. In proof thereof he submits that he 
observed a slow wave of dark area to advance equator-ward 
^'^ the poles; that the canals nearest the south pole grew dark, 
thereby became visible first; then those nearer the equator; 
. '^^n those at the equator; and finally those north of the equator; 
^ other words, in the order that water flowing from the south 
Pole vould reach different parts of the planet. 

^t will be seen that the Flagstaff" observations upon the melting 

^^e south polar cap and the flow of water therefrom are 

^'^tiical with those made (and published) by Schiaparelli in 

^ erase of the north polar cap in 1882, . 1884, 1886; but 

^^^ observations by Schiaparelli are not mentioned in 

*"• I-OWELL's book. The Flagstaff" observations in a measure 

^^ftrm Schiaparelli's general results, and extend them to the 

* n of the south pole. 



f the origin of the canal system, Schiaparelli writes 
• ^^^tainingly: ** Their singular aspect, and their being drawn 
absolute geometrical precision, as if they were the work of 




2 1 2 Publications of the 

rule or compass, has led some to see in them the work of ia 
ligent beings, inhabitants of the planet. I am very careful no 
combat this theory, which includes nothing impossible. * * 
The network formed by these was probably determined ia^ its 

origin in the geological state of the planet, and has come to be 

slowly elaborated in the course of centuries. It is not neces^s^^sHiy 
to suppose them the work of intelligent beings, and notwith- 
standing the almost geometrical appearance of all of their systi^^ m, 
we are now inclined to believe them to be produced by "^ihe 
evolution of the planet, just as on the Earth we have the Eng-l msh 
Channel and the Channel of Mozambique.*' 

Of the gemination of the canals, Schiaparelli writes: * * In 
consequence of a rapid process, which certainly lasts at most a £^sw 
days, or even perhaps only a few hours, * * ♦ a giv^cn 
canal changes its appearance, and is found transformed throts^ 
all its length into two lines or uniform stripes, more or less paraJiel 
to one another, and which run straight and equal with the ex^ict 
geometrical precision of the rails of a railroad. * ♦ ♦ <3iie 
of these is often superposed as exactly as possible upK>n the fornner 
line, the other being drawn anew. * * * But it also happ^'is 
that both the lines may occupy opposite sides of the former canal, 
and be located upon entirely new ground. The distance between 
the two lines differs in different geminations, and varies from 3^ 
miles and more, down to the smallest limit at which two lines 
may appear separated in large visual telescopes — less than ^^ 
interval of thirty miles." Schiaparelli explains that ^^^ 
variations might be the result of ** extensive agricultural latH^^ 
and irrigation upon a large scale. Let us add further that tnc 
intervention of intelligent beings might explain the geomet^'*^' 
appearance of the gemination, but it is not at all necessary 
such a purpose. The geometry of nature is manifested in m 
other facts, from which are excluded the idea of any artifi^^* 



labor whatever. * * * It would be far more easy if we W 
willing to introduce the forces pertaining to organic natt*- 
Here the field of plausible supposition is immense, being cap^ "^ 
of making an infinite number of combinations, capable of sa"^ 
fying the appearances even with the smallest- and* simplest' me^ 
Changes of vegetation over a vast area * * * may well 
rendered visible at such a distance. * * * For us, who \Lt^^^ ^ 
SO little of the physical state of Mars, and nothing of its oi 



life, the great liberty of possible supposition renders arbitrary 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 213 

:ions of this sort, and constitutes the gravest obstacle to 
lisition of well-founded notions." 

, in effect, is all that Schiaparelli has written by way 
mation of his remarkable discoveries, and he who runs 
d his scientific mind. 

Lowell's book contains a beautiful map of the portion 
s lying between seventy south and forty north latitude 
rcator's projection). It represents the ensemble of the 
al sketches made by Messrs. Lowell, Pickering, and 
vss at Flagstaff in November, 1894. It contains 183 
ying both in the light and dark regions of the planet, 
e lying in the light reddish region, sixty-seven appear 
lentical with those discovered by Schiaparelli and his 
ssors, and seventy- two appear to be new. Mr. Douglass 
ted with the discovery of forty-four canals in the dark 
of the planet. I infer from Mr. Lowell's book that the 
1 the dark regions were not seen and confirmed by either 
WELL or Professor Pickering, though they were observ- 
rs at the same time and place. Evidently, then, these 
tions at Flagstaff were difficult, and Mr. Lowell con- 
:hem to be new, though they are not new. In 1892 
>r ScHAEBERLE observed them, and wrote that ** Cross- 
darker areas are still darker streaks which often extend 
is of miles in nearly straight lines. One end of a given 
usually terminates in the equatorial region at a point 
he dark area protrudes into the bright area, and the 
d canals seem to be continuations of the streaks." 
ations A. S. P., IV, 197). It was often noticed in 1894 
ivriter and other Lick observers that the dark areas on 
ere composed of a mass of details so complex as to defy 
jghtsman's skill; but I think Mr. Douglass at Flagstaff 
)nly observer who has verified Professor Schaeberle's 
)servations, that these markings were arranged in nearly 
lines. If the observations by Messrs. Schaeberle and 
ASS are to extend the canal system over the dark areas, 
ScHiAPARELLi's extend them over the bright areas, they 
ite the most important recent advance in Martian work. 
:ent observations of canals or other details within the dark 
he recent spectroscopic and polariscopic observations, all 
y oppose the favorite theory that the dark areas are seas, 
►port the common theory that the bright areas are land. 




214 Publications of the 

Mr. Lowell observed a few double canals — probably a fou^>^ 
as many as Schiaparelli saw. 

At the exact point where two or more canals cross each otS* ^» 
the observers noticed that there was, in nearly every case, a 4^3i-ik 
circle or oval spot, acting as the hub from which the canals radi^^t^ 
as spokes. To these swollen junctions Mr. Lowell applies ^tlie 
name ** oases." A few of these spots were observed by Scm: '^ -^' 
PARELLi and others, but the Flagstaff observers have gre^»-*^ly 
extended the list. 

As explained above, Mr. Lowell accepts the suggest i ^^"^ 
made by Schiaparelli and others that the canals form <zX^e 
planet's hydrographic system; that the changes observed may ^^ 
due to vegetation, to irrigation on a large scale. He holds tX -fc-^t 
the visible canals and the ** oases" are due to vegetation alc^ ^^^% 
the lines of the real canals; and that the whole system essentia*^ ^ ^X 
proves, or at least renders it very probable, that Mars is inhabil 
by a highly intelligent race whose chief concern is irrigatii 
His argument is made with great skill. Every fact is considei — ^^^^ 
to point in that direction, and every observed phenomenon 
considered to be accounted for, though in explaining t 
mysterious doubling of the canals he admits that **we are h< 
very much in the dark." It is held that the canals being v^ei 
in character, and watered from the melting snow at the poles, 
seasonal, developing in the order of their distance (in time) fr< 
the poles, and reach their highest development at or short 
after the time of summer solstice. Such, in fact, is the train 
phenomena which Mr. Lowell claims to have observed, stardi 
from the south pole and extending to about forty degrees nOi 
latitude. Schiaparelli observed similar phenomena in t 
vicinity of the north pole, when that region was in position 
observation. His sketches, made at or shortly after the north< 
summer solstice, cover the region from the north pole to ab( 
forty degrees south latitude. 

Let us examine Mr. Lowell's irrigation scheme. A hydraua ^ic 
engineer v;ould ask some questions which Mr. Lowell does r"^ o^ 
discuss in his book. In the southern summer Mr. Lowell 1^*-^^ 
the planet's surface covered with canals running in every dir^^^* 
tion, from the south pole to at least forty-three degrees no^^^*^ 
latitude, as far as the tilted position of Mars permitted him ^^ 
see. We do not know but that they extended entirely to t:Xi^ 
north pole. \vi the northern summer Schiaparelli's system ^^ 





Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 215 

als extended from the north pole southward to thirty degrees 
th latitude, or further; in fact, as far as the position of the 
net permitted him to observe them. And it is agreed by 
. Lowell that his principal canals are identical with 
-JiAPARELLi's. So we are asked to believe that the equa- 
.al region of Mars, forming a strip at least seventy degrees 
le, can be and is irrigated from both the north and south 
es; the '* canals'* in the two cases of opposite flow being 
ntical ! The corresponding problem on the Earth would be to 
gate San Francisco, Chicago, New York, Rome, Tokyo, 
-n the snow melting at the South Pole; and to irrigate 
paraiso. Cape of Good Hope, Australia, from the snow 
I ting at our North Pole; all the irrigated land lying between 
w York, etc., on the north and the Cape of Good Hope, etc., 

the south, to be irrigated alike from the North and South 
cs. Mr. Lowell ventures no explanation of how this engi- 
rring problem is to be worked out, though he does state that the 
lals form a system ** precisely counterparting what a system 
irrigation would look like; and, lastly, that there is a set of 
>ts placed where we should expect to find the land thus 
ificially fertilized, and behaving as such constructed oases 
>uld." 

If the visible canals are due to irrigated vegetation in strips 
*ty to sixty and more miles wide, traversing the planet's 
&ce in straight lines in every direction, all the canals hundreds 

many of them thousands of miles long, from four to ten 
als radiating from a common point, intersecting at all angles 
"eat many other canals radiating from other centers, — how is 

^vater distributed over this large and complex area ? It 
ts from the polar snows, we are told, and flows thousands of 
s to and beyond the torrid zone, spreading in a general way 
* the whole planet. Do these streams lie in the valleys, or on 
slopes and ridges? There is no evidence whatever that the 
^ce is remarkably level. The canals, apparently, do not turn 
^ from anything. The path of least resistance seems to be 
nown. 

^he crater Tycho, on our Moon, is the center of a system of 
kings radiating in all directions, in straight lines, hundreds 

thousands of miles. They cross hills and valleys with perfect 
flference. Because they are straight, and radiate from a center, 
they have an intelligent personal origin ? 



2 1 6 Publications of the ^ 

Is a seasonal change on Mars evidence of an intelligent p€i>p>u- 
lation ? The virgin forests and prairies of America donned ^i.»d 
doffed their annual green suit even better before the adveral: of 
man than to-day. 

The organic origin of the dark areas on Mars has great slA- 
vantages, as Schiaparelli said; but the addition of intellig^^nt 
beings to the hypothesis adds to, rather than removes, tilie 
difficulties, and leads to pure speculation. If we attempt ^w 
explanation of the irrigation system, we can, in our dilem m^, 
only say that the Martians are more intelligent than we are ! 

The most striking feature of the Flagstaff observations relates 
to the detection of a large number of canals and ** oases." It: is 
a question how far these observations have had confirmation, slx\A 
how far they need it. The observations of forty-four canals in til^e 
dark areas by Mr. Douglass confirm Professor Schaeberl^^^'s 
1892 observations, but they were evidently not seen by Messx^- 
Lowell and Pickering. 

Mr. Lowell gives a long list of canals in the bright ar^^^» 
but it is uncertain whether or not they were seen by more Htm,^^ 
one observer. His list contains nine canals that were seen ^^^ 
only one occasion ; they are drawn on the final map and gi'^'"^^ 
names. His list contains one canal that was not seen at ^^^*^ 
but on 0716 occasion was susp€cted\ it is put on the map and gi'%/'^° 
a name. 

Mr. Lowell accepts the line of reasoning put forth 
Proctor and others as to the extent of Mars' atmosphere, vi 
that the mass of terrestrial atmosphere is to the mass of Mat 
atmosphere as the mass of the Earth is to the mass of Ma- 
which leads to the result that the density of the atmosphere at XZ^ 
surface of Mars is about half the density of our atmosphere at t^ 
summit of the Himalayas. This is in complete harmony wi^ ^^ 
the Lick spectroscopic results of 1894, which pointed to th^^^ 
density as the maximum limit, but is quite out of harmony wff^ — ^ 
the earlier spectroscopic results. 

It is well known that the atmosphere of Mars is practica^^^*^ 
cloudless. There is some evidence of clouds near the terminat ^^^ 
(sunrise and sunset line), and some in favor of occasional srar^=^^ 



clouds over the portions fully exposed to the Sun's light and he^s=^ 
For two or three weeks in October, 1894. all the sur&ce featui — ^^^ 
were partially obscured and rendered indistinct, as if by a genei 
haziness, after which they again became distinct. Mr. Lowei 




Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 217 

that the Flagstaff observers saw several hundred clouds 
terminator, though he makes no use of them in explain- 
rs' hydrographic system. They are not needed for 
1 purposes. The atmosphere is supposed to be very rari- 
polar snows melt, and the water in some manner evaporates 
atmosphere to form the polar caps by precipitation the 
\ winter. If snow is precipitated at the cold poles, why 
lot rain be precipitated in the warmer regions ? If the 
ere is thin and takes up the evaporated water in a clear 
^, why should not the rarified atmosphere cool rapidly at 
d rain be precipitated, especially in the valleys ? If the 
eric circulation is slow, as it is supposed to be, the visible 
" night rains could well progress from the poles toward 
tor, through the valleys, and a delicate system of surface 
)uld not have to be provided. This is not put forth as a 
f the canal system, except to emphasize the fact that we 
ive Nature a chance to do this work before we resort to 
irrigation. 

590, there began at Mount Hamilton a new class of 
Ions on Mars, relating to the bright projections on the 
Dr. Similar observations were made in 1892 and 1894. 
no doubt that they are very important, and great stress 
on them. There are. some arguments in favor of their 
>uds, but many more in favor of their being mountains, 
erved phenomena are fully explained by supposing a 
1 chain to lie across the terminator and to disappear 
^ht by the planet's diurnal rotation. The observed 
ns were such as would be produced by the Sun shining 
lountain tops outside the terminator, and the observed 
depressions were such as would be formed by the 
of the mountain range lying within the terminator, 
ing the 1894 Flagstaff observations of the terminator by 
JGLASS, Mr. Lowell writes that " Of the 736 irregu- 
)bserved, 694 were not only recorded, but measured. 
, 403 were depressions. It is singular, in view of their 
ibility, that, with the exception of Schroeter, in the 
jry, no one should have noticed them before.** 
^OWELL rejects 346 out of 403 depressions as not real, 
y lay on the dark areas of the planet and were due to the 
rradiation at those places. He holds that the remaining 
^sions were due to clouds within the terminator, and 



2i8 Publications of the 

the 291 projections were clouds outside the terminator; bec^-use 
if they were mountains, the number of depressions should eq'Jal 
the number of projections. To my mind the argument is t^^\. 
convincing. If we remove 196 of the projections which ^^^^ 
described as **long and low,** and which some experience in 
observing them leads me to ascribe to excessive irradiation , "^wre 
shall have left 95 projections and 57 depressions of the '^sho^rt 
and sharp variety.** When we consider that these clouds or 
mountains (or something else) are immersed in an illuminat^i 
atmosphere, we cannot expect the projections and depressions ^0 
be equal in number. The problem will not be settled until it is 
determined whether or not the projections occupy fixed and x3nt 
same positions at many successive oppositions — the phase aarmd 
atmospheric conditions being equal. 

I confess my inability to unravel Mr. Lowell's discussioi^ 
of Mr. Douglass's observations. When it was a question of 
detecting a twilight effect, it was the illuminated atmosphe^^ 
which formed the visible and measurable terminator. When i^ 
was a question of proving that Mars^wd^ extremely level, and won W 
therefore lend itself to general irrigation, it was the land surfatc^ 
that formed the visible terminator; and since this terminator w^s 
always ** comparatively smooth, * * * we know that, rd^' 
tively to his size, he has no elevations or depressions on t**^ 
surface comparable to the lunar peaks and craters.*' Lastly, tl^^ 
several hundred irregularities observed on the terminator, varyi^^^ 
from those extremely high to those very low, were attributed ^^ 
clouds. The terminator, then, is formed by the illuminat:^^ 
atmosphere, and not by the land surface; secondly, there are ^^ 
significant elevations and depressions on the surface because t^** 
terminator, formed by the land surface, is comparatively smoo**** 
and thirdly, the extensive irregularities on the terminator, wl»i^ 
*'may be seen every night,*' are due to clouds. 

Mr. Lowell writes of the "long and low" irregularities, tl^^^ 
the projections averaged o". 136 in height; the depressions, o".:^ ^^ 
in depth. These are the distances from the approximate*/ 
elliptic arc that would have formed the apparent terminator if 'C:^'^^ 
irregularities had not existed. Thus we have the heights of '^^^^ 
irregularities from a curve that did not exist given to th. '^^ 
decimals of a second of arc ! And there is nothing to sl». ^^ 
that the varying distances of the planet were taken into accoim ^^ 
either. Every practical astronomer knows that the Jirsi decin''* 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 219 

place is uncertain; the systematic errors in such cases can easily 
and generally do exceed a tenth of a second. To say that the 
results are accurate because they are the mean of a large number 
of observations, is to say that if a stranger to Colorado's clear 
atmosphere should waken unexpectedly on Pike's Peak and guess 
the distances to several hundred neighboring peaks, the mean of 
all the guesses would be very near the average distance. 

There is not much demand for mathematical analysis in a 
popular book on Mars, nor is the application of that little always 
happy. On pages 133-134, after stating that practically all the 
canals follow the arcs of great circles, and necessarily appear 
curved when viewed obliquely, the author writes: ** Apparent 
straightness throughout is only possible in comparatively short 
lines. For a very long arc [of a great circle] upon the surface of 
a revolving globe tilted toward the observer, to appear straight 
in its entirety, it must lie due north and south." This is 
incQn^t. If the apparent center of the planet's disc is at eigh- 
teen degrees south latitude, which was the average for Mars in 
1894, then every arc of every great circle that can be drawn in 
*ny direction through any point that lies on the minus eighteen 
degree circle of latitude will appear straight twice every day. An 
"^finite number of such circles can be drawn. 

Mr. Lowell found that the surface markings on Mars came 
to the central meridian about twenty minutes later than the 
predicted time; a discrepancy, it should be said, to which Pro- 
fessor Keeler called special attention in 1892. 

To what extent Mr. Lowell's future observations will modify 
"^ map is uncertain. Drawings of Mars by different observers, 
e\'en on the same night and with the same telescope, are prover- 
b^ally different So far as the drawings by the three Flagstaff 
observers have been published, the proverb still seems to be in 
force. 

Mr. Lowell is entitled to great credit for devoting his private 
nieans so generously to establishing and conducting an observa- 
^^T^f and for his efforts in search of the best, but imperfect, 
atmospheric conditions. He is likewise fully aware of the neces- 
^^ of making the observations continuously and systematically. 
Whatever advances Mr. Lowell may have made in Martian 
^^^y, or may make in the future, will be fully accredited to him, 
^^ Warmly welcomed by all astronomers. 

^r. Lowell's book is written in a lively and entertaining 



220 Publications of the 

style, and is printed and illustrated faultlessly. It is true that th 
theories advanced are mostly old ones, suggested by Schiap^ 
RELLi, Pickering, and others, many of them having bee 
elaborated by Flammarion and others; but Mr. Lowell fa- 
presented them very fully and suggestively. Scientifically, tl 
leading faults of the book are : first, that so elaborate an argume 
for intelligent life on the planet, embracing a complex system 
seasonal changes, should be based upon observations coveric 
only one- fourth of only one Martian year; and second, th 
there should be so many evidences of apparent lack of &miliari 
with the literature of the subject. 

Lick Observatory, University of California. 



''NOVAr Z CENTAURI AND THE NEBULA SUl 

ROUNDING IT. 



Bv William J. Husskv. 



Last December a * ' new ' ' star, very near the bright nebi 
N. G. C. 5253, in the constellation Ceniaurus was announced 
the Harvard College Observatory in their Circular No. 4, 
having been discovered by Mrs. Flemming from an examinat 
of the Draper Memorial photographs taken at Arequipa, Penz 

The Circular states that no trace of this star can be found 
fifty-five plates taken from May 21, 1889, to June 14, i^ 
inclusive; that it appears as 7.2 magnitude on the plates of Ju5 
and 10, 1895, and as 10.9 on one of December 16, 1895; tM 
on December 19th, it was estimated at eleventh magnitude 
Mr. Wendell, with the fifteen-inch equatorial at Cambridge 

The Circular says: **The spectrum is unlike those of the wr. 
stars in Atirzga, Norma and Carina, yet this object is like tti 
in other respects. All were very faint or invisible for several ye^ 
preceding their first known appearance. They suddenly attaif? 
their full brightness and soon began to fade.*' 

In the Cordoba Durchmusterwig there is a star (C. DM.- 
31° 10536), magnitude 9.5, having very nearly the position of tl 
nebula N. G. C. 5253. The Nova's position diflfers from that 
the nebula by only i'.4 in Right Ascension and 18" in Dedii 
tion, so that it was uncertain whether the C DM. star referred 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 221 

the nebula, or to the Nova. In a small telescope with low power 
the appearance of the nebula is such that it might easily be 
mistaken for a star, 9.5 magnitude, though careful observation 
shows it to be hazy. This circumstance increases the uncertainty 
mentioned above. 

On the nights of December 22, 1895 and January 2, 1896, 
Professor Campbell measured the relative positions of the Nova, 
the nebula and three neighboring stars and compared the 
Nova*s position with a Cordoba Zone star. In January and 
February I repeated these measurements. We obtained a close 
agreement of the nebula and C. DM.— 31^ 10536, both in mag- 
nitude and position. This rendered it all but certain that the 
C. DM. star refers to the nebula. 

At the time of making our measurements, we also estimated 

the brightness of the Nova. The relative positions of the Nova^ 

the nebula and the stars used for comparison are shown in the 

accompanying diagram; the positions are as seen in an inverting 



I 
Nebula N. G. C. 5253 

v« Nova 

D 



^^^^Scope. The diagram includes 24' of Right Ascension and 4' of 
^^^lination, the center being at a = 13*' 32'" 48', 8 = — 30^ 59', 
merred to equinox of 1875.0. The star A is given in the Cor- 
doba Duchmusterung as 9'".7. The others have been estimated as 
fellows: B, lo-; C, lo^^"; D, 14^"; E, i5>4"*; and F, 16X" 

According to our estimates (see Astronomical Journal, No. 
371), the Nova declined in brightness from 11. 2 magnitude on 
Pecember 2 2d, to 11. 5 magnitude on February 19th. 
I again looked up the Nova on June 1 1, 1896, and found that 






222 Publications of the 

it had decreased to 14.4 magnitude, and that it was surrounded 
by a faint, irregular nebula which seemed to extend continuously 
to the bright nebula, N. G. C. 5253. 

On June 26th its brightness was estimated at 15^^, and on 
July 9th at nearly i6th magnitude. On the last date it was 
difficult to detect the star in the midst of the nebula surrounding 
it. On this date the nebula about the star was seen plainly to be 
continuous with the bright, adjacent nebula, N. G. C. 5253, of 
which it seems to be a part. When the star was brighter, the 
nebula about it was not seen; this was no doubt due to the over- 
powering light of the star, for as the star faded, the nebula became 
more and more conspicuous. 

Mount Hamilton, Cal., July 15, 1896. 



LIST OF EARTHQUAKES IN CALIFORNIA FOR 

THE YEAR 1895. 



Compiled by C. D. Perrinb. 



The following list gives the dates and places of occurrence of 
earthquakes in California (including, also, a number outside of 
the State), compiled from observations at Mount Hamilton and 
reports received at the Lick Observatory, both by letter and 
newspaper. A number of disturbances have come under our 
notice which are not properly within our province, but which 
may possibly have escaped other compilers, and are, therefore, 
included. 

This is a continuation of similar reports printed in these Pub- 
lications: Vol. II, p. 74; Vol. HI, p. 247; Vol. V, p. 127; Vol. 
VI, p. 41, and Vol. VII, p. 99. A more complete account will 
be published as a bulletin by the United States Geological Survey. 
The dates are civil dates. The times are Pacific standard (120th 
meridian). 

Roman numerals enclosed in parentheses indicate the intensity 
on the Rossi- FoREL scale. The reports of the Light-house 
Board, and of the Weather Bureau, should be consulted in this 
connection. 

There are, as yet, but few stations on the Pacific Coast 
equipped with instruments for the observation of earthquakes. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 223 

Members of the Society, therefore, can assist materially in making 
these reports more complete by sending to the Lick Observatory 
descriptions of shocks which come to their notice. 

Several cases have been mentioned by the newspapers which, 
from their nature, seem doubtful. As we have not sufficient 
evidence to warrant their omission entirely, they are indicated by 
a question mark in parenthesis. 

List of Earthquake Shocks, 1895. 
January 5 — Mt. Hamilton, 3** 4" 57' it A.M. One light shock. 

January 23— Ukiah, a.m. Heavy shock. 
January 26 — Helena (Mont), 5 a.m. 

February 25 — Portland (Oregon), Tacoma (Wash.), 4:47 a.m. 

Reported by Mr. F. G. Plummer. 
Edison, Sumner, Puyallup, and Steilacoom (Wash.). 
March i — At sea, off the Mendocino coast. Longitude, 125^ 20'; 

latitude, 40^. 
March 10 — San Miguel Island (?). 
March 12— Mt. Hamilton, 9** 34"" 17' p.m. (IV or V). 
March 22 — Steamboat Springs (Colo.), i p.m. 
April I — Eureka, 8:42 a.m. 
^Pi*il 6 — San Jos6, 6:45 a.m. 
April 16— Port Townsend (Wash.). 
-^Pi'il 17 — Vacaville, 12:30 (p.m.?). 

Virginia (Nev.), 6 p.m. 
-Ap^^il 18 — Island in eruption off the Mendocino coast (?). 
Apt-ii 19— Victoria (B. C). 
'Ap^'il 27 — Colima (Mex.). Volcano in eruption. 
Ma^r I — Lakeport, 2:30 A.M.; Ukiah, 3 A.M. 
Ma^r 21 — Pinole. Contra Costa Co., 10:40 a.m. Explosion of 

nitro-glycerine works. Felt at Mt. Hamilton. 
Ma^r 28 to 31 — Peru and Chile. Several severe shocks and a 

tidal-wave. 
]uae II — Mount Baker (Wash.) in eruption (?). 
June 15 — Chimacum (Wash.), 8 p.m. It is reported that a large 
meteor fell, striking the earth with sufficient force to 
break crockery and glass in the neighborhood. 
June 20--Mt. Hamilton, 9^ 43°* 26" p. m. ; Smith Creek. 

June 23 — Cocopah Mountains (Lower Calif.) in eruption (?). 
June 24— Mt. Hamilton, 9** 25" 36' p.m.— E. E. B. 

9*'25"4i'p.M.— R. G. A. 



224 Publications of the 

July — Nanaimo (B. C). A shock of earthquake was felt the 

week of July 9th. 
July 26 — Santa Barbara, 4:10 p.m. 
August 4 — Gilroy, 2 a.m. 

August 15-17 — Virginia (Nev.). Six shocks in two days. 
October 7 — Mills College, 7:17 p.m. Reported by Prof. Keep. 

Albuquerque, Sabinal, Jorales (N. M.) 
October 14 — The tide-gauge of the U. S. Coast Survey at Sausa- 

lito shows evidences of a heavy storm or earthquake. 

The irregularities in the record began at 8:20 a.m. 

on October 14th, and lasted continuously for 

eighteen hours. 
October 24 — At sea, off the California coast. Latitude 43° 54' 

north; longitude, 128° 32' west. 
October 31 — Chicago (Ill.)i 5** 12" lo' a.m.— E. E. B. 
November 7 — Mt. Hamilton, 5** 46" 34* a.m. tight shock. 

3h i2»53»p.M. (V). 
San Jos6, 3:14 p.m.; Santa Cruz, 3:15 p.m. 
November 26 — Mt. Hamilton, i*' 56" 35* p.m. (II or III). 
November — Kyuquot (B. C.) (Early in the month.) 
December 8 — Fairfield, Fullerton, Napa. 
December 12— jUkiah, 12 40 (p.m.?). 
December 23 — Santa Barbara, 9:30 p.m. 
December 28— Mt. Hamilton, 9** 12° 13' a.m. 



(TWENTY-THIRD) AWARD OF THE DONOHOE 

COMET-MEDAL. 



The Comet- Medal of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 
has been awarded to Dr. Lewis Swift, Director of the Lowe 
Observatory, California, for his discovery of an unexpected 
comet on April 13, 1896. 

The Committee on the Comet-Medal, 

Edward S. Holden, 
W. W. Campbell, 

C. D. Perrine. 

June 13, 1896. 



•::=-= ' ■- 



: PHOTO IIF.l.lOCHACi 




Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 225 



SOME RECENT SUN-SPOTS.* 



By C. D. Perrine. 



It has been thought that illustrations of a few of the more 
notable sun-spots of recent years might be of interest to the 
members of the Society. These illustrations are from negatives 
t:*\ken with the horizontal photoheliograph of the Lick Observa- 
tory. With one exception all of the groups shown have 
t>een enlarged 3 J^ -diameters; and none have been retouched. 
The three views of the instrument show it entire and in detail. 
TThese views were taken at the time of the transit of Venus in 1882 
C^or which the photoheliograph was mounted) and hence show 
t. lie surroundings somewhat different from their appearance to-day. 
The instrument is essentially the same, however, the only 
i mportant change being the substitution of a vertical exposing 
shutter for the horizontal one shown in the illustration. 

A short description of the instrument may not be out of place 
Viere. As will be seen from the illustrations, the objective is fixed 
CDn a brick pier, and the photographic plate is placed on a 
similar pier, forty feet to the south, and inside of the dark 
^oom. A hood extends from the objective to the dark room, for 
t:he purpose of overcoming as far as possible atmospheric waves, 
snd a blackened tube extends about half-way toward the 
objective to prevent direct light from entering the room. The 
rays from the Sun are reflected to the objective by a plane glass 
mirror which is mounted to the north, on the lower extremity of a 
polar axis. The frame containing the mirror is pivoted at right 
angles to the polar axis, thus permitting of its adjustment to the 
Sun's varying declination. The polar axis is moved by clock- 
work which keeps the Sun's image fixed in a horizontal direction. 
In this way is obviated the necessity of the usual equatorial 
mounting for following celestial objects. The exposure is given 
by a shutter falling vertically in front of and near the plate. This 
shutter has a horizontal slit whose width can be varied to give 
the required exposure. In summer the proper width is found to 
be about A inch with a corresponding exposure of o*. 002, and in 
winter A inch with an exposure of o*.oo4. 

Negatives made with the photoheliograph are well adapted 

*The illnstrations accompanying are from the Photographic Times. 



226 Publications of the 

for measurement to determine the positions of spots, but as the 
photographic plate remains fixed, the north pole of the Sun 
occupies different positions on the negative at different times of the 
day. In order to have a reliable reference line from which to 
measure, a plumb-line, with a very fine wire, is suspended in front 
of, and almost touching the sensitive plate, its image being im- 
pressed upon each plate. Then, by noting the time at which the 
photograph was taken, it becomes possible to locate the central 
meridian and the equator; all positions being referred to these two 
lines. 

During the recent maximum there have been many interesting 
spots. A ver>' notable group was the one of February, 1892, which 
is here reproduced without enlargement from the original negative 
by Professors Schaeberle and Campbell, the scale being 
about 191 ,000 miles to the inch. The large group of August, 1893, 
was hardly inferior in area and from its persistence was of unusual 
interest. It was a conspicuous object in July, again in its appear- 
ance the early part of August when it reached a maximum and 
still in September. It had dwindled to a small single spot the 
last of September, just before its disappearance. The view of 
this group on August 8lh shows it at about its maximum. The 
view on August 31st shows the same group after the decline 
had set in, while September 27th is a view of it on its last 
apparition. The illustration of August 27, 1893, is of a single, 
nearly round spot just after its appearance on the eastern limb, 
and shows well the foreshortening due to its position. In August, 
1894, a large, naked eye group was visible, and the illustration 
on August 2 2d shows it when near the western limb. The 
faculae are very distinct. The changes in this group were 
unusually rapid and extended over large areas. 

Among the many photographs secured are a number of spots 
of unusual interest, aside from size, but which require a more or 
less extended discussion to be of general interest. 

Mount Hamilton, Cal., July 16, 1896. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 227 



BROOKS' PERIODIC COMET, 1889 V = 1896 c. 



By William J. Hussky. 



The rediscovery of this interesting periodic comet, by 
M. Javelle at the Nice Observatory on the twentieth of June, 
rencjers this an appropriate time to pass in review its last appear- 
ance, and to give some account of the investigations which have 
been made relating to its past history. 

The comet was first discovered on the sixth of July, 1 889, by 
Mr. William R. Brooks, of Geneva, New York. It was 
described as a faint telescopic comet, somewhat elongated, having 
a stellar nucleus and a short, broad tail. At first it seemed of 
very little importance and for a time, partly owing to bad weather, 
it was very sadly neglected. The first elements of its orbit were 
computed by Dr. Chandler. From its direct motion and the 
smallness of the inclination of the plane of its orbit, he at once 
stated that it was almost certain to prove a comet of short period. 
Such is the case, its period being a little more than seven years. 

Interest in the comet was awakened by Professor Barnard's 
discovery of August i, 1889. While he was examining the 
region about the comet, he found two objects which proved to 
be companion comets. Each of these companions had a very 
small nucleus and a short, faint tail, ** presenting a perfect 
miniature of the larger one, which was well developed, with a 
small nucleus, and a fan-shaped tail. ' * These comets were called 
B and C, in the order of their distances from the principal comet, 
which was denoted by A, The comets B and C both preceded 
A in space, B at an angular distance of from 64" to 74", and C 
from 265" to 357", during the time they were under observation. 

On the night of August 4th, he discovered two more very 
faint companions, denoted by D and E, E was not seen with 
certainty except on this occasion, and at no other time was D 
bright enough for measurement. 

The observations of B cover twenty-three nights from its 
discovery to September 5th. It had then become very large 
and diffuse, and it was not seen after that date. The observa- 
tions of C extend from its discovery to November 25th, after 
which time it was not seen. During the time it was visible, it 
varied considerably in appearance and brightness. In August 



228 Publications of the 

its brightness increased and it became more definite in form. 
About the middle of September it began to fade, at first gradually 
and then more rapidly. The companion B was seen at several 
other observatories, and C was observed at fifteen other places. 
D and E were seen only with the thirty-six-inch equatorial of the 
Lick Observatory. 

The principal comet A remained visible long after its com- 
panions had disappeared. Professor Barnard continued to 
observe it with the thirty-six-inch telescope until January 12, 1891, 
or 555 days after its discovery. No other comet has been 
observed through so long a period at one apparition. 

This comet is chiefly interesting on account of its past history. 
This was first investigated by Dr. Chandler, after the comet 
had been under observation for only a few months, and while the 
elements of its orbit were still somewhat uncertain, and after- 
wards by Dr. Poor, whose later researches are based upon 
Dr. Bauschinger's excellent definitive elements. 

Dr. Chandler pointed out that the comet's aphelion is near 
the orbit of Jupiter, and that its orbital velocity there is nearly the 
same as that of the planet. In consequence of this, when both 
happen to be in that region, they remain near each other for several 
months. This happened in 1886, when the comet approached 
nearer to Jupiter than the outer satellites, and it may be as near 
or nearer than the Fifth Satellite, and when for more than a 
hundred days its distance from the planet was less than a tenth of 
the distance of the Earth from the Sun. By this close approach 
to Jupiter, the comet experienced violent perturbations. Its 
orbit was completely changed. The line of apsides was reversed 
and turned through twenty degrees; the line of nodes was reversed 
and turned through nineteen degrees; the inclination was changed 
fourteen degrees. It now moves in a small ellipse with a period 
of a little more than seven years (7.07 years); it formerly moved 
in a much larger ellipse with a period very nearly four and a 
half times as long (31.38 years according to Dr. Poor). Its 
present aphelion has almost the same position as its former 
perihelion. 

These changes are shown in Figure i, by Dr. Poor. (Johns 
Hopkins University Circulars, May, 1894). The orbits of the 
Earth, Jupiter and Saturn are represented by circles and the 
present orbit of the comet by the small ellipse. The full-line portion 
of this ellipse indicates that part of the orbit described by the comet 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 229 

while it was under observation from July 6, 1889, to January 12, 

1 89 1. The exact position of the orbit previous to the encounter 

with yupiter in 1886 is unknown; the observations of the last 

apparition, extensive though they were, were not sufficient to 

settle this point definitively. The observations of the present 

lOO* 




Fio. 1. 

(1896) apparition will, it is expected, remove the slight indeter- 
minateness that still exists. It is now known, however, that the 
former orbit of the comet lay somewhere within the shaded 
portion of the diagram, between the two large ellipses. 

Some months before the comet reached perihelion in 1886, it 
came into the sphere of Jupiter' s action, and^for more than eight 



230 Publications of the 

months remained under its control. When it was near the planet, 
the Sun's disturbing action was small, and in consequence, the 
comet's motion for a time was very nearly the same as if it were 
moving under the influence oi Jupiier^s attraction alone. The 
orbit which it described about Jupiter was an hyperbola having 
an eccentricity only a little greater than unit>'. Had its velocity 
about Jupiter been somewhat less, its orbit about the planet would 
have been an ellipse, and it would then have become a comet- 
satellite. It happened, however, that its velocity was very little 
more than was necessary to carry it beyond the planet's predomi- 
nating influence, and it thus narrowly escaped that fate. 

To determine accurately the circumstances of the comet's 
motion when it was in the immediate neighborhood oi Jupiter 
and its orbit previous to that time, requires a very accurate 
determination of its present orbit as a basis for the computation 
of the perturbations. Dr. Bauschinger's definitive elements, 
which were used by Dr. Poor in his later researches, are very 
near the truth, as is shown by the close agreement of the present 
position of the comet with that computed from these elements. 
For this reason we may accept Dr. Poor's mean results as 
substantially correct. 

According to his researches the comet passed very close to the 
planet Jupiter^ certainly within 158,000 miles of its centre or 
within 115,000 miles of its surface, and perhaps closer than the 
Fifth Satellite. 

Figure 2 represents the passage of the comet through the 
planet's satellite system. The satellites all lie nearly in the same 
plane. Their orbits are represented by the circles I, II, III, IV, 
V. Jupiter is at the center. The comet's orbit was in a plane 
inclined nearly seventy degrees to that of the satellite system and 
intersecting it in the line of SJ^^'. The projection of the comet's 
path on the plane of the satellites' orbits is given, and th^ actual 
path being unknown, two curves (hyperbolas) are drawn, between 
which the true orbit is certainly known to lie. The most probable 
path of the comet is a curve about midway between the two. 
Concerning this figure, Dr. Poor says : 

"A careful inspection of the figure will show that the comet 
rose up suddenly from below the satellites' orbits, then passed 
upwards, and almost directly over Jupiter^ and then gradually 
descended, and finally passed below this orbital plane again. As 
the comet approached Jupiter, there could be no close approach. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 



231 



'o any of the satellites, excepting at the point where it passed 

tJirough the plane of their motion. But, on the other hand, as 

"le comet receded from the planet, it hovered over the satellites, 

and cJose approaches might occur, provided that the satellites 

"'ere in the proper places at the right time. A careful investiga- 

''on of alt possible positions of the comet, and of the satellites, 

s/)owe<l that a collision was impossible; that the comet did not 




^^ approach near enough lo any one of the large satellites to 
*^^^ the slighest change in the relative motion of the nucleus 

■'Vccording to this result, the observed disruption of the comet 

'^"^ not have been produced by the action of the outer satellite, 

^^Semed probable from the earlier investigation of Dr. Chan- 

^^St. According to Dr. Poor's work, the mean path of the 

, **X^ intersected that of the Fifth Satellite, so that direct collision 

^__^*X it was possible. It is impossible to say that a collision did 

K)id not take place, the uncertainties in the motions of the 

**Xet, and of the satellite, prevent a definite answer. The ob- 






232 Publications of the 

served disruption of the comet may have been caused by this 
satellite. It is more probable, however, that it was caused by the 
unequal attractions on the various parts of the comet, due to the 
great ellipticity o{ Jupiter itself. In this connection, it is of interest 
to quote the important proposition established by Dr. Chandler 
in his investigation of the orbit of the companion C with reference 
to the principal comet A, viz. : ** That the force which led to the 
separation of the components A and C, whatever its nature, oper- 
ated in the plane of the comet's orbit, and produced no change 
in that plane, or in the form of the conic section, but only in its 
size, and in the direction of its major axis." 

Among the interesting questions raised by Dr. Chandler's 
investigations is that which relates to the past history of this 
comet and the possibility of its identity with Lexell's comet 
of 1770. 

This comet of 1770 was easily visible to the naked eye. It 
passed within half a million miles of the Earth. Its orbit when 
computed was found to be one having a period of about five and 
a half years. At first it seemed strange that a comet so bright 
should not have been seen before. But in 1767 it passed so close 
to Jupiiier that its orbit was completely changed. Previous to 
that time it had been moving in a larger orbit with a perihelion 
distance so great (nearly the same as Jupiter), that it could not 
be seen from the Elarth. In 1779 it approached very much 
closer to Jupiter Xha^n in 1767, and its orbit was again entirely 
changed, being again thrown into a larger ellipse with a greater 
perihelion distance. Since 1770 this comet has not been seen, 
and on this account it is commonly known as ** The Lost Comet.'* 

According to Dr. Chandler's investigations it seemed for a 
time highly probable that the comet 1889 V was the fourth 
return of the celebrated Lexell's comet Dr. Poor's later 
work renders this quite doubtful. He says: "Between these 
two appulses, 1779 and 1886, there intervened a period of one 
hundred and seven years, which must be accurately accounted for 
in order to establish the identify of these two remarkable bodies. 
But assuming the substantial correctness of the present investi- 
gation, we cannot directly account for these necessary years. 
For the period of Comet V in 1884, or previous to its disturbance, 
has been shown to be 31.38 ib 1.50 years, which is not an aliquot 
part of 107. Hence, unless in the intervening years, the comet 
suffered other and marked disturbances in its orbit, the entire 



AstroHomual Society of Che Pacific. 233 

question as to the identity between the two bodies falls at once. 
A further investigation shows us that such disturbances did take 
place, but leaves us utterly in the dark as to the resulting changes 
in the orbit The uncertainty in the original observations become 
so magnified in this part of the comet's orbit, that we can no 
longer trace its path with absolute accuracy, we cannot say with 
certainty that the two comets are or are not identical. The 
probability seems to be that they arenot one and the same body." 

The observations of this year, 1896, will, it is expected, 
fumbh the data by means of which it will be possible to remove 
the uncertainties that have existed concerning the present orbit 
of the comet When this orbit is known with entire certainty, 
the circumstances of its passage through Jupiter's satellite system 
in 1886 and its history previous to that time, will become much 
more determinate. 

The comet will not again approach close to Jupiier until 
1922. It will then experience great perturbations and the 
elements of its orbit will be changed very considerably, but not 
at all to the extent they were in 1886. 

Mount Hamilton, Cal., July as, 1896. 




r 

I- 
» 



\ 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 




NOTICES FROM THE LICK OBSERVATORY. 



Prepared by Meubbrs of the Staff. 

Variable Stars. 

The last number of the Astronomical Journal (No. 379) is 
devoted entirely to Dr. S C. Chandler's "Third Catalogue 
of Variable Stars." This catalogue is as complete as it can be 
made, containii^ the elements of all known variables carefully 
revised by means of all the published maxima and minima. The 
tables give the definitive notation for each star, its position for 
1900, and for 1855, its annual variation, its degree of redness, 
its magnitudes at maximum and minimum, the interval in days 
and decimals of a day from minimum to the next succeeding 
maximum, the elements of maximum (including the epoch, the 
period, and any known irregularities in the light curve), and the 
basis of elements. The data in the column ' ' Basis of Elements ' ' 
have been arranged "in order to indicate, as well as can be done 
by so succinct a form of statement, the actual present condition 
of the observation of the various stars. This will enable observers 
to regulate their selection of the objects most needing observa- 
tion." These columns also indicate that " very few stars within 
the reach of astronomers of the northern hemisphere have been 
seriously neglected."' 

Notes appended to the catalogue give the facts relating to the 
discovery of the variability of the several stars and other miscel- 
laneous data of useful nature. Following these is a list of 130 
suspected variables which require further observation before being 
admitted to the list of known variables. Attention is also called 
to Professor Bailey's discoveries of large numbers of variables 
in several star clusters; to missing Durchmusteruiig stars; and to 
suspected variables in the Cordoba Durchmusteruiig. 




236 Publications of the 

The attention of the members of the A. S. P. is especL ^^i^|/y 
directed to this catalogue, as the study of variable stars affc:^ -^^ 
one of the most promising fields of work for amateur astrononr^ ^*re. 
The optical aid needed for most of the stars is within the reac^X-^ of 
all, and, as Dr. Chandler says, **the work of the accL»arate 
observation of the phenomena, which, as in the case of the 
comets, is of a much higher grade than the discovery of xxew 
objects — is the most essential element in the progress oF tWs 
branch of astronomy, and is a field affording ample roonc^ for 
more participants. ' ' For this work the new catalogue is aLmnrmost 
indispensable. R. G. AiTKEi 

Astronomical Telegrams. 
Telegram received Sunday, June 21, 9 p. m. 

[translation.] 
To Lick Observatory: 

Brooks' periodic comet has been observed on its retu 
Javelle, at Nice, on June 20. 5751. 

R. A. 22*^ 25" 38'.o 
Dec. -18^ 33' 59" 

(Signed) John Ritchie, J 

The Crossley Telescope. 

The large mirror was placed in position in the telesco 
June 12, 1896. W. J. HussE 

On the Determination of Planetary Diameters- 

M. Bigourdan of the Paris Observatory has recently cr 
pleted an extensive series of diameter measures of Jupi^ 
satellites. His results are of great value, not so much on 
score of determining the size of the satellites, but as a tirn 
contribution to the general problem of Diameter Determinati 

Astronomers have devoted a great deal of time to measuT 
the diameters of our planets and their satellites. The microm 
measures obtained are converted into arc, corrected for di 
ential refraction, phase and distance, and the results thus secU 
are generally called Diameter. The method is convenient, lead 
to speedy results; but how much are the results worth? 



— R. 




Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 237 

little, so long as no special pains are taken to eliminate the 
nuincrous systematic errors. 

I-^t us suppose it is a question of determining the diameter 

of" Jupiter's Satellite I, by micrometer measurements. The 

telescope forms an image of the satellite; but the image is always 

t€?€? large, owing to spherical aberration, chromatic aberration, 

difiraction, imperfect focusing, poor seeing. It is for the observer 

to measure the diameter of this image. But the image, already 

too large, is in effect still further enlarged by irradiation. The 

measures obtained refer not to the satellite, but to its enlarged 

iix^3.^e, and then include also the observer's personal error. 

-A few years ago an excellent observer made an excellent 
of diameter measures of Mars for the purpose of determin- 
the polar flattening. While the measures no doubt gave 
excellent value of the polar flattening, the observer noticed 
his measures of the diameter were i j4 seconds of arc larger 
they should be according to the best determinations. A few 
xrs later he made another series of measures of the same planet, 
using a larger telescope. His measures were about i second 
^^ ^rc greater than the generally accepted value. Scores of 
^**^^51ar instances could be quoted showing that diameters are 
S^*^ orally deduced too great. 

few observers have investigated their systematic errors, and 
attempted in some cases to reduce their magnitude and in 
^rs to eliminate them entirely. In this connection M. Bigour- 
r's measures oi Jupiter's satellites are very important. He 
^^^^<le three sets of observations: 

ist. Before or during the setting of the Sun. 
2d. Between sunset and dark. 
3d. After dark, with field artificially illuminated. 
His results for the four satellites, from long series of measures, 

I. II. III. IV. 

'/ n ft It 

Before sunset, 0.713 0.655 1.250 1.124 
After sunset, 0.820 0.729 1.342 1.241 
After dark, 0.893 0.851 1.551 i«356 

The increase of the apparent diameter, as the darkness of the sky 

^^creased, is very evident. We need not look far for the reason. 

*he satellites are bright. When they are observed on a bright- 

^Icy background, the effects of chromatic aberration, irradiation, 

^tc, are largely reduced. His measures after dark are twenty- 



23^ Publications of the 

five per cent greater than those made on the bright sky; ^^^i_nd 
although the night measures agree well with those obtained by 

other observers, * it seems to me that the daylight measures -^3re 
much nearer the truth. 

Daylight measures possess many of the advantages of he^i Jo- 
meter or other double-image measures, and do not have t^l-».^ir 
principal disadvantages. In the cases of Ventis and Mars^ and ^z^^i^s- 
sibly some other of the nearer bodies, the great range in dista.sra.ce 
from the Earth enables us to eliminate the systematic errors v^^^ry 
satisfactorily. For the more distant bodies the errors cannot t:1rm.us 

be eliminated. In such cases — as well as in all cases -tlie 

observer is bound to reduce the magnitude of the systenm.^^-tic 
errors as far as possible. One of the most effective methods » in 
my judgment, is to make the observations when the Sun is al>^:^ve 
the horizon. 

In 1894 I measured the diameter of Mars, (a) on the di.. 
sky, (d) between daylight and sunrise, and (c) with the Sun 
above the horizon. The advantages of the bright-sky bai-* 
ground were very marked. Measures made with the utmost 
at night, on the dark background, were systematically o".3 ^^ 

o".7 greater than those made after sunrise. Measures m 
between dawn and sunrise progressively decreased as the 
brightened. From my discussion of a long series of observatic^ 
made after sunrise, it appeared that their systematic error 
o".05, whereas the systematic error of the night measures 
about o".6. W. W. Campbell. 

Professor Krueger. 

Carl Nicolaus Adalbert Krueger, whose death w; 
announced in a recent number of the Astrojiamische Nachrichien, 
was born at Marienburg, in Prussia, in 1832; was educated at 
Elbing and Wittenburg and at the University of Berlin. At the 
age of twenty- one, he was appointed assistant at the Bonn Ob- 




• The principal valu^ obtained by other observers arc: 

I. II. III. IV. 



W. Struve, 


1.015 


0.911 


1.488 


1.273 


MIDLER, 


1.200 


1. 132 


1.519 


1.300 


Englemann, 


1.08 


0.91 


I-5A 


x.a8 


Secchi, 


0.985 


1.054 


1.609 


1.496 


Hough, 


I. II 


0.98 


1.78 


x.46 


BURNHAM, 


1. 1 1 


1. 00 


1.78 


X.61 


MiCHBLSON, 


1.02 


0.94 


1-37 


1.31 


Barnard, 


1.048 


0.874 


1.521 


1.430 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 239 

servatory, under Argelander. Here, with Schonfeld as his 

colleague, his main work was the well-known Durchmusterung, 

In 1862 he was appointed director of the Observatory at Helsing- 

/ors, and professor in the University. Aside from his teaching, 

li is principal care was the meridian observation of the zone -\- 55^^ 

i<^ -f- 65°, for the star catalogue of the Astronomische Gesellschaft; 

and when, in 1877, he was appointed director of the Observatory 

Gotha, he continued and completed this work there, using the 

instrument he had used at Helsingfors. 

Besides his work on these two great catalogues, Professor 

itUEGER found time for many important investigations of a 

less routine character. With the Bonn heliometer he made 

determinations of the parallaxes of 70 Ophiuchi, Lalande 2156^ 

and O. Arg. ij4i§'-6^ and a careful survey of the stars in the 

cluster h Persei; and, at Helsingfors, he published a research on 

the orbit of the minor planet, Themis^ made with the purp>ose 

of determining the mass oi Jupiter, Many other observations 

and mathematical investigations relating to the minor planets, the 

more interesting comets, and variable stars, were published during 

these years. 

In 1880 Professor Krueger was chosen director of the Kiel Ob- 
servatory, to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Dr. C. A. F. 
PETERS. Shortly afterward, he assumed, in addition, the editor- 
ial control of the Astronomische Nachrichtcn^ which, from its 
hundredth volume (1880) has been published under the auspices 
o( the Astronomische Gesellschaft, He was left free, however, in 
the editorial management of this celebrated journal, and its high 
character, in the past sixteen years, has been very largely due to 
him. 

When the "Centralle Stelle fur Astronomische Telegramme*' 
ivas established, its administration was placed in the hands of 
professor Krueger, who discharged its duties faithfully, and very 
successfully. 

Before leaving Bonn, Professor Krueger married the 
daughter of Argelander, and, following her mother's example, 
their daughter married an astronomer, Dr. Kreutz, now at Kiel, 
and temporarily in charge of the Astronomische Nachrichten. 

R. G. AlTKEN. 



240 Publications of the 



Comet Notes. 

Comet IV 1895 is still visible in the thirty-six inch tdescropc; 
but is not brighter than a i6th magnitude star. Accordin ,^g to 
theory, it should be between 1 1 th and 1 2th magnitude. 

Comet a 1896 has been lost to view for about two mo 
its apparent motion having carried it into the Sun's rays. 

C. D. Perrin" 



ths. 



Comet c 1896, Swift. In the latter part of May, and in J "■ine, 
the brightness of this comet decreased very rapidly; in fact,, out 
of all proportion to the law of the inverse squares of its dista. ^cces 
from the Earth and from the Sun. This was probably due t ^o its 
want of any visible nucleus, and to its diffuseness. It remained 
of large apparent size as long as it was visible. 

W. J. HussE^^. 

The Yerkes Observatory. 

No. 43 of these Publications contains a short account ^^ ^^ 
Yerkes Observatory, of the University of Chicago, by ^^ 
Director, Professor George E. Hale. He has recendy c^^' 
tributed an article on the same subject to the Astronomi^^'^ 
Ncichrichien (No. 3356) from which it appears that a twenty- ^^^^ 
inch reflector of eight feet focal length will occupy one of *^ 
smaller domes instead of the sixteen-inch refractor at »i^^ 
proposed. 

This article also states that the publications of the Observai^^^, ^ 
will include Bulletins^ containing announcements of results, *^ 



descriptions of new buildings and instruments, and notes; 
buiionSy consisting of papers contributed to scientific jouri 
AnnaiSy containing detailed accounts of special researches;, ^'^-Sw 
A sir ophysical Journal {vio^ in its fourth volume); and Terres/^'^^^ 
Magnetism (now in its first volume). 

The staff of the observatory is as follows : George E. Ha- 
Director and Astrophysicist; S. W. Burnham, Astronorx^ 
E. E. Barnard, Astronomer; F. L. O. Wadsworth, As 
physicist; L. A. Bauer, Geophysicist; Ferdinand EluH^ 
MAN, Assistant; G. Willis Ritchey, Optician; EdmU 
Kandler, Mechanician; William Gaertner, Mechanician- 

Messrs. T. J. J. See and Kurt Laves will give graduate a 
undergraduate instruction in theorectical and practical astronorx^^ 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 241 

^he University in Chicago, and superintend the work of the 
dents* Observatory on the University campus. A library and 
useum are being established at the Observatory, for which 
tributions are requested. 
T^he Observatory is to be dedicated on the 1 5th of October. 

R. G. AlTKEN. 

Meridian-Circle for Sale. 

The meridian-circle of the Georgetown College Observatory 

been replaced by a photographic transit instrument, and is to 

<lisposed of for want of room. 

The instrument has two large circles of forty- five inches in 

€iia.ineter, one for clamping, the other with a fine graduation on 

sil-ver, reading to five minutes of arc; and an object-glass of four 

inolies aperture. There are eight microscopes, four on each pier, 

reading directly single seconds of arc; a micrometer with four 

• ^ye-pieces, one for collimating over mercury; and a striding-level. 

The instrument was made by Troughton & Simms, and cost 

^'^ginally $2200. A few years ago it was put in good working 

Order by Fauth & Co. A full description of it will be found in 

^^ first publication of the observatory, 1852, p. 193 ss. The 

o^>serving and reversing-chairs will be given with the instrument. 

Apply to the Director of Georgetown College Observatory, 

^^shington, D. C. 

Eight-inch Clark Equatorial for Sale. 

,^ iTie Napa College proposes to sell its eight-inch equatorial. 
*^^ object-glass was made by Alvan Clark & Sons, and the 
'^^^Vinting by Fauth & Co., at a cost of $2300. Intending pur- 
*x^«s.^j.g should address Hon. S. E. Holden, Napa. E. S. H. 



Mir A Ceti. 

[Extract from a private letter from W. Stkadman Alois]. 

* * I was much interested in the observations of Mira Ceti in 
last number of the A. S. P. Publications [No. 48]. I had 
^er watched it myself until last December. I could first glimpse 
the naked eye about December 15th, six days after the 
imum as given in The Observatory, * * * Owing to 
^^^^^Dnlight, and bad weather, I could not catch it again until 
^^'^rember 29th, when it was quite plain to the naked eye, and 




242 Publications of the 

grew steadily brighter for some days. On January 6th and ^^^^^ tt 

I noted it as distinctly brighter than 8 Cctu Bad weather ca -m ^ 

on, and I did not see it again till January 20th and 2ist, whe^ 1 ii 

seemed to me somewhat brighter than on the jlh. On F^^rn ir j 

1 2th I noted it, nearly as bright as.y, distinctly inferior tc 

a Ceti, 

** February i6th, Mira still as bright as y. 

** February 2ist, Mira less bright than y. 

* * Bad weather and the low altitude of Mira later on preven. 
any more observations; but there could be no doubt that 
maximum was much later than the time given in the almanacs — -** 

Views of Mountain Observatories. 

The Smithsonian Institution is now printing in its Miscellan^^. ^us 

Collections a memoir on ** Mountain Observatories in Amei 
and Europe,** by Dr. Edward S. Holden. The illustratioi 
this volume are printed in the present number of the Pubiicaiit^'^ 
The titles of the cuts are a sufficient explanation. A numbe:a: 
the cuts have previously been printed by the A. S. P. ; but nm 
of them are new to our members. It may be convenient ^ 
interesting to collect all of them in one place. 

The Committee on Publicatioit- 

A Meteor in Mexico (July 22, 1896.) 

City of Mexico, July 23. — A remarkable phenomenon 
curred yesterday at the mine of Santos Reyes, in the State ^^ 

Chihuahua. At 3 o* clock a tremendous explosion was hea-: 
and an enormous mass of burning matter was seen to fall ff 
the heavens, striking the side of a mountain and bringing wit^ 
in its course entire cliffs. It finally plunged 700 feet into 
ground, making a hole from which boiling water still issues, 
heavy rain occurred immediately after the descent of the met< 
The meteor destroyed the house of a miner, killing his 
children. 

Bright Meteor, July 31, 1896. 

At lo*" 33° 26', P. S. T., just as the Moon was rising, the ^^^^^ 
was illumined by a flash, and upon looking up a train about f^u ^^ 
degrees long was seen to extend from the direction of Arctuf^^^^^^^^ 
the center of the train being about R. A. 13** 40", Dec!, -f 2 





Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 243 

attention was attracted entirely by the illumination of the 
hich was fully as brilliant as from a flash of lightning, 
ain remained visible for three or four seconds only. 

C. D. P. 

Sixteen- Inch Clark Refractor for Sale. 

; sixteen-inch Clark refractor, shown in the cut facing 
56 of Volume VIII of these Publications, with its apparatus, 
sale at a considerable reduction from its first cost For 
lars apply to Dr. Lewis Swift, Echo Mountain, Cali- 
U. S. A. £. S. XT. 



Heights of Mountain-Observatories. 

nay be a convenience to have the following small table of 
ghts of the principal mountain- observatories and stations 
world. E. S. H. 



4600 
13300 

8060 

4368 
20000 
16650 

6035 

IIOOO 

5400 
3500 

19200 
15600 

9652 
7300 
15700 
7700 
4150 

12050 
4209 

19200 
15600 

, 100 

nc — M. Janssen's Observatory, 



aan 

>s Huesos, . 

t • • • . • 

9 

—Summit, 

>n 

Springs, .... 

rhamberlin Observatory) 

jntain, . ... 

-Summit, 

»n 



lal, 



srvatory, 

immit, 

>n, 



imit, 

illot's Observatory, 

ounix, 

ts (Nice), . 

ige. 

unier, 

ilton, 



15780 

14321 

3396 

1 100 

13000 

8993 
4209 



Mt. Pilatus, 

Mt. Washington, . 

Mt. Whitney— Summit, 

Mountain Camp, 

Lone Pine, 
Mt. Wilson. . 
Murren (Railway), 
Nice, Mont-Gros, . 
Petropolis (Brazil), 
Picdu-Midi, . 
Pike's Peak. 
Popocatapetl, . « 
Puno, .... 
Puy-de-Dome. . 

Quito 

Riflrel(Zermatt), 

Rigi 

St. Bernard, 

Santa Ana, . 

S^ntis, . . . . 

Seven Lakes (Colorado), 

Sherman, 

Sonnblick, . 

Tacubaya, , 

Teneriffe— Summit, . 

Alta Vista, 

Guajara, 
Vinocaya, 
Wendelstein, 



6785 
6279 

14900 
12000 

3700 
6000 

5350 

1 100 

3500 

9439 

14134 

18000 

12608 

4593 

9S43 

8000 

5873 
8130 

3000 

8200 

10964 

8335 

9843 

7500 

12198 

1070a 

?903 

14360 

6027 



Gifts to the Lick Observatory. 

3 Caroline W. Bruce, of New York City, has given 
)servatory a sum of money to procure a large comet- 



Asironomical Society of the Pacific. 245 

OFFICERS OP THE SOCIETY. 

^V. J. Hussn(LlCK OburvMocy), PrilUml 

^- J. Mdlmiu (606 CUy SirM, S. F.) ....... 

^- S, HoLDKH (Lick Obicmiaryl I Vict- PtnidtnU 

O. iron GiLDain 1B19 Uvkct Street, S.F.) . . . . ( 

Cr. X>. PIUIHE (Lick OI»rvucHyl Sicnlary 

F". R. 2lu.(4ic>C>lif<>rniiSlr«n, S. F.) Stcnitry avi Tr^aturtr 

^KcunV 1/ Dincltrt—Vitsan. Euwahds, Holoih. Hustiv, Molika. Miti OHallohah. 
Mob*. Paioh, P»>INt, PimsuH. Stiikchau. von Gilouh. Ziil. 

Crk>jw)HiVt«n />iiMu:a/fo*— Mcun. HoLDiH, Babcocu, Aitkin. 

■£. mArrmrr Cemmilla — MiH O'Hallorah, Mtlir*. MoLERA, fiuDCKHALTCK. 

CTtrtmmt^Ula in Uu Ctmtl-Mida/—Meim. HoLDiK <ti-c0cu). ScMAiBULK. CAHrBli.i, 

OFFICERS OF THE CHICAOO SECTION. 
^.m-^^mtm Ci>mmiritt~Mr. Ruthvix W. Pivl 

OFFICERS OF THE MEXICAN SECTION. 
^-'drcratiiw >:«■»'»«— Mewi. CAyiLO Gonealu. Francisco Rodriguiz Rrv. 

NOTICE. 
-X-ba aKCDIioaof HIV membcn is oUlcd to Article VII I of the By-Lin. which provjdii tliu 

^r-wM^r- ID nuke our book-keeping at timple as pouibl«- Datt vni by diajI should be directed Iv 

Eauiniepded Ihu each member of the SocLely khall receive a copy of each one of the/^ai^ 
'^^'^Kfi^mj Tor the yciir ip which be wu elected to membership And for all tubsaqucni vean. If 
t hare been (unfoRunaleiy) any omiukmi in thi> mailer, it ii requeued (hat the Seen 

-'-- ' in orderlhu the miHini Dumbenmiy be 

n oC the PmiliC/itimi tS the^Swiely as lei 

4/1 library by lendiDf hit iibrary card wiih len cenlt in ntmpi id ihe Secreiary A.5. P^ 
,K_ -& B« ^Ofnnuuee on ruDilcaiioa oeurei lo lay inai uie oroer in wnicn panera are printed in 

f~-^t"- ^ -- - - ' " ■ 



xiAul, ID order lluil the miuing numben may be auppJied. 
■- ■--ifihe/'ir4a:«(™._i(3th._SM' --- 

imben together into a volume. Complete v^nmu for paH yean will also be supplied, ti 
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' ^i^arkel Sireei, San Krandtco, who will return Ihe book ind the card. 



r^^.^ 'Mhliealitiu it decided timply by convenience. In a general way, ,._,. r-— - 

^J^ * ^ "^ arhich areeorUeu accepted for publication. It it not pouibLt to tend proof &hectt of papei 
^x^ *>^ jirilUed to authors whose residence is not within the United Stales. The responsibility fi 

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^^ ~X?he titles of papeit for reading ihould be communicated lo either cf the Sei 

*^ *.—•:«- *• w-ii ka any changes in addresses. The Secretary in San I'ranc... 
ciety suitable stationer}-, stamped with the seal of the Sociely, 



at sreTl at txij changes in addresses. The Secretary in San I'rancitco will tend to 
'p. ««ieffll>er of the Society suitable stationer}-, stamped with the seal of the SocLely,at cost price, 
'^^RBowsi A block of letter paper, 40 cents; of note paper, n cenit; a package of envelopes, 35 
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^^**^pon*tion, (odging, etc. 



PUBLICATIONS ISSUED BIMONTHLY. 
fFibmary, April, June, Atigusl, October. December. 







H'miiii- 



^<*-et 



m 







i M 




\ll 




WHET.SEV 114,1)00 lr«„ FROM THE WEST. 




HIINKV ca[.ifor: 



(. 


^ 


i^m^ 


m 


^^^HJHI 


^m 


j^^^HH 


^^^S^r\ 


^^^1 




9^||B|^^B^^^^[v ■w'^T^^ 


s 


^^^^^^^H| 


■H 


mmSt!^^^i^^^^SSB^^M 


^^^H 



PUBLICATIONS 



OF THE 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 



Vol. VIII. San Francisco, California, Octohkr i, 1896. No. 52. 



PLANETARY PHENOMENA FOR NOVEMBER AND 

DECEMBER, 1896. 



By Professor Malcolm McNeill. 



November, 1896. 

Mercury is a morning star at the beginning of the month, 
having passed greatest western elongation on October 24th. For 
the first week of November it rises an hour or more before sun- 
rise, and there is a fair chance for visibility under favorable 
atmospheric conditions. After that it rapidly approaches the 
Sun and comes to superior conjunction on the afternoon of 
November 28th. 

Venus is evening star, and throughout the month sets from 
an hour and a half to two hours and a half after sunset. It is 
moving very rapidly eastward among the stars, forty degrees 
during the month, from a position near the red star Antares in 
Scorpio^ through that constellation and Sagitiarius, nearly to the 
west boundary of Capricorn us, 

Afars is coming near to opposition and is quite a conspicuous 
object in the sky. By the end of the month it rises very soon 
after sunset. It is on the borders of the constellations Taunts 
and Gemini^ and after November ist it retrogrades, moving 
westward about nine degrees during the month. During the 
month its distance from us in millions of miles lessens from sixty- 
one to about fifty-two. 

JupUer is in better position for observation, rising before 
midnight at the end of the month. During the month it moves 
about three degrees eastward and southward in the constellation 



248 Publications of the 

Leo, and at the beginning of the month it is about eight degree 
from the first magnitude star Regulus, It is in quadrature wit 
the Sun on November 30th. 

Saturn is too near the Sun for observation during the montli 
It passes conjunction and changes from an evening to a mornin] 
star on the morning of November 13th. By the end of th 
month it rises more than an hour before the Sun, but its dui 
color and lack of brightness will make it a hard object to se 
without the telescope. 

Uranus is near Saturn and passes conjunction with the Sui 
only three days later, on November i6th. So it is also in ba< 
position for naked eye visibility. 

Neptune is in the constellation Taurus^ a few degrees to th< 
west of Mars, 

December. 

The Earth is in perihelion at about 4 a.m., December 31st 
P. S. T. 

Mercury is an evening star and towards the end of the monti 
is nearly out to greatest eastern elongation. For the last tei 
days of the month it remains above the horizon about an hou 
after sunset, and it may be seen if the sky is clear. 

Venus is also an evening star, and is getting well out towan 
greatest elongation. By the end of the month it sets nearl; 
three hours and one-half after sunset. It moves eastward an< 
northward during the month nearly forty degrees, from th 
eastern part of Sagittarius through Capricomus, 

Mars is in the best position for observation since October 
1894. It comes to opposition with the Sun on December loth 
9 P.M., P. S. T., and is above the horizon practically through 
out the whole night. It moves westward about eleven degree 
during the month in the eastern part of the constellation Taunu 
and at the end of the month is not far from the first magnitud 
red star Aldebaran. On the night of December i8th it passe 
about one degree south of the Moon. At opposition its distanc 
from us in millions of miles is about fifty-two and one-hali 
The nearest approach to the Earth occurs about a week earlier 
and the planet is then about half a million miles nearer to us 
The planet passed its perihelion in June, six months befor 
coming to opposition, and its distance at opposition is therefor 
much greater than it was during the last two oppositions whicl 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 249 

oocurred much nearer the times of perihelion passage. In 

CDctober, 1894, the least distance was 40,000,000 miles, and in 

-A^ugrust, 1892, it was only 35,000,000. The great northern 

declination oi.Mars makes the present opposition not a bad one 

observations in the Northern Hemisphere, since the meridian 

•Ititude of the pdanet is seventeen degrees greater than it was at 

opposition of 1894, and forty-nine degrees greater than at the 

^^Pposition of 1892; the great increase in altitude almost, if not 

^^ite, counterbalances the loss of light from increased distance. 

By the end of the month Jupiter rises at about half-past nine. 
-^^ is in the constellation Leo, and moves about one degree east- 
"d before December 25th. It then turns and begins to move 
'Stward. 
Saturn is a morning star, and by the end of the month rises 
re than three hours before the Sun. It moves about three 
^^^^rees eastward in the constellation Libra, The rings are 
^H,^^htly wider open than they were before conjunction. 

Uranus is very near Saturn and is also moving eastward. 
^ two planets are in conjunction on the morning of December 
:h, when Uranus is not quite two degrees south of Saturn, 
Neptune is near Mars, and is in conjunction with it early in 
month. It is in opposition with the Sun on the morning of 
:cember loth. 

Explanation of the Tables. 

The phases of the Moon are given in Pacific Standard time. 

the tables for Sun and planets, the second and third columns 

e the Right Ascension and Declination for Greenwich noon. 

^ fifth column gives the local mean time for transit over the 

^enwich meridian. To find the local mean time of transit for 

other meridian, the time given in the table must be corrected 

*^V" adding or subtracting the change per day, multiplied by 

5^^ fiaction whose numerator is the longitude from Greenwich 

*^ hours, and whose denominator is 24. This correction is 

^^<3om much more than i". To find the standard time for the 

PH^HQjjugUQU^ correct the local mean time by adding the differ- 

^^ce between standard and local time if the place is west of the 

^^^^dard meridian, and subtracting if east. The same rules apply 

^ ^he fourth and sixth columns, which give the local mean times 

Hsing and setting for the meridian of Greenwich. They are 

^Rlaly computed for Lat. 40°, with the noon Declination and 



250 Publications of the 

time of meridian transit, and are intended as only a rough guide. 
They may be in error by a minute or two for the given latitude, 
and for latitudes differing much from 40** they may be several 
minutes out. 

Phases of the Moon, P. S. T. 

New Moon, Nov. 4, 11 27 p. m. 

First Quarter, Nov. 11, 9 41 p. m. 

Full Moon, Nov. 20, 2 25 a. m. 

Last Quarter, Nov. 27, 6 44 p. m. 

The Sun. 

R. A. Declination. Rises. Transits. Sets. 

1896. H. M. o / j,^ „ J, jj jj^ jj 

Nov. I. 14 29 — 14 42 6 35 A.M. II 44A.M. 4 53P.M. 

II. 15 9 - 17 39 6 45 II 44 4 43 

21. 15 50 — 20 6 6 57 II 46 4 35 

Dec. I. 16 33 — 21 57 78 II 49 4 30 

Mercury, 

Nov. I. 13 31 — 7 21 5 II A.M. 10 46A.M. 4 21 P.M. 

II. 14 30 ■- 13 36 5 52 116 4 20 

21. 15 33 — 19 9 6 36 II 29 4 22 

Dec. I. 16 39 — 23 II 7 19 II 55 4 31 



Venus. 



Nov. I. 


16 31 


-22 57 


9 9 A.M 


II. 


17 24 


-24 40 


9 31 


21. 


18 18 


— 25 II 


9 47 


Dec. I. 


19 12 


-24 27 


9 58 



1 46 P.M. 6 23 P.M. 
20 6 29 

2 14 6 41 

2 28 6 58 



Mars, 



jh 



Nov. I. 


5 57 


+ 24 13 


7 45P-^i- 


3 14 A.M. 


10 43 A. M 


II. 


5 55 


+ 24 41 


7 I 


2 32 


10 3 


21. 


5 46 


-r 25 9 


6 II 


I 44 


9 17 


Dec. I. 


5 31 


-^25 31 


5 15 


12 50 


8 25 



1896. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 251 

Jupiter, 

R. A. Declination. Rises. Transits. Sets. 

Nov. I. 10 32 + 10 10 I 18 A.M. 7 48 A.M. 2 22 P.M. 

II. 10 37 +9 42 12 41 7 14 I 47 

21. 10 42 + 9 19 12 7 6 39 I II 

Dec. I. 10 45 +91 II 32 P.M. 63 12 34 

Sa turn. 

Nov. I. 15 14 — 15 55 7 24A.M. 12 28P.M. 5 32 P.M. 

II. 15 18 — 16 14 6 51 II 54A.M. 4 57 

21. 15 23 — 16 32 6 17 II 19 4 21 

Dec. I. 15 28 — 16 50 5 44 10 45 3 46 





Uranus, 


Nov. I. 15 26 


— 18 31 7 46 > 


II. 15 29 


— 18 40 7 10 


21. 15 31 


- 18 49 6 33 


Dec. I. 15 34 


- 18 58 5 57 




Neptune, 



7 46 A.M. 12 41 P.M. 5 36P.M. 
12 4 4 58 

II 27A.M. 4 21 

10 50 3 43 



Nov. I. 5 16 + 21 38 7 16 P.M. 2 33 A.M. 9 50A.M. 

II. 5 15 + 21 37 6 36 I 53 9 10 

21. 5 14 +21 36 5 55 I 12 8 29 

Dec. I. 5 14 +21 34 5 15 12 32 7 49 

Eclipses of Jupiter's Satellites, P. S. T. 

(Off left-hand limb, as seen in an inverting telescope.) 







H. M. 






H. M. 


III. R, 


Nov. 3. 


I 41 P. M. 


Ill, D. 


Nov. 18. 


3 36 A.M. 


11. D, 


6. 


12 23A. M. 


Ill, R, 


18. 


7 7 A. M. 


I. D, 


6. 


5 38 A.M. 


II, D, 


20. 


5 34 A.M. 


I. D, 


8. 


12 7 A.M. 


I, D, 


22. 


3 53 A.M. 


III. D, 


10. 


II 38 P. M. 


I, D, 


23- 


10 21 P.M. 


III. R, 


II. 


3 9 A. M. 


I, D, 


29. 


5 46 A. M. 


II. D, 


IS- 


4 59 A. M. 


II. D, 


30. 


9 29 p. M. 


I. D. 


IS- 


2 A. M. 


I, D, 


31. 


12 14 A. M. 



252 Publications of the 

Phases of the Moon, P. S. T. 

H. M. 

New Moon, Dec. 4, 9 51 a. m. 

First Quarter, Dec. 11, 4 29 p. m. 

Full Moon, Dec. 19, 8 5 p. m. 

Last Quarter, Dec. 27, 4 9 a. m. 

The Sun. 

R. A. Declination. Rises. Transits. Sets. 

1896. H. M. O / „, y^^ „, n, „^ ^^ 

Dec. I. 16 33 — 21 57 7 8 a.m. II 49 A.M. 4 30 P.M. 

II. 17 17 —23 5 7 17 II 54 4 31 

21. 18 I —23 27 7 24 II 59 4 34 

31. 1845 —23 3 727 12 4 P.M. 441 

Mercury. 

Dec. I. 16 39 —23 II 7 19 A.M. II 55A.M. 4 31 P.M. 

II. 1747 —2517 757 12 24 P.M. 451 

21. 18 57 —25 2 8 27 12 55 5 23 

31. 20 2 — 22 17 8 41 I 21 61 

Venus. 

Dec. I. 19 12 — 24 27 9 58A.M. 2 28P.M. 6 58P.M. 

II. 20 4 ■- 22 32 10 2 2 41 7 20 

21. 20 54 — 19 34 10 I 2 52 7 43 

31. 21 41 - 15 45 9 55 30 85 

Mars, 

Dec. I. 5 31 + 25 31 5 15 P.M. 12 50A.M. 8 25A.M. 

II. 5 14 -j- 25 40 4 12 II 48 P.M. 7 24 

21. 4 58 +25 35 3 18 10 53 6 28 

31. 4 46 + 25 24 2 28 10 2 5 36 

Jupiter, 

Dec. I. 10 45 + 9 I II 32 P.M. 6 3A.M. 12 34P.M. 

II. 10 47 -f 8 50 10 56 5 26 II 56 A.M. 

21. 10 49 +8 46 10 17 4 47 II 17 

31. 10 48 + 8 50 9 38 48 10 38 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 253 



Sa turn. 



_ *> ^ 


R. A. 


Declination. 


Rises. 


Transits. 


Sets. 


1896. 


H. M. 


t 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


Dec. I. 


15 28 


- 16 50 


5 44 A.M. 


10 45 A.M. 


3 46 P.M. 


II. 


15 33 


— 17 6 


5 10 


10 10 


3 10 


21. 


15 37 


— 17 21 


4 35 


9 35 


2 35 


31- 


15 41 


- 17 34 


4 I 


9 


I 59 



Uranus. 



)ec. I. 


15 34 


-18 58 


5 57 A.M. 


10 50 A.M. 


3 43P.M 


II. 


15 36 


- 19 7 


5 21 


10 14 




3 7 


21. 


15 39 


- 19 14 


4 45 


9 37 




2 29 


31. 


15 41 


— 19 22 


4 8 


8 59 




I 50 






Neptune, 








^ ^ 


R. A. 


Declination. 


Rises. 


Transits. 




Sets. 


1896. 


H. M. 





H. M. 


H. M. 




H. M. 


)ec. I. 


5 14 


+ 21 34 


5 15 P.M. 


12 32 


A.M. 


7 49A.M 


11. 


5 12 


+ 21 33 


4 30 


II 47 


P.M. 


7 4 


21. 


5 II 


+ 21 32 


3 49 


II 6 




6 23 


31- 


5 10 


+ 21 30 


3 9 


10 26 




5 43 



Eclipses of Jupiter's Satellites, P. S. T. 

(Off left-hand limb, as seen in an inverting telescope.) 







H. M. 






H. M. 


IV, D, Dec. 


4- 


12 1 2 A. M. 


IV, D, 


Dec. 20. 


6 10 P. M. 


IV. R, 


4- 


4 49 A. M. 


IV, R, 


20. 


10 45 P. M. 


II. D, 


8. 


12 5 A. M. 


III, D, 


23- 


II 23 P. M. 


I. D, 


8. 


2 7 A. M. 


I, D, 


24- 


12 21 A. M. 


I. D. 


9- 


8 35 P. M. 


III, R, 


24. 


2 52 A. M. 


II. D, 


IS- 


2 41 A. M. 


II, D, 


25- 


6 34 P. M. 


I. D, 


IS- 


4 A. M. 


I. D, 


31- 


2 14 A. M. 


III, D, 


16. 


7 25 P. M. 


III. D, 


31- 


3 21 A. M. 


III. R. 


16. 


10 55 P. M. 


III, R, 


31- 


6 50 A. M. 



256 Publications of the 

ELEMENTS AND EPHEMERIS OF COMET d, 1896 

(GIACOBINI). 



By F. H. Seares. 



With the help of Mr. Crawford, student assistant in the 
observatory, I have computed the following elements and 
ephemeris* for Comet d, 1896 (Giacobini). 

ELEMENTS. 

T= 1896, Oct 10.3415 G. M. T. 

/= 90 6' 8" 

o) = 154 47 45 ^ 1896.0 

«= 195 33 58 
log q =0.046390 

Residuals for the middle place (O— C). 

A \ cos i3 = — 4".o; A )3 = •— 4".o. 

Students* Observatory, Berkeley. 



ELEMENTS AND EPEMERIS OF COMET e, 1896 

(SPERRA). 



Bv Frederick H. Seares. 



'* With the assistance of Mr. Crawford, I have computed the 
following elements and ephemerisf for Comet e, 1896 (Sperra).*' 

T = July 10.6427 G. M. T. 
i= 88° 25' 12" I 
0= 151 I 6 V 1896.0 
0)= 40 38 53 3 
q = 1. 139897 
(O-C) A X cos ,3 = - o".7; A /3 = + 3".7. 

Students' Observator>', University of) 
California, September 14, 1896. J 



♦ The ephemeris, at one-day intervals from September 12 to September Z4, is omitted 
here. 

tThe ephemeris, with four-day intervals from September 14 to September a6, is 
omitted here. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 255 



LUNAR ECLIPSE, AUGUST 22, 1896. 



By Allen H. Babcock. 



A heavy fog which rolled in over San Francisco and Oakland 
early in the evening, prevented any chance of observing the 
eclipse at either place. As a last resort it was decided to climb 
Chaparral Hill (1920 feet high), directly in the rear of the Univer- 
sity of California, Berkeley, in the hope of getting above.the fog. 
The result was all that could be desired, except that during the 
first contact with the shadow and for some few minutes after, 
lig^ht fleecy clouds made the Moon's image a little hazy. The 
first contact was observed with a pair of marine glasses of fairly 
high power and good definition. Mr. B. H. Pendleton counted 
time, and the shadow was first seen at 9'' 24" P. S. T., nearly 
thirty seconds before predicted time. (See also Mr. Perrine's 
time of first contact with shadow). At first the shadow showed 
simply as a darkening of the surface, no definite color being 
apparent, but as the eclipse progressed, the upper part of the 
shadow, that part toward the illuminated region of the Moon's 
sur&ce, assumed a decided greenish tinge, while below, toward 
the center of the shadow, it was a bright copper color, shading 
off darker toward the south edge of the Moon. At 11'' 30" the 
greenish band was about one-third the total diameter of the 
eclipsed segment, and ran across roughly parallel to the 
uneclipsed lune, with the western edge slightly wider than the 
eastern. The scene was strikingly beautiful. Only the hill-top 
we were occupying showed above the fog, as far as could be 
seen to the south and west, while only Tamalpais showed to 
the north. There was just enough wind to pile up the upper 
sur&ce of the fog into big pop-corn like masses, and occasionally 
send a wisp of it across the summit. It remained about two 
hundred feet below us until about 1 1"* 45", when it began to blow 
over in earnest, and we left to catch the last car into Oakland. 



r 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 




NOTICES FROM THE LICK OBSERVATORY. 



Large Refractor for the Potsdam Observatory. 

The dimensions of the new refracting telescope for the Pots- 
dam Observatory are understood to be as follows: 
Aperture of the photographic objective, 8ocm = 3i,5 inches. 
Aperture of the guiding telescope objective, 50 cot ^ 19.7 inches. 
Length of the tube, 12 — 13 metres =39 — 43 feet. 
Diameter of the Dome, about 69 feet. 
The Dome is to have a fixed floor. E. S. H. 

Bright Meteor seen at Oakland, August 18, 1896. 
[Extract from a letter of Mr. Allen H. Babcock.] 

" Last evening, August 18th, at 7:55 P.M., I saw a very bright 
meteor break or bum up directly below Cassiopea. The time is 
within a half-minute I think. I saw it first just above the "chair" 

^* * 
* * 

and at about the head of the arrow it seemed to break up; but 
the light was so bright that it gave the impression of a sudden 
enlargement, rather than a breaking up. It disappeared almost 
immediately atler the flare-up, and left a trail which disappeared 
so quickly that I am not sure whether it was a trail, or the result 
of the intense light in my own eyes. I did not hear any report." 

The Perseids in August, 1896. 

Although the forerunners of this shower were not very 

numerous, it was thought advisable to try a photograph of the 

radiant on the night of August loth. Therefore a plate was 

exposed with the Crocker photographic telescope, using Ela 



25o Publications of the 

Per set as a guiding star. The plate was exposed from ii^ ^^- Q* 

to 14*" 49". Only one meteor trail is shown, and that one is fax :mM^ 

about one-half degree long. The position of the center of t ie 

trail is approximately a = 2** 59.7", 8 = + 51° 10'. The time of 

the meteor's appearance was 11* 57" 43'. Several other meteci^rs 

were timed, some of which were within the field of the plate, t^iit 

were too faint to leave any trace. This shower seems to h^ "we 

steadily diminished since its maximum in 1894, as there ha^^^re 

certainly been fewer this year than in 1895. 

A. L. CoLTON AND C. D. Perrinet. 
Mt. Hamilton, August 23, 1896. 

Partial Lunar Eclipse of August 22, 1896. 

Light clouds interfered somewhat about the time of seco «nd 

contact, but cleared away soon after and remained clear to the ei:^*^ d. 

The first darkening certainly detected was at 8* 35". The Mc^^o 

entered shadow at 9*" 23" 3i', and left the shadow at 12'' ^^ ^ 

50' P. S. T. The obscured part of the disc was quite bright, '^^^^ 

more prominent markings being easily visible. The Elart^^^ 

shadow was a bright copper color near the center and shade^A 

a greenish tinge at the edges. The penumbra showed a li 

pink color. C. D. PerrinE^- 

Mt. Hamilton, August 23, 1896. 

Asteroid No. 341 = California. 

Professor Max Wolf, Director of the Astrophysical Obse 
tory of Heidelberg, has discovered many asteroids, among tl»- 
No. 341 on September 25, 1892. Wishing to commemorate 
visit to our State in 1893, ^^^ perhaps desiring to enter a go 
humored protest against an article on the Nomenclature of 
Asteroids in these Publications^ Volume VIII, page 28, he 
named this planet California, Californians will be glad 
acknowledge the courtesy of this baptism. E. S. H^ 



Gift of a Plane-Mirror of Speculum Metal to t 
Lick Observatory by the Daughters of the 
late William Lassell, F. R. S. 

Through the kindness of the daughters of the late Willi 
Lassell, F". R. S., the Lick Observatory is now the possessor* 
the plane speculum-metal mirror "A" used at Malta with 
four- foot reflector. The mirror is oval, about five by serv^^ 



to 
ht 







/ 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 261 

inches. A memorandum in Mr. Lassell's own handwriting 
accompanies it, as follows: ** Plane speculum A retouched on 
"Machine, 21st June, 1875. Examined with 3 in. Telescope 
"and power 115. Defines Dial, name and small figures perfectly. 
"On distant objects requires the smallest possible lengthening of 
"focus; therefore slightly convex.*' 

This mirror is a valued addition to our collection, not only for 
Its own excellence, but also as a part of the great reflector con- 
structed by Mr. Lassell for his second expedition to Malta* 
«^hich had such a memorable history. Edward S. Holden. 
X-iCK Observatory, August 17, 1896. 

Astronomical Telegrams. 

A. telegram was sent to the Harvard College Observatory 
Friday, August 28th, at 8:05 a.m., to announce that Professor 
HussEY observed a bright prominence on the terminator of Mars 
Augxist 27th, at i6*» 45" P. S. T.f 

Astronomical Telegrams (A Correction), 

Iri an extract quoted on page 191, No. 50 of these Publica- 
^^^^'^^ from the Report of Mr. Tebbutt*s Observatory for 1895^ 
^"^ following sentence occurs: **It is much to be regretted that 
"^ond the original announcement of this comet [1895, IV. 
*^H.rine] no further particulars were cabled to Australia.** 

-A letter received from Professor Kreutz states that this is a 
"^^take, as a second telegram containing very good elements (by 
Professor Lamp), and a four-day ephemeris from December 13th 
^ t^ecember 25th, was sent from Kiel to Melbourne Observatory, 
^^ central station for Australia, on the 8th of December. This 
W^grani probably did not reach Mr. Tebbutt.J 

AVe cheerfully comply with the request of Professor Kreutz 
^^ publish this explanation, showing that the central station at 
Kiel was not responsible for the failure in the distribution of this 
intelligence. The Committee on Publication. 



•S«e Mewmrs R. A. S., Vol. XXXVI, 1867. 

tStch ptominences were first discovered at the Lick Obser\'atory in 1890, and in 
^^9t tnA X894 they were regularly observed at Mount Hamilton, Nice, and Flagstaff. 
'^^^▼e been looked for during August, 1896, and first appeared as above. E. S. H. 

t A late letter from Professor Krkutz (September 3) notifies that this telegram did 
■*»«cliMdbottnie. 



262 Publications of the 

Astronomical Cable-Messages to the Southern Hemi- 
sphere. 

(Dated) 

Private Observatory, Windsor, N.S.W., 1896, Augustii. 

(Received September 25.) 
Sir: 

In Volume VIII, page 191 of the Publications of the Astro- 

jiomical Society of tlie Pacific, I notice the following extract from 

my Observatory Report for 1895, with reference to the comet 

discovered by Perrine: ** It is much to be regretted that, beyond 

the original announcement of the discovery of this comet, no 

further particulars were cabled to Australia/' On June 10 last 

I received from Dr. Kreutz of the Royal Observatory, Kiel, 

a letter stating that the elements and an ephemeris giving the 

positions of the comet for December 13, 17, 21, 25 were cablecL 

from Kiel to Melbourne on December 8. A warning was alsc^ 

sent to look out for the comet during daylight. On the receip^x 

of this letter, I wrote to Mr. Baucchi, the Acting Governmen.t 

Astronomer at Melbourne, and he informed me that, beyond tti.< 

original announcement giving the position of the comet fi 

November 17 without any indication of the direction of motio 

no other message had reached Melbourne from Kiel respecti 

this comet. It appears, therefore, that neither Kiel nor M 

bourne is to blame in this matter, but that the omission is due 

some other quarter. As, therefore, you have published 

extract from my report, I must ask you, in justice to both Ki^^ 

and Melbourne, to publish also this explanation. 

I am. Sir, yours faithfully, 

John Tebbutt. 

The Secretary of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 

The Rooms of the Society, 

819 Market Street, San Francisco. 

Astronomical Telegrams, 
[copy.] 

(Dated) Boston, Sept. 5, 1896. 
To Lick Observatory: (Received i:ii p.m.) 

Unlucky Giocohini,* Nice, September author hourhand chat- 
tels zero chirleria \chiberi€i\ abanicazo abacist. 
(Signed) John Ritchie, Jr. 

* Comet rf, 1896. 



Astronomical Society of t/ie Pacific. 263 

Translation of the above, 

A comet was discovered by Giacobini at Nice September 
3-^44 G. M. T. R. A. 17*^ io» 32", Dec. -7° 29'. Daily 
tions +i"44' and —4'. 



Telegram ( Translation), 

Lick Observatory, 
lo** 52" P.M., Sept. 5, 1896. 
Harvard College Observatory: 

Comet Giacobini was observed by Hussey Sept. 5.6804, 
R. A. it I3"5'.02; 8 —7° 42' 42''. Cable. 

[copy.] 

(Dated) Boston, Sept. 6, 1896. 
To Lick Observatory: (Received 9*" 6° p.m.) 

Unlucky Brooks September atarazana exemplar arlote zero 
*H>xthom easterly. Deimos usual Douglass unbroken. 

John Ritchie, Jr. 

Translation of the above, 

-A comet was discovered by Brooks* September 4. R. A. 
'3^ 36" , 8 +55° 40', motion easterly. Deimos was observed 
^y^ Douglass September 5. 

Telegram ( Translation), 

(Dated) Lick Observatory, Sept. 7. 
Harvard College Observatory: (Sent 9 a.m.) 

Comet Brooks was observed by Hussey and Perrine Sep- 
*^ber 6.8355. R. A. i3'> si" 44V i, S +55° 24' 52''. Cable. 
Comet Giacobini was observed by Hussey September 
^16, R. A. 17'^ 14- 58'. 3, 8 -7° 52' 26''. 

Telegram (Translation), 

(Dated) Lick Observatory, Sept. 7, 1896. 
Harvard College Observatory: (Sent 10^ 56" p.m.) 

Comet Giacobini was observed by Hussey September 7.6893 
M. T., R. A. 17^ 16" 54'.24, Decl. — 8° 2' 2o".3. 



Comet tf, X896. 



264 Publications of the 

Telegram ( Translation), 

(Dated) Lick Observatory, Sept. 9, 1896. 
To Harvard College Observatory: (Sent 12^ 15" a.m.) 

Comet Brooks {e, 1896) was observed by Hussey Sept. 
8.7176 G. M. T., R. A. 14^ 4" 54V6, Decl. + 55° 9' 35".o. 

Astronomical Telegrams. 

Elements of Comet d, 1896 (Giacobini). 

Tele gram ( Translation ), 

(Dated) Lick Observatory, Sept. 9. 

To Harvard College Observatory: (Sent 12** 15" p.m.) 

Elements of Comet d were computed by Hussey and Per- 
rine as follows: 

T = 1896, Sept. 26.88 G. m. t. 
o) = 160° 33' 
O = 191 40 
/ = 6 54 

gz= 1. 0381 

Elements somewhat uncertain. [They present no resemblance 
to the elements of any former comet.] 

Elements and Ephemeris of Comet d, iSp6. 

(Dated) Berkeley, Sept. 10, 1896. 
(Jleceived 7** 43° p.m.) 

A telegram, as above, was received from Mr. F. H. Shares, 
in charge of the Students* Observatory of the University of Cali- 
fornia, giving elements and ephemeris (Sept. 12-24) of Comet dy 
1896. The computations were made by Messrs. Seares and 
Crawford. The elements will be printed elsewhere in this 
number. 

(Dated) Lick Observatory, Sept. 12. 

To Harvard College Observatory : | g, ^ ^ 

To Students Observatory: ) 

Comet Brooks (d% 1896) was observed by Hussey, September 
11.6956 G. M. T., R. A. 14^ 25- 39M; Decl. +54° 35' 42". 7. 



NoTH.— The first three observations of both Comets d and r, 1896, were sent by mail 
or telegraph to the Students' Observatory of the University of California (Mr. F. H. 
Skarks in charge). 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 265 

Telegram ( Translation). 

(Dated) Lick Observatory, Sept 11. 

To Harvard College Observatory: (Sent 4:05 p.m.) 

Elements and Ephemeris of Comet dy 1896 (Giacobini) were 

computed by Perrine as follows: 

T = September 27.12 
o) = 160° 51' 
= 191 38 
i= 6 56 
q = 1.0320 

[The agreement with the middle observation is exact in longi- 

tude» to i" in latitude.] The ephemeris from September 12th to 

September 24th is here omitted. 

Telegram. 

(Dated) Los Angeles, Sept. 21. 

(Received ii** 15" a. M. Sept. 21). 

Last night at sunset object as bright as Venus 1° east of Sun. 

L. Swift. 
Telegram. 

(Dated) Boston, Sept. 22, 1896. 

(Received 7** 35" p.m.) 

Lewis Swift announces small bright comet Sunday night 

[Sept. 20] 1° east of the Sun; Monday, same [?] north brighter. 

(Signed) John Ritchie, Jr. 

Telegram (TranskUioyi), 

(Dated) Lick Observatory, Sept. 29. 
To Harvard College Observatory: (Sent 8** 20" p.m.) 

Comet Giacobini was observed by Hussey and Perrine 
Sept. 28.7156 G. M. T.; R. A. i8»'4'»58'.7, Decl. —11° 12' 24". 
It is growing fainter. 

Comet 1896 (Sperra). 

From the Science Observer Circular '^o. 113, dated Boston, 
September 12, received by mail at Mount Hamilton, September 
19, it appears that Comet e was not discovered by Brooks on 
September 4 (as announced in the foregoing telegrams) but by 
Sperra on August 31. It should therefore be called Comet dy 
and GlACOBiNi's Comet of September 4 should receive the 
letter e. The following paragraph from the Science Observer 
Circular 1^0. 113 contains all the information at present available: 

** Comet 1896 (Sperra). 

" The first telegram with reference to this comet was received 
September 6 from W. R. Brooks, who announced that he had 



266 Publications of the 

seen a comet (probably Sperra's) on September 4, in R. A. 
13** 36", Decl. + 55° 40'. A letter received at Harvard College 
Observatory from Allegheny Observatory, states that W. E. 
Sperra, of Randolph, O., addressed to Professor Keeler a 
letter under date of September i, stating that on August 31, 
9* 14", while sweeping through Ursa Major, he found a nebulous 
object west o( Zeta, in R. A. 13* 8" 25", Decl. + 55^40' (1896). 
Observation during an hour and a quarter showed motion. In a 
later letter to the same observatory (September 2), Mr. Sperra 
gives an observation of September i, when the comet was 
in R. A. 13** 14" 30", Decl. + 55° 43'. On September 4, 
Mr. Brooks, who had had notice of the discovery, swept through 
the region and found the comet. Since that time the object has 
been observed at the Lick Observatory by HussE y and Perrine. * ' 

Request for Observations of Comet d, (1896) Swift. 

Having undertaken the computation of the definitive elements 
of Comet dy 1896 (Swift, April 13), I shall be very glad to 
receive any observations of this comet that have not as yet been 
published. R. G. Aitken. 

Distances Between Lick Observatory and San Jose. 

The following distances on the Mount Hamilton road are 
derived from the readings of a cyclometer attached to my bicycle 
during a recent ride from the mountain to Oakland (63.7 miles): 





Levels. 


Distances. 


Lick Observatory, 


[4209.5 feet] 


0.0 1 


miles 


Oh! My! Point, 




0.7 




Tennis Court, 




1.8 




Chinese Camp, 




2.7 




Water-Trough, 




3-5 




Kincaid's Road, 




5.5 




Santa Ysabel Hotel, 


[2146.2 feet] 


7.0 




Summit of Grade 




8.- 




(into Hall's Valley) 








Snell's Bam, 




11.9 




Half-Way House, 


[about 1540 feet] 


12.4 




Summit of Grade 


[1838 feet] 


14. 1 




(out of Hall's Valley) 








Grand View House, 


[1500.5 feet] 


15.9 




Junction House, 


[389.0 feet; 


20.2 




San Jos^, 


;88.7 feet; 








The figures in square brackets are elevations above sea, 
derived from a survey made by Professor Raymond in 1887. 

Allen H. Babcock. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 267 

A Bright Meteor Seen September 6, 1896. 

A meteor, about as bright as a first magnitude star, having a 
short, brilliant train, was seen on September 6th, at 7*" 57°* p.m. 
Jt 3.ppeared close under c Pegasi, and moved slowly toward 

& dlassiopeiaey disappearing when about 2° distant from that star. 

Its flight occupied five or six seconds. R. G. Aitken. 

New Short-Period Variable Star in Gemini. 

[Extract from a Lbttbr prom Mr. Edwin F. Sawybr.] 

(Dated) Brighton, Sept. 15, 1896. 
* * * :ic * jjj connection with this work, I discovered a few 
"^^^'^ths ago another short-period variable in Gemini, with a 
^^^^*"*od of about eight days, and range from 6.8 to 7.6 magnitude. 
-^^^ position is R. A. 6^ 29" 14'; Decl. +15^ 24'. 8.'* 

Cost of the Crossley Dome, Etc. 

Vom the ninth annual report of the Director of the Lick 
ratory to the President of the University of California, 
September i, 1896, the following is taken: 
Le total contributions to the fund for installing the Crossley 
^^ctor at Mount Hamilton amounted to . . . $5085.00. 
-^11 of this money has been paid out for materials and labor, 
Tl^'^^^rding to an itemized account to be printed in the Report of 
^ Secretary of the University for the Fiscal Year ending July i, 

"^he Southern Pacific Company transported the heavier parts 
^He Dome and Telescope from New York to San Jos6 free of 



The value of this service was $1005.14. 

le Wells-Fargo Express Company transported the mirrors 

cjelicate parts of the apparatus from New York to San Jos6 

of cost. The value of this service was .... $323.80. 

Y^ ^^rom the annual budget of the Lick Observatory there has 

^*> expended for materials and labor the sum of . . $782.17. 

^, "^ ^000 brick belonging to the University have been used in 

^ ^^^onstruction of the Dome (at cost, $12 per M.) . $864.00. 

♦>. T^lie time spent by the observatory workmen on the Crossley 

*>>e and Telescope, if reckoned at their regular rates of pay, 

^^^Id amount to $1156.33. 

1^^ ^^ost of the Bruce Spectroscope: from the fund given by 
^*''^ Catherine W. Bruce, $500; from the annual budget of 



268 Publications of the 

the Lick Observatory, $175 $675.cx>. 

Two marble tablets presented by the Vermont Marble 
Company $50.00 

Total cost of bringing the Crossley Reflector and Dome 

from England and erecting it at Mt. Hamilton . . $9941.44 
To this sum must be added the cost (as yet unknown) of 

providing a new driving-clock for the telescope. This ck>ck is 

now under construction from designs by Professor Hussey. 

To commemorate these gifts to the University of California, 

two tablets of marble will be set up at the main entrance to the 

Crossley dome, inscribed as follows: 

I. 
The Crossley Reflector, 

with its Dome, was presented to the Lick Astronomical Department 

of the University of California in 1895 

by 

Edward Crossley, F. R. A. S., 

of Halifax, Yorkshire, 

England. 

IL 

The Crossley Reflector was set up in this place by the following friends 

of the Lick Observatory: 

William Alvord, Charles Mayne, 

T. Ellard Beans, Albert Miller, 

Miss C. W. Bruce, D. O. Mills, 

James V. Coleman, VV. S. Moses, 

George Crocker, Charles Nelson, 

Henry J. Crocker, M. P. O'Connor, 

J. B. Crockett, A. H. Payson, 

Christian de Guijjn^, Percy & Hamilton, 

Mrs. Peter Donahue, Mrs, John Parrott, Sr., 

J. A. Donohoe, John Parrott, Jr., 

Farmers' Union, James D. Phelan, 
Glenwood Lumber Company, VViUiam M. Pierson, 

Charles Goodall, James B. Randol, 

Robert Y. Hayne, Louis Sloss, 

Alvinza Hayward, Southern Pacific Company, 

I. W. Hellman, Levi Strauss, 

Edward S. Holden, Lloyd Tevis, 

Edward \V. Hopkins, Alex. Blair Thaw, 

James F. Houghton, Union Iron Works, 

C. P. Huntinj;ton, United States Express Company, 

George R. Lukens, Wells, Fargo & Company, 

The Vermont Marble Company. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 269 

Minima of Algol, R. A. 3*^ i°* 40", Decl. + 40° 34'. 2, 

Magnitudes 2.3 to 3.5. 

The following times of minima of the variable star Algol have 
been taken from the VierUljahrschrifi der Astrotwmischen Gesell- 
schaft, and are printed here at the request of one of the observers 
of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. Times of the minima 
occurring in daylight have been omitted. 

The position for 1900.0 and the magnitudes, of maximum and 
minimum given above have been taken from Dr. Chandler's 
Third Catalogue of Variable Stars. 

Pacific Standard Time. 



1896, Oct. 


10. 


3''5o'" 


' A.M. 




1896, 


Nov. 2, 


2^ 


21" A.M. 




13, 


39 


A. M« 








4, 


II 


10 P.M. 




15, 


9 28 


P.M. 








7, 


7 


59 P-M. 




18, 


6 17 


P.M. 








19. 


7 


14 A.M. 




30, 


5 32 


A.M. 








22, 

25, 
27, 
30. 


4 


9 
6 


3 A.M. 
52 A.M. 
41 P.M. 
30 P.M. 






1896, 


Dec. 


12, 
15, 

17. 
20, 

23, 


5^ 
2 

II 

8 

5 


45" 

34 

23 
12 

I 


' A.M. 
A. M. 
P.M. 
P.M. 
P.M. 

R. 


G. 


AlTKEN. 



Hubert A. Newton; George Brown Goode; William 

C. Winlock; — Died 1896. 

American Science has to lament the loss of three of its repre- 
sentatives. Professor Newton, of Yale University, the Dean of 
American astronomers and mathematicians, for long years an 
accepted Master, died at New Haven, in August last. Dr. 
George Brown Goode, Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian 
Institution, a leader in his special branch of science, a most will- 
ing and efficient helper to the many and varied scientific under- 
takings which came under his official care, **one of the ablest 
and best men in America,'* died in Washington, September 6th, 
at the early age of forty-five years. William C. Winlock, a 
son of a former Director of Harvard College Observatory, Super- 
intendent of Exchanges in the Smithsonian Institution, to whom 




270 Publications of the 

every scientific establishment^in the wide world owes a debt 
gratitude for his care of its interests, died on September 2ot 
before his time, at the age of thirty-seven years. 

Complete memorial notices of all three, to be printed el 
where, will exhibit their scientific work and service The pn 
brief note is simply to record the loss to American Science, 
to offer here a tribute of sincere affection and respect, based 
personal friendships and intimacies extending over a periods 
more than twenty years, unbroken by a single cloud. No do 
the places of those who are gone can be filled from the crow« 
ranks of able men who have come from our Universities dur-ia^g 
the generation just past; but their personalities and their wcz^x-k 
will not be forgotten. The duties that fell to their lot were per- 
formed over long years, under every variety of circumstance, wi^ 
unvarying ability, fidelity and kindness. In their several wsi^^s 
and degrees, they have left indelible marks on the history of 
Science in America. Their successors may well take inspiratii on 
from their example. Edward S. Holde>^- 

Mt. Hamilton, September 30, 1896. 

Errors of Graduation of the Repsold Meridian Circt xe 

OF THE Lick Observatory.* 

The following set of graduation errors has been detenu iir"^^^ 
by means of simultaneous readings of both circles. The inst^ '^^' 
ment is especially adapted to this method, one circle b^^ ^"^ 
quickly and conveniently set to any desired reading, with resp:^ ^^^ 
to the other. 

The agreement of the various measures has been satisfact <=:^^ 0'' 
and they afford the means of computing the probable errors otf~ ^^ 
final values. This has been done, also, by comparison of" '^^ 
results of individual series; and the probable errors are in 2S=.^^^^^ 
with the quantities to be expected, from the combination oC~ '^^ 
accidental errors of observation, with the probable errors o^ '^^ 
measurements of the graduations, used as a standard. Fo^^ ^^ 
final corrections, the probable error increases from ±: o."oi '^ "^^ 
the divisions best determined, to it o."o35 for the correctior^. ^ ^° 
the intermediate 1° arcs. 

Each determination rests upon series observed in opp ^^^^^'^^ 
quadrants, for the elimination of circle flexure. This has, lr»- ^^^'" 

* Abridged from the Aslrouotnischg Nachrichten, No. 3374. See also these P^^ ^^ 
tionst Volume VII. pajjje 330. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 271 

•, been measured, and the corrections are represented by the 
ntities: 

Zircle A + o."o8 sin (/? — 315°) + o."o4 cos (/? — 315'') 
>cle B + o."o2 sin (y? — 315°) + o."o5 cos \r — Z\f^ 

re R is the reading of either circle, at the lower left-hand 

roscope. The fixed circle reads 315°, when the telescope 

Its to the zenith. 

The accompanying table gives the corrections due to gradua- 

, for the mean of four divisions. The measurement has been 

ie from 0° as a base. The mean of the corrections may then 

idopted, as the most probable value of the error of 0°; and 

column of residuals will represent the actual graduation cor- 

ions. The average residual for circle A is ±0". 18; and the 

bable error of a circle reading upon four divisions, due to 

duation, would be ±0". 15. 

For circle B the average residual is ±0". 15. 



CiRCLU A. 



V 



o".oo +o".t8 
+0 .09 +0 .27 



30° — o".i8 o".oo 60° +o".ii 

31 — o .02 +0 .16 6i — o .02 

— o ,15 +0 .03 ' 32 — c .24 — o .06 62 — o .19 

+0 .22 +0 .40 I 33 — o .58 — o .40 ' 63 — o .07 

34 — o .64 — o .46 , 64 — o .16 



—o ,16 +0 .02 
"~o .37 — o .19 



35 -o .86 



.68 



— o .30 — o .12 , 36 — o .70 — o .52 



65 

66 



.18 
.12 



—o .26 — o .08 

f-O .04 -fO .22 
— O .06 +0 .12 



37 — o .44 — .26 67 — o .40 

38 — o .26 — o .08 68 — o .25 

39 — o .21 — o .03 69 — o .33 



V 
+ 0".29 

-Ho .16 
— o .or 
+0 .11 
+0 .02 
o .00 
-Ho .06 
— o .22 
— o .07 
— o .15 



— o .12 -1-0 .06 ' 40 — o 



— o .08 -ho .10 41 



41 -o .23 
— o .31 — o .13 



70 
71 



■42 
.26 



-o .23 — o .05 42 — o .39 



.21 



— o .36 — o .18 
— o .46 — o .28 



72 — o .40 

14 

10 



43 — o .46 — o .28 73 — o 

44 - 
— o .33 — o '15 45 — o -52 — o -34 
—o .48 — o .30 46 — o .22 — o .04 

' 47 -1-0 .08 4-0 .26 i 77 -HO .28 

48 +0 .10 +0 .28 7.S -^o .12 

-~o .47 — o .29 49 — o .04 +0 .14 79 -fo .12 -Ho .30 



.46 — o .28 74 +0 

75 +0 .09 

76 +0 .05 



— o .50 — o .32 
— o .41 — o .23 



.24 

— o .08 

— o .22 

-Ho .04 

-Ho .28 

-HO .27 

-Ho .23 

-Ho .46 

+0 .30 



— .19 — o .01 
— o .17 -HO .01 



50 — o .19 — o .01 

51 — o .22 — o 04 



80 
81 



.08 
.02 



— -33 — o .15 52 — o .3^ — o .20 82 +0 .14 



— o .19 — o .01 
— .14 +0 .04 



53 — o .18 
54 



o .00 83 



— o .23 — c .05 , 55 



— o .16 +0 .02 
— o .II -Ho .07 



— .46 — o .28 56 +0 .c6 +0 .24 



— ^0 .22 — o .04 
— .11 +0 .07 
— ^ .19 — o .01 



57 
58 
59 



-Ho .22 -rO .40 87 
-HO .20 ro .:^8 1 88 
-?-o .02 -Ho .20 89 +0 02 



+0 .25 

84 -HO .12 

85 o .00 

86 -Ho .07 
.06 
.22 



+0 .10 

-Ho .16 

-Ho 32 

+0 .43 

+ .30 

-Ho .18 

+0 .25 

-Ho .12 

— o .04 

-Ho .20 



Mean o".iS Av. -Ho".i8 



o" 

3 
6 

9 
12 

15 
18 

21 

24 

27 

30 
33 
36 

39 
42 
45 

48 

51 
54 

I ^^ 
, 60 

63 

; 66 
69 
72 

I 75 

|l 78 

! 81 
. 84 

87 
ss 

, 89 

Mean 



CiRCLB B. 



o".oo 
-fo .19 

o .00 
-Ho .04 
-Ho .14 
— o .29 
— o .06 
+0 .13 
— o .05 
-HO .27 
— o .17 
— o .34 
—o .44 
— o .37 
— o .39 
— o .07 
— o .08 
— o .29 
— o .28 

— O .02 

-Ho .05 
— o .17 

— O .22 
— .12 

— o .24 
— o .o3 
-Ho .13 

.02 

.13 

— o .03 
— o .26 
-o .18 



V 
-HO'MO 

-HO .29 

-Ho .10 

-Ho .14 

-f o .24 

— o .19 

-f o .04 

-Ho .23 

+0 .05 

+0 .37 

— o .07 

— o .24 

— o .34 



.27 

— o .29 

-Ho .03 

-Ho .02 

— o .19 

— o .18 

+0 .08 

■>rO .15 

— o .07 

— O .12 
— O .02 

— o .14 

-Ho .02 

+0 .23 

-HO .08 

— o .03 

-rO .07 

— o .16 

— o .08 



.10 Av.-Ho".i5 



272 Publications of the 

This undertaking has been accomplished with the voluntee 
assistance of Professor R. G. Aitken, for the simultaneous readi 
ing of the circles. No single series has been discarded; but, om 
series of 45° arcs, and three series of 1° arcs have been repeatecM 
upon indications of larger accidental errors than usual, and th^ 
results combined with those of the original series. It h ^ 
required, for the complete determination, 29,000 microscor 
readings. R. H. Tucker. 

Weather in August, 1896. 

A rain-storm with a precipitation of nearly three- tenths of 
inch on the night of August 29 -30th came as a fitting climax 
a most unusual August. Past experience has led to the expec=^ 
tion of the best observing weather of the year during this moiM.1 
and a few of the earlier nights seemed to justify this expectati^^ 
the "seeing** leaving nothing to be desired. But since "t 
tenth there have nine cloudy nights; and an examination of ^ 
note-books of the observers shows that on the nights that w^ 
clear enough for work, the ** seeing** was rated three or l^ 
(five representing the best conditions) on twelve nights. ^ 
only two nights during the present lunation were the atmosph^^ 
conditions good enough to allow the use of the thirty-six-in.^ 
refractor for lunar photography. The lower levels of the atmc:^ 
phere have been filled with haze and smoke due, in great pa,'* 
to immense forest fires in Washington and in British Columbia^ 

R. G. Aitken. 

August 31, 1896. 

Mr. Lowell on Mars, 

The review of Mr. Percival Lowell's book on Afa^ 
printed in Sciejice^ Vol. IV, page 231 (and in these Piiblicatior^ 
Vol. VIII, page 207) has called out a rejoinder, which is print ' 
in Science, Vol. IV, page 358, and a brief reply is to be found 
the same journal, Vol. IV, page 455. 

The Committee on Publication. 

The Photographic Durchmusterung of the Cape ^ 
Good Hope Observatory (Dr. David Gill). 

*'The first volume of the Cape Photographic Durchmusteru^ 
containing the mean places of 152,000 stars for the Equinox 18;^ 
derived by Professor J. C. Kaptevn from the Cape Photograph 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 273 

between the limits of Declination — 19° aad — 37° (both in- 
clusive) has been passed through press. The manuscript of 
Volume II of the same work, containing the places of 158,000 
stars between the limits of Declination — 38° and —52° (both in- 
clusive) is ready for press.'*— From the Report of H. M, Astro- 
nomer at the Cape of Good Hope for the year 1 895. 

Star Atlas. By Winslow Upton, Professor of Astronomy 
and Director of the Ladd Observatory, Brown University, 
Providence, R. I. Ginn & Co., Publishers, Boston. 

This Atlas is intended for those who wish to become acquainted 
with the constellations or to find the position of the leading dou- 
ble stars, variable stars, clusters or nebulae readily visible in small 
telescopes. It contains large charts of the heavens, with the 
stars prominently defined and the constellation figures in dim out- 
line, and also auxiliary charts and tables to facilitate the use of 
the Atlas by teachers and students. E. S. H. 



274 Publications of the 

Minutes of the Meeting of the Board of Directoi^ 
held at the lick observatory, september 5, 1896. 

President Hussey presided. A quorum was present. The miniLi 
of the last meeting were approved. The following members were d-^ 
elected : 

List of Members Elected September 5, 1896. 

Mr. J. H. Albert Salem, Oregon. 

^iA T> r» ,,«.ojSt. George's Club, Hanovj 

Col. Alex. Burton-Brown, r.a., f.r.a.s. | Square? London, England 

»*• /- TT T^ f 262 Madison Avenue, Ncii 

Miss Grace H. Dodge < York N. Y. 

D f A nyr \x..r^r.r.^ fScott Obser\atory, Park- 
Prof. A. M. Mattoon .^ ^j„^^ Missouri. 

Mr. James K. Moffitt { Fi^^^ National Bank, S. F.. 

The following resolution was unanimously adopted by the consent- 
ing votes of the Directors, namely: Messrs. Hussev, Holden, Perrine, 
Molera, Pardee, Edwards, Stringham, Pierson, von Geldern, 
ZiEL, and Miss O'Halloran : 

Resolved, That the Treasurer be and he hereby is authorized to withdraw from the 
Life Membership Fund such sums of money, not to exceed three hundred dollars, as *» 
be necessary to pay the expenses of the General Fund, during the current fiscal year.tbe 
sums so withdrawn to be returned to the Life Membership Fund at or before the end of 
the present fiscal year. 

Memorandum on the Distribution of the Publications 
OF THE Astronomical Society of the Pacific to 
Corresponding Institutions, etc. 

[Printed by order of the Board of Directors.] 

The Astronomical Society of the Pacific was organized February 
1889. At a meeting held March 30, 1889, the following resolution ^ 
adopted by the Society: 

Resolved, That the Publications A. S. P. be rej^ularly sent to the following Obs«'*' 
lories, etc., and that the Secretaries of the Society be instructeti to notify them ©f ' 
resolution, and to request that they exchange their publications with our own; ' 
that the list of these Corresponding Societies and Observatories be printed in the -A^ 
lications A. S. P. 

Accordingly a first list of forty-seven such institutions was prir»^ 
in Volume I, page 21, and a revised list of ninety-one instituti^ 
(authorized by the Directors on July 27, 1889) is given on page 43 of 
same volume. At subsequent meetings of the Directors the list '^ 
extended and slightly changed. 

At a meeting of the Society held January 25, 1890 (see PublicaiX' 
A. S. P., Volume II, page 34) Amended By-Laws were adopted^ 
which Section 5. Article II is: 

*'A certain number of Observatories, Academies of Scier^ 
Astronomical Societies, institutions of learning, etc., not to exceed ^ 
hundred, shall be designated by the Board of Directors as Correspo^ 



Astronomical Society of the PcLcific. 275 

ing: Institutions, and they shall receive the Publications of this Society m 
excHange or otherwise.'* The words ** or otherwise'* it may be well 
to note, were inserted to authorize the sending of our Publications to a 
few institutions like the Library of Congress, the British Museum, etc., 
which do not publish books for exchange. 

In the list of our members, published each year, the names of Cor- 
responding Institutions have been regularly printed. 

From time to time the Directors have authorized the Committee on 

Publications to exchange the Publications for certain scientific journals, 

^c, regularly sent to the Library of the Society in San Francisco, and 

also to send a certain number of copies to various periodicals in California 

for review. Our exchanges with Corresponding Institutions have been 

regularly sent from Volume I (1889) to and including Volume VII (1895) 

enclosed in envelopes on which a request for an exchange of publications 

was printed. At various times the Library Committee has reported that 

some of the Corresponding Institutions sent their exchanges irregularly 

or not at all, and on June 8, 1895, the Directors requested the Library 

Committee to furnish the Secretaries with a list of those Corresponding 

Institutions which have sent none of their volumes in return for our own. 

(See Publications A. S. P., Volume VII, page 208). Such a list was 

accordingly prepared, and at a meeting of the Directors on November 30, 

'^95, it was 

Resotvedt That any institution that has failed to forward publications in return for 
received from this Society is respectfully requested to communicate with the Sec- 
if a continuanceof the interchange of publications be desired. (Pudlicatians A. S. P., 
Volomc VIII, page 352.) 

During January, 1896, the following notice was sent, by order of the 
***'esident, to some of the Corresponding Institutions: 

"Your attention is respectfully directed to the resolution of the 
Jpirectors printed on page 352 of Volume VII of the Publications of this 
riety for 1895. By order of the President, C. D. Perrine, F. R. Ziel, 
rretaries.** 

The returns from this circular have been received. After a consid- 
aon of these returns by the Board of Directors it was 

Resolved, That the thanks of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific are returned to 
Observatories, Scientific Societies, etc., which have enriched its library by ex- 
^***iiges of their publications. 

Jiesoh/ed^ That the Board of Directors designate the following Observatories, 
"^^^demies of Science, institutions of learning, etc., as Corresponding Institutions of the 
^**^«ty, and that the present list supercedes all previous lists. 

KoTB.— The list of Corresponding Institutions will be printed Mrith the list of 
*«>«mber8 in January, 1S97. 



r 




PUBLICATIONS 



or THE 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 

Vol. VIII. San Francisco, California, December i, 1896. No. 53. 



KEPLER. 



By Edward S. Holden. 



John Kepler was bom, December 27, 1571, at Magstatt, in 
Wurtemburg. He was a feeble child, with weak vision. His 
family, though very poor, had pretentions to nobility, as one of 
his ancestors had been made knight by the Emperor Sigismund 
(1411-1437) at Rome. Young Kepler was sent to school at 
the age of six years, but was soon removed, in order to become 
waiter in an inn. The father, who had been a soldier in the 
Belgian war, now engaged in the Austrian army sent against the 
Turks, and was not again heard from. The mother, whose youth 
had been spent with an aunt who had been burned as a witch, 
was extravagant and unkind, and Kepler's youth was most 
unhappy. His two brothers were good-for-naughts, and his only 
consolation was the tender friendship of his sister Marguerite, 
who was married to a Protestant pastor, and in him, also, 
Kepler had an enemy. At eighteen years of age, the boy was 
sent to the seminary at Tuebingen, where he did not greatly 
distinguish himself. The influence of the celebrated Maestlin 
turned Kepler's thoughts from theology to mathematics. 

** As soon as I could appreciate the charms of philosophy," 
says Kepler, '* I followed it with ardor, in all its parts. I gave 
no particular attention to astronomy, though I readily compre- 
hended what was taught. I had been educated at the expense 
of the Duke of Wurtemburg, and when I saw my schoolmates 
accept positions in his service for which they had shown no espe- 
cial aptitudes, I decided to take the first place which might be 
offered to me. ' ' This position was that of professor of astronomy. 



28o Publications of the 

At the age of twenty-two years (1593), Kepler was appointed 
professor at Graz. In 1600 the religious persecutions in Styria 
broke out; and Kepler, with his fellow professors, who were 
Protestants, was expelled. In 1597 ^^ ^^^ married a noble and 
very beautiful widow, with whom his life was not happy. 

In the same year (1600) Tycho Brake called Kepler to 
Prague as his assistant Kepler's first letters from Prague 
contain this paragraph: **A11 is uncertain here. Tycho is a man 
with whom one cannot live without being exposed to cruel insults. 
The salary is splendid, but the treasury is empty, and no one is 
paid." AtTYCHo's death (1601), Kepler was appointed court- 
astronomer at a salary of fifteen hundred florins, which, likewise, 
was not paid. *' I waste my time,'* says Kepler, '*at the door 
of the treasurers and in begging." One thing consoled him for 
all these troubles. This was the fi'ee access to the manuscript 
astronomical observations of Tycho, and the opportunity to seek 
in them the secrets of the planetary motions. Not the least of 
his annoyances was the necessity to cast horoscopes for the court 
officials. After the death of the Emperor Rodolph his suc- 
cessor appointed Kepler to reform the calendar, which was 
rejected as ** Papist" by Protestants. Although an official of 
the court, Kepler was obliged to earn his bread by calculating 
little almanacs containing weather and other prognostics. The 
arrears of his salary amounted, at this time, to twelve thousand 
crowns. He now accepted the chair of mathematics at Linz, and 
(his wife having died) he married the beautiful Susanne Ret- 
tinger, by whom hs had seven children. His happiness was of 
short duration. He was accused of heresy by the Catholics and 
by the Protestants of Linz at once. 

In 1615 Kepler's sister writes to beg his aid in the lawsuit 
instituted against his mother as a sorceress. This suit continued 
for ^yj^ years. His mother, then seventy- five years old, was 
accused of having been instructed in magic by an aunt who had 
in fact been burned for sorcery; of having bewitched various 
persons; of having conversation with the Devil; of being unable 
to weep; of causing the death of the pigs of the neighborhood; 
and finally, of never looking one in the face — a habit of witches, it 
was averred. Kepler was able to modify the sentence of his 
mother, not to annul it. She was released, and died in 1622. 
On his return to Linz his enemies so reviled him as the son of a— 
sorceress, that it was necessary for him to leave Austria. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 281 

He became astronomer to Wallenstein, but was replaced 
by the Italian astrologer, Zeno, after having vainly begged for 
the arrears of his salary. He died at the age of fifty- nine years, 
!Kovember 15, 1630. He left behind him twenty-two crowns, a 
<:oat, two shirts, twenty-seven copies of his EphemerideSy and 
sixteen copies of his Rtidolphine Tables. At the time of his 
death, the princes whom he had served were in his debt twenty- 
nine thousand florins. 

These melancholy details give Kepler's biography a place in 
^e martyrology of Science.* The world in general recollects 
only the brilliant series of achievements which it owes to him; 
and does not remember the misery and trouble which continu- 
ously surrounded his life. These tribulations were desperately 
real to him, and it is an injustice to a heroic soul to forget that 
the discoveries which have changed the face of the world's 
thought, were wrung from cruel and sordid circumstance. 

II. PORTRAIT OF KEPLER. 

The portrait of Kepler accompanying this article is copied 
from a photograph kindly given to me many years ago by 
Dr. J. L. E. Dreyer, Director of the Observatory of Armagh. 
It is a copy of an original painting now, I believe, in the possession 
of Kepler's descendants, and, so far as is known, has never 
before been published. 

III. JUDICIAL ASTROLOGY. 

A short account of judicial astrology will not be unwelcome 
here. 

The twelve * ' houses ' ' of astrology were thus defined : Imagine 
^ sphere surrounding the Earth and concentric with it, on which 
^neridians (called circles of position) are drawn from its north to 
its south polef thirty degrees apart, dividing the surface into 
"twelve equal parts. Each of these areas is a '' house ^^' according 
"^o the terms of judicial astrology. 

The house just about to rise at the moment for which the hor- 
oscope was cast is I — the first house. The lower meridian of the 



*The foregoing sketch is chietly taken from Arago, Oeuvres, tome iii, p. 198. 

t Sometimes the great circles were drawn through the north and south poles of the 
^^iptic, more often through the north and south points of the horizon. At least three 
different systems were thus available to the astrologer, who could choose the one which 
^^erved his purpose {znd his client) best. 



282 Publications of the 

place separates the third and fourth houses; VI has just set; the 
upper meridian of the place separates IX and X; XII has just 
risen. 

Each star and planet is situated in some one of the houses. 
The stars revolve in circles parallel to the equator, as do the 
planets; but the latter have motions along the ecliptic, within the 
Zodiac. The auguries depended chiefly on the positions of the 
planets in the Zodiac, and in respect to the various houses^ 
The most important house was the first — the ascendant^ — /. e. , 
that one just about to rise. The point of the ecliptic just rising 
was the the horoscope — a term which has gradually been trans- 
ferred to the augury itself. The X hou^e — that just east of the 
meridian and approaching it — was next in power, etc. More- 
over, each hottse had a special meaning: 

I is the house of Life; VII is the house of Marriage; 



II " 




Riches ; 


VIII 




Death ; 


III " 




Brethren ; 


IX 




* Religion ; 


IV " 




Parents ; 


X 




' /dignities; 


V '* 




Children; 


XI 




* Friends ; 


VI " 




Health ; 


XII 




'* Enetnies, 



^ Each house (and also each sign of the Zodiac) has a planet for 
its Lord. The Sun has his throne in Leo; the Moon, in Catuer; 
Mercury, in Virgo; Venus, in Taurus; Mars, in Scorpio; Jupi- 
ter, in Sagittarius; Saturn, in Aquarius; etc. 

When any planet is in its own hoiise its influence is greater 
than in any other situation; if a planet is in a powerful hotise — 
in the ascendant, for example, — its influence is stronger than if it 
were in a weaker one — that near the lower meridian, for instance, 
— the III, and so on. 

The planets were related to persons, countries, conditions, etc. 
somewhat as follows: The Sun referred to the persons of kings, 
emperors, and high dignitaries; the Moon, to those of lower de- 
gree, especially to such as plied their avocations by night; Mer- 
cury was the planet of philosophers, astrologers,* poets; Venus 
was related to love, marriage, women, as was but fitting; Mars 
was the soldier's planet; Jupiter, the planet of sages; Saturn 
ruled the fates of the aged, of monks, etc. Again, the Sun was 
beneficent; the Moon, melancholy; Mercury, inconstant; Venus, 
gracious; Mars, ardent; Jupiter, benign; Saturn^ morose. 

Not only were the planets efficient in human affairs by their 



• N. B. the seal of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 283 

^ery nature, as well as by their positions in the celestial houses^ but 
cdso by their positions with respect to each other — their aspects. 
The aspect was the angle between two lines drawn from two plan- 
ets to the earth's centre. Mars was in oppositioyi to Jupiter when 
"^e two radii made an angle of 180°; in conjunction^ when the 
^uigle was qP\ in trine ^ at 120°; in quadrature^ at 90°; etc. 

Quadrature and opposition were unfavorable portents; con- 
junction was neither favorable nor otherwise; trine and sextile 
^^¥ere fortunate aspects. 

It is not difficult to refute the pretensions of Astrology; and 
-•he wonder is that they endured so long. Two persons born at the 
^;ame time (and at or near the same place *) should have the same 
:£ite; Paris in the time of Catherine de Medicis or Louis 
•he Eleventh was sufficiently populous to have suggested this 
obvious conclusion, which, just as obviously, was not in accord 
■"with experience. The king and the carpenter, bom in the same 
3iour, had very different lives; but the carpenter had no astrolo- 
ger to cast his horoscope — and the king believed that the stars 
xevolved for him alone. 

The deathblow to astrology was given by the system of Co- 
i>ernicus, which changed the face of the world. When it was 
once clearly understood f that the Earth was a planet like Mars 
or Mercury^ it took a new place in the solar system and in men*s 
thoughts. Jupiter no longer moved in order to influence the 
destiny of the insignificant inhabitants of another planet It had 
a mission of its own. Man was dethroned, and could no longer 
regard himself as the centre of the universe. 

IV. ON A MANUSCRIPT OF KEPLER* S. 

A short while ago a manuscript of Kepler's was offered for 
sale in Germany, and it was at once secured for the collection of 
the Lick Observatory. J It is from the collection of Kepler 
MSS. of the Observatory of Pulkowa, and bears the certificate 
of W. Struve.§ 

It is written on both sides of a rough, strong piece of paper, 



* Forthe latitude influenced the horoscope. 

t Not until after the discoveries of Galileo with the telescope had proved the 
coodusioQS of Copernicus to be true. 

X MSS., letters, etc., of Bbssbl, Gauss, Hansen, C. A. F. Peters. Schumacher, 
W. Struvb, and others have been obtained for the Observatory. 

2 ** Die Uberschrift von fremder Hand, das uebrige von Kepler's Hand. Aus der 
Sammlung der KBPLER'schen Manuscripte in Pulkowa. \q^ Struvb. 

•* Pulkowa, den 25/13 Mai 1854." 



J?S4 Publications of the 

about six by eight inches. The ink is somewhat yellow and 
faded, but is entirely legible. The MS. is a horoscope, cast by 
Kepler, of one Hans Hannibal Hutter, who was bom 1586, 
September loth. It bears the marks of extreme haste. At first 
sight, one might think that some other piece of manuscript would 
be more desirable for the collection of an astronomical observa- 
tory. What value could be assigned, for instance, to the scrap 
of paper on which the master verified his guess as to the third 
law of motion ? But nothing is more suitable to recall the per- 
sonality of Kepler than this piece of astrology, by means 
of which he kept the wolf fi'om the door, and purchased the 
strength and leisure for higher things. 

It is strange to reflect that, at last, this portrait and this man- 
uscript of Kepler's should be printed for the first time in these 
PubliccUions^ on the very borders of Balboa's Sea! 
The chief parts of the manuscript are as follows: 
First — The title (which was not written by Kepler) : 

Anno isS6 den 10 Tag Septemb . . und 
5 ukr nachmittags 1st Hannss Hannibal 
Hutter Von Hutterss . . en, 

Zur Welt geboren. hi 

Then follows, on the same side of the paper, a diagram by 
Kepler, intended to give the XII astrological houses. It is not 
quite in the usual form, and has evidently been drawn in great 
haste. Next the diagram are eleven lines, in a column, giving 
the aspects, etc. , of the planets and Moon. 

On the reverse side of the sheet are five columns, similar to 
that just described: the first, of 14 lines; the second, of 16 (some 
of which should have been written in the third column, as is 
indicated by lines directed to their proper places) ; the third, of 8 
lines (this column relates to the situation of the signs of the 
Zodiac, and is surrounded by a border); the fourth, of 15 lines; 
the fifth, of 16 lines. 

As the only interest in the manuscript is derived from Kep- 
ler's connection with it (the fate of Hans Hannibal Hutter 
being now unimportant), I do not transcribe the separate symbols 
here. The essential point is that the Lick Observatory possesses 
a genuine manuscript in Kepler's hand which illustrates a part 
of his real life and belief. 

There is no doubt that Kepler seriously studied the art and 



Astronomical Society of the Pcutjic. 285 

science of judicial astrology, nor that he (like his forerunner, 
Tycho,) gave it a certain credence, always accompanied with 
some doubt. 

*' Wahrlich in aller meinef Wissenschaft der Astrologie weiss 
ich nit so viel Gewissheit, dass ich einzige Specialfach mit Sicher- 
lieit duerfte vorsagen. ' ' * 

Lick Obsbrvatory, October 19, 1896. 



(TWENTY-FOURTH) AWARD OF THE DONOHOE 

COMET-MEDAL. 



The Comet-Medal of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 
has been awarded to Mr. W. E. Sperra, of Randolph, Ohio, 
for his discovery of an unexpected comet on August 31, 1896. 

The Committee on the Comet-Medal, 

Edward S. Holden, 

j. m. schaeberle, 

W. W. Campbell. 
October 31, 1896. 



(TWENTY-FIFTH) AWARD OF THE DONOHOE 

COMET-MEDAL. 



The Comet-Medal of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 
has been awarded to Mr. Giacobini, of the Observatory of 
Nice, France, for his discovery of an unexpected comet on 
September 4, 1896. 

The Committee on the Comet-Medal, 

Edward S. Holden, 
J. M. Schaeberle, 
W. W. Campbell. 

November 4, 1896. 



•Wolf: Geschichie der Astronomie, page 286. 



286 



Puilications of the 



RESULTS OF DOUBLE-STAR MEASURES, MADE 

THE LICK OBSERVATORY. 



By R. G. A'lTKEN. 



Below are given the results of my measures of double-s 
during the past year. The details of the measures will be fo 
in the Astronomische Nachrichten, 

Unless otherwise indicated in the notes, each result give 
the mean of three nights' measures, usually with the twc 
inch equatorial, though some of the closer pairs were measi 
on one night with the thirty-six-inch. 



No. 


Double star. 


R. A. 

i88a 


Decl. 

1880. 


Position 
Angle. 


Dis- 
tance. 


Magnitudes. 


1895 

+ 


N 






h. m. s. 


/ 





tt 






I 


)3 39i 


3 14 


—2839 


271.0 


0.93 


6.5 - 6.5 


.83 




2 


H 1964 


1932 


1929 


II5.7 


6.60 


7 - 10 


.93 


. 


3 


H 1968. AB 


021 33 


—17 4 


106.7 


2.81 


7 - loK 


.93 






AC 






122.2 


93.55 


- 11% 


.93 




4 


2 35 . 


25 27 


-- 2 43 1 266.8 


8.55 


9+- 9+ 


.92 




5 


S42 AC 


2938 


+29 21 


199.0 


38.17 


8 - 10+ 


.96 




6 


S44 


03156 


+40 20 


266.3 


9.52 


8+- 9+ 


1.04 




7 


S45 


032 7 


+46 18 88.0 


11.79 


7 - 10 


1.04 




8 


OS 18 AB 


036 II 


+ 3 31 1 129.2 


1. 15 


7+- 9+ 


1-45 






AC 




'269.2 


42.99 


. 12+ 


1.45 




9 


2 53 rej. 


37 18 |— I 33 ! 335.0 


26.54 


8+ - 10 


I. II 




lO 


263 


04356 


+11 II 1 227.6 


17.12 


8+ - 11 + 


1.07 




II 


S69 


04751 


+83 2 


13.5 


23.41 


8+ - 9+ 


0.96 




12 


H 1057 


050 6 


+37 5t 


122.0 


36.69 


4 - 11+ 


1.04 


tt.Anix 


13 


H 1068 


05844 


+14 18 


262.9 


55.24 


6 - 11 + 


1.13 


72PUC 


14 


H634 


I 436 


+ 855 


266.5 


37.41 


6+ - II 


1.13 




15 


/3 1029 BC 


I 727 


+ 656 


241.5 


0.97 


5 - 13 


1.74 


>JHsa 




AB = 2ioo 






63.5 


23.72 


4 - 5 


1.73 


anight 


i6 


H2061 


I 30 2 —18 8 


321.0 


65.59 


7+- 9+ 


1.13 




17 


2 142 


13328 +1439 


339.7 


15.56 


8+ ■ 8+ 


1.08 




i8 


2 143 


13332 +33 44 


319.2 


35.62 


7+ - 9 


1.04 




19 


2 149 


I 37 24 +39 21 


95.7 


I. II 


8+- 9+ 


1. 10 




20 


2197 


I 53 59 +34 43 


232.3 i 24.89 


7+ - 8+ 


1.05 




21 


2 357 


3 234 


—13 3 


295.2 


7.96 


8+ - 10+ 


1. 17 


4 night 


22 


2358 


3 244 


— 49 347.9 


15.42 


8+ - 11 + 


1. 16 




23 


2 343 


3 438 


+8337 


324-8 


27.09 


8+ - 9 


1.56 




24 


H663 


3 637 


— 139 


249.8 


4.60 


6 - II 


1. 19 


3 night 


25 


H1133 


3 835 


+69 19 


202.5 


30.58 


6 - 12 


1.35 




26 


2418 


33052 


+75 


(^I'l 


19.08 


8 - 9 


1.35 


3 night 


27 


2436 


3 35 II 


— 13 


2355 


36.13 


7 - 8 


1. 14 




28 


0265 


3 43 6 


+2513 


198. 1 


0.72 


6.5 - 7 


1.44 


4 night 


29 


2 475 


352 3 


— 728 


19.2 


7.39 


8+ - 10 


1. 14 




30 \ 


'Xa'^ 


4 042 


1+79 ^^ 


li^^.^ 


. 9.0s 


9+ - 10+ 


1.45 





Astronomical Society of the PcLcific. 287 



No. 



31 
32 

33 
34 
35 
36 

37 
38 
39 
40 

41 
42 

43 
44 
45 
46 

47 

48 

49 
50 

51 
52 

53 
54 
55 

56 

57 
58 

59 
60 
61 
62 

63 

65 
66 

67 
68 

69 
70 

71 

7a 

73 

74 



Double Star. 



02 74 

2505 

/3 547 
Hvi loi 

H3664 

S596 
S620 

2634 
5629 

5651 
OS 103 
02 104 

S704 
S736 
5770 

S771 
S1455A&BC 

BC 
S615 
51471 

^915 
5 1554 
2 1555 
21561 
02 239 rej. 

^ 795 AB 
CD 
^920 
5 162 1 

/8 796 
S643 
H 1222 

3341 

51715 

i8 799 
02261 

/3 221 

)3 222 

H529 

Ho. 260 

/8113 
02269 

51757 
51761 

)3 937 
02277 



R. A. 


Doel. 


1880. 


1880. 


h. m. s. 


t 


4 541 


+ 9 21 


4 641 


+62 17 


4 725 


+ 858 


41833 


+1738 


42956 


—25 17 


440 15 


—12 10 


451 32 


+ 1346 


5 247 


+79 5 


5 4 4 


+83 14 


5 414 


— 7 13 


5 10 17 


+33 14 


514 12 


+4654 


520 48 


+6934 


52836 


+41 45 


53430 


+19 9 


53441 


+19 31 


1039 II 


+8624 


1042 18 


14 I 


1043 


+8026 


10 43 13 


+2455 


" 29 55 


+13 31 


II 29 59 


+28 27 


II 32 29 


+4546 


II 37 59 


+2553 


II 53 51 


+71 20 


12 9 34 


— 22 41 


12 9 54 


+ 619 


12 II 19 


+ 716 


12 47 40 


—1723 


12 47 40 


+4726 


12 57 19 


—1956 


1258 9 


+20 2 


13 I 7 


+73 40 


13 6 4 


+32 43 


13 654 


—1449 


13 10 55 


—2054 


13 13 59 


+35 47 


13 18 


+2951 


1323 9 


+12 6 


13 27 26 


+3532 


1328 9 


+ 18 


1329 2 


+72 20 


13 51 52 


+35 I 


14 7 6 


+29 17 



Position 
Angle. 



294.2 

II5.7 

353.4 
232.8 

192. 1 

288.1 

231.2 

12.3 

2.0 

47.4 

54.6 

189.2 

12.8 

350.2 
334.2 
234.7 

246.0 

348.6 

I.I 

O.I 

231.2 
252.0 
344-0 
259.6 

20.6 
328.0 

1 14.0 
244.0 
136.2 

260.0 

294.5 

Star 

307.9 

229. 1 

245.3 
347.2 

45.6 

14.8 

120.4 

314.7 
203.8 

214. 1 

72.4 

71.6 

102.8 

354.6 



Dis- 
tance. 



It 



0.33 
9.17 

0.91 

77.41 
21.61 

10.19 

3.64 

14.75 

15.27 

19.55 
380 

17.53 

21.58 

2.58 

1.20 

24.12 

33.75 
1-95 

86.34 
2.06 
1.26 

0.95 
0.60 

10.03 

37.78 

14.39 
6.25 

0.84 

2.54 
0.66 

23.40 
single 
0.78 
7.26 
0.83 
1. 61 

1.34 

1.51 

17.30 

0.80 

1.32 
0.4 
2.50 
20.38 
0.88 
0.81 



Magnitude. 



8 

8+ 

5>^ 
4.0 

7+ 
8 

8+ 

5 
8 

8 

5 

7+ 

7+ 

7+ 

8+ 

9 
8 

10 

9 
9 
9 
8 

6+ 

6+ 

5>i 
8 

8 

6+ 

9 

8 

8 

6+ 

8+ 

7 

7 
8 

8 

9 

8+ 
8 

6^ 
8 

8>i 

8 

8 



8+ 
II 

9 

9 
10 

10 

9 

8+ 
II 
10 

11+ 
II 

9 

8+ 
10 

9 

9+ 
10 

10 

9 
9 

8+ 
6+ 

7+ 
10 

12+ 
12 
8 
10 

9 
9 

6+ 

9+ 
8+ 

7+ 
9 
9 
10 

8+ 
10 

7 

9 

9 

8+ 

8 



X895 

+ 



72 

71 
70 
16 
16 
16 
16 

27 

27 
15 
31 
29 
30 
26 
18 
18 

43 
43 
43 
49 
52 
50 

44 
40 
40 

43 
43 
52 

45 
52 
43 
47 
54 
48 

71 
48 

49 
48 

51 
48 
50 
53 
43 
64 
49 
49 



Notes. 



36-inch. 

4 nights. 
I TaurL 



2 nights. 
16 Aurigre, 



2 nights. 



2 nights. 

a nights. 
A nights. 



I night. 



36-in. X night, 
a nights. 



36-in. anights. 



Publications of the 



No. 


Double Star. 


R.A. 

1880. 


Dccl. 

1880. 


PoBHion 
Angle. 


Dis- 
tance. 


Magnitude. 


1895 

+ 


T 






h. m. s 


' 





// 








75 


21816 


14 836 


+2940 


79.0 


1.66 


7+ 


- 7+ 


1.49 


3 nig 


76 


)8 4i4 


143442 


—3025 


346.5 


0.90 


6+ 


- 8 


1.49 


4nig 


77 


i83i 


14 46 59 


+ 19 13 


192. 1 


1.57 


8+ 


- 10 


1.46 




78 


/3 618 A & BC 


15 5 23 


—19 20 


III.O 


58.23 


5 


- 10 


1.44 


iUh 




BC 






19. 1 


1.68 


10 


- 10 


1.46 




79 


S1950 


15 24 50 


+2555 


90.2 


3.23 


7 


- 9 


1.62 




80 


/3 945 


1526 9 


+5751 


30.8 


15.68 


6+ 


- 12 


1.48 




81 


02297 


15 29 40 


+25 25 


142.8 


5.55 


1% 


- \\% 1.51 




82 


/8620 


15 38 54 


—2741 


170.2 


0.72 


7 


- 7+ 


1.49 


^xA^ 


83 


21969 


1539 I 


+60 22 


49.1 


080 


8 


- 9 


1.64 




84 


22026 


16 10 5 


+ 741 


267.7 


0.71 


8+ 


- 9 


1.53 




85 


A. G. Berlin, 




















5594 


16 18 46 


+20 40 ? 


II2.4 


5.06 


7 


- 10+ 


1.47 


Ane 


86 


02 3" 


16 22 33 


+21 10 


198.6 


7.12 


1% 


- 10 


1.47 




87 


^416 


17 10 47 


-3451 


3148 


1.45 


6 


- 8 


1.44 


B.A, 


^ 


^2 2272 


17 59 23 


+ 233 


2913 


2.40 


3 


- 6 


1.51 


700^ 


89 


02342 


18 I 42 


+ 9 33 


Star 


roond 






1.50 


3»ig1 


90 


)S826 


18 2 5 


+ 9 45 


331.5 


0.71 


9>^ 


- 9X 


1.70 


36-inc 


91 


AC 15 


18 2 26 


+30 33 5 


310.3 


0.84 


6 


- lo)^ 


1.70 


4nix' 
99 Hi 


92 2 2281 


18 336 


+ 358 


231-5 


0.19 


6 


' 7 


1.70 


anifi:^ 


93 22294 


18 825 


+ 09 


94.2 


0.16 


7+ 


- 7+ 


1.64 


364IM 


94 /3 760 AB 

1 


18 931 


-3648 


IOf.2 


3.65 


3+ 


-11+ 


1.46 


yiSoi 


, AC 






276.2 


33.34 


3+ 


- '3 


1.48 


a nig 




AD 


, 




303-8 


93.14 


3+ 


- 9+ 


1.47 




95 


2 2400 AB 


184332+16 7 


184.2 


2.17 


8 


- II 


1.54 


jSini 




AC 


1 


188.3 


315 


8 


- 10 


1.54 


36-iiK 




BC 




197.2 


0.94 


II 


- 10 


1.54 


36^ 


96 


i8 648 


18 52 30 +32 45 


2315 


1.34 


6 


- 9+ 


1.49 




97 


2 2434 AB 


18 56 34 — 53 


1263 


23.59 


8 


- 8+ 


1.49 






BC 


1 

1 
1 


53.8 


1. 12 


8+ 


- 10 


1.49 




98 


HN129 


1857 0—23 5 


307.7 


8.14 


7 


- 8+ 


1.62 


I nig 


99 HN 126 


1857 10'— 21 43 


317.5 


0.44 


7 


- 8+ 


1.73 


a nig 


icx) 2 2673-74 AB 


20 17 6+12 57 


330.5 


2.64 


8 


- 9+ 


0.85 






CD 


i 


359.8 


15.95 


8 


- II 


0.85 






AC 




103.6 


75.65 






0.85 




lOI 


a Cygni 


2037 20+4451 


106.6 


75.72 




- II 


0.92 




102 


02413 


20 42 44 +36 3 


60.7 


0.62 


5 


- 6 


1.54 


AO: 


103 


A.G.C. 13 


21 10 0+37 32 


333.6 


0.79 


4 


- 9+ 


1.55 


r Cy^ 


104; fi 989 


21 39 12+25 6 


93-7 


0.09 


5 


- 5+ 


1.68 


4 nig 


105 /3 172 


22 17 52— 5 27 


7-3 


0.57 


h% 


- 5M 


0.83 


5' A^ 


106 


02536 


22 52 29 + 8 43 


166.8 


0.21 


7-4 


-7.5 


1.73 


B.A. 
36-in« 


107 


2 2912 


22 23 54 + 3 49 


294.1 


0.28 


6 


- 7 


1.66 


37 Pr 
36-ln< 


108 


/3 "54 


23 53 12 

1 


+74 10 


308.0 


0.77 


8 


- 8+ 


0.91 





Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 289 

:new elements and ephemeris of comet e, 

1896, (GIACOBINI). 



By F. H. Seares. 



From the Lick Obervatory observations of September 5th, 
nth, and 28th, Mr. Crawford and I have deduced improved 
-elements of Comet Giacobini. The elements are considerably 
•different from our first set, and show how very nearly indetermi- 
nate a first solution would necessarily be. 

Our results are: 

T = Oct. 18.91806 G. M. T. 



/ = 12° 20' o".o 



o o/: ,. \ Mean equinox 

ft =186 15 44 -o > of ,8^6.0. 

(0 = 136 10 6.1; 

log q = 0.208244 
Residuals for the middle place (O — C) : 

AX cos ^3= — 5". 9; A^= — 20". 6. 

[The ephemeris, at four-day intervals, from October 14th to 
the 26th, is here omitted.] 

Students* Observatory, Berkeley, Gal., October 9, 1896. 



ELLIPTIC ELEMENTS OF COMET GIACOBINL 



By W. J. HussEY AND C. D. Perrine. 



From Mt. Hamilton observations of September 5lh, nth, and 

28th, we have computed the following elliptic elements of this 

comet: 

Epoch: 1896, Sept. 5.5, Gr. M. T. 

M = 354° 43' 37" 

a = 191 44 13 \ Mean ecliptic 

(0 = 139 5 28 / and equinox 

/ = II 35 18 ) of 1896.0. 

log e = 9.82189 
log a = o. 64636 
log/A= 2.58047 
Period = 9.323 years. 



290 Publications of the 

The same observations are also satisfied by the following 
remarkable system of elements: 

Epoch: 1896, Sept. 0.0, Gr. M. T. 

M = 286° 26' 48" 

a = 216 34 53 

(tf = 190 49 45 \ 1896.0. 

i = 7 34 29 
log e = 9.29718 
log a = 0.09470 

log fi = 3-40796 
Period := 506 days. 

The last elements, however, do not satisfy later observations. 

Mt. Hamilton, Cal., October 13, 1896. 



PLANETARY PHENOMENA FOR JANUARY A 

FEBRUARY, 1897. 



By Professor Malcolm McNeill. 



January, 1897. 

Mercury is in good position for observation until after 
middle of the month. It reaches its greatest eastern dongati 
on January 6th, and for the first two weeks of the month 
remains above the horizon from an hour and a half to an h 
after sunset. It then approaches the Sun yery rapidly and 
inferior conjunction on January 2 2d. 

Ventis is very conspicuous in the evening sky in the southw 
three to four hours behind the Sun in its daily path. It mo 
northeastward among the stars, about thirty-five degrees, fi: 
the eastern part of the constellation Capricorn through Aqtia 
into Pisces, 

Mars is still a fine object, and is above the horizon nearly 
whole night. It is in the constellation Taurus, nine degr"- 
north and a little east of the first magnitude star Aldeba 
(a Tatiri). Its apparent motion among the stars is very sin- 
less than two degrees. It retrogrades (moves westward) u. 
January 15th, and then moves eastward again, its position at 
end of the month being about the same as at the beginning. 




Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 291 

ctual distance from the Earth is increasing very rapidly, and on 
anuary 31st it is about 110,000,000 miles away. Although still 
^[uite bright, it has lost a considerable fraction of the light it gave 
^«^s at opposition. 

Jupiter is getting into position for evening observation again, 
iKrising at half-past nine on January ist, and two hours earlier on 
anuary 31st. It is in the eastern part of the constellation Leo^ 
ibout ten degrees east and south of Regulus (a Leonis)^ and 
uring the month it moves about two degrees westward and 
orthward toward that star. 
Saturn is a morning star rising at about 4 a.m. on January ist, 
^ind a little after 2 a.m. on January 31st. It is on the border of 
^^e constellations Libra and Scorpio; and during the month it 
snoves not quite three degrees eastward and southward. 

Uranus is in the same neighborhood with Saturn^ and moves 
in the same direction, but only about half as fast. At the begin- 
ning of the month it is about two degrees nearly due south from 
Saturn. 

Neptune is in the eastern part of Taurus, and is above the 
horizon nearly the entire night, but it cannot be seen without a 
telescope. 

February, 1897. 

There will be an annular eclipse of the Sun on February ist. 
The path of the central eclipse lies mainly in the southern Pacific 
Ocean, the line extending from a point near New Zealand to the 
northern part of South America, crossing a little south of the 
Isthmus of Panama and ending just off the north coast. It will 
be visible as a partial eclipse late in the afternoon in the eastern 
and southern part of the United States. 

Mercury is a morning star throughout the month, and reaches 
greatest west elongation on February 15th. During the greater 
part of the month the conditions for visibility in the early twilight 
are good. 

Venu^ is still an evening star, and reaches greatest east elonga- 
tion on the morning of February i6th. It sets nearly four hours 
later than the Sun. It moves about thirty degrees eastward and 
northward during the month in the constellation Pisces, It is 
very near the vernal equinox, about seventeen minutes north, at 
5 A.M., February 2d, P. S. T. 

Mars is still in good position for observation, not setting until 



29a Publications of the 

long after midnight It is in the constellation Taurus^ and moves 
about ten degrees eastward during the month. Its distance fronat 
the Earth is increasing, but not quite as rapidly as during January, 
and on February 15th it is just about as far away from us as is 
the Sun. 

Jupiier is above the horizon nearly all night and comes to 
opposition on February 23d. It moves about four degrees west- 
ward and northward toward Regulus, the chief star in the con- 
stellation Leo, and is about six degrees from that star at the end 
of the month. 

Saturn rises two hotu^ earlier than during the corresponding 
period of January. It is in the constellation Scorpio and moves 
about one degree eastward during the month; at the end of the 
month it is a about one degree west and one degree north of the 
diird magnitude star fi Scorpii, 

Uranus follows about two degrees west and one d^^ree south 
of Saturn, Its motion is, however, much slower, and it neariy 
stops before February 28th. 

Neptune is about stationary in the eastern part of the con- 
stellation Taurus, 

Explanation of the Tables. 

The phases of the Moon are given in Pacific Standard time. 
In the tables for Sun and planets, the second and third columns 
give the Right Ascension and Declination for Greenwich noon. 
The fifth column gives the local mean time for transit over the - 
Greenwich meridian. To find the local mean time of transit for " 
any other meridian, the time given in the table must be corrected J 
by adding or subtracting the change per day, multiplied by ^ 
the fraction whose numerator is the longitude from Greenwich -i 
in hours, and whose denominator is 24. This correction 
seldom much more than 1°. To find the standard time for th< 
phenomenon, correct the local mean time by adding the differ- 
ence between standard and local time if the place is west of th( 
standard meridian, and subtracting \i eTisX., The same rules apply^^ 
to the fourth and sixth columns, which give the local mean tim< 
of rising and setting for the meridian of Greenwich. They are 
roughly computed for Lat. 40°, with the noon Declination anc:^ 
time of meridian transit, and are intended as only a rough guide ^^ 
They may be in error by a minute or two for the given latitud< 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 293 

and for latitudes differing much from 40** they may be several 
minutes out. 

Phases of the Moon, P. S. T. 

New Moon, Jan. 2, 10 3 p. m. 

First Quarter, Jan. 10, i 46 p. m. 

Full Moon, Jan. 18, 12 17 p. m. 

Last Quarter, Jan. 25, 12 9 P. M. 

The Sun. 

R. A. Declination. Rises. Transits. Sets. 

^ ^97' H. M. o ' H. M. H. M. H. M. 

r. 18 50 — 22 58 7 27 A.M. 12 4 P.M. 4 41 P.M. 

"• 19 33 —21 43 7 26 12 8 4 50 

21. 20 16 — 19 47 7 22 12 12 52 

31. 20 58 — 17 13 7 14 12 14 5 14 

Mercury. 

i. 20 8 — 21 54 8 40 a.m. i 22 p.m. 6 4 p.m. 

ir. 20 47 — 17 36 8 23 I 22 6 21 

21. 20 23 — 16 7 7 15 12 19 5 23 

31. 19 43 — 18 10 62 10 59 A.M. 3 56 

Venus, 

I. 21 46 — 15 19 9 53 A.M. 3 OP.M. 8 7 P.M. 

II. 22 30 — 10 48 9 42 35 8 28 

21. 23 12 — 5 52 9 28 38 8 48 

31. 23 52 — o 46 9 10 38 96 

Mars. 

I. 4 45 -f 25 23 2 23 P.M. 9 57 P.M. 5 31 A.M. 

II. 4 39 + 25 12 I 39 9 12 4 45 

21. 4 39 + 25 9 10 8 33 46 

31. 4 44 +25 12 12 26 7 59 3 32 

Jupiter. 

Jj^n. I. 10 48 + 8 50 9 33 P.M. 4 4A.M. 10 35A.M. 

II. 10 47 +92 8 52 3 23 9 53 

21. 10 45 +9 19 89 2 41 9 13 

31. 10 41 4- 9 43 7 26 I 59 8 32 



294' . Publications of the 



Sa turn. 



f% , 


R. 


A. 


Declination. 


Rises. 




TnuiHits. 


Sets. 


1897. 


H. 


M. 





1 


H. M. 




H. M. 


H. 


M. 


Jan. I. 


15 


42 


- 17 


36 


3 58 A. 


M. 


8 57 A.M. 


I 


56 P. M 


II. 


15 


45 


— 17 


47 


3 23 




8 21 


I 


19 


21. 


15 


49 


-17 


56 


2 48 




7 45 


12 


42 


31. 


15 


52 


— 18 


3 


2 II 
Uranus, 




7 8 


12 


5 


Jan. I. 


15 


41 


- 19 


23 


4 5 A.M. 


8 56 A.M. 


. I 


47 P.M, 


II. 


15 


43 


— 19 


29 


3 27 




8 18 


I 


9 


21. 


15 


44 


- 19 


34 


2 49 




7 40 


12 


31 


31. 


15 


46 


- 19 


38 


2 II 




7 2 


II 


53 










Neptune, 










Jan. I. 


5 


10 


+ 21 


30 


3 5 P.M. 


10 22 P.M. 


5 


39 A.M. 


II. 


5 


9 


+ 21 


29 


2 25 




9 42 


4 


59 


21. 


5 


8 


+ 21 


29 


I 45 




9 2 


4 


19 


31. 


5 


7 


+ 21 


28 


I 5 




8 22 


3 


39 



Eclipses of Jupiter* s Satellites, P. S. T. 

(Phenomena are seen near left-hand limb of planet as seen in an inverting telescope.) 

H. M. H. M. 



I, D, Jan. 


I. 


8 42 P. M. 


I, D, 


Jan. 


17. 


6 56 P. M. 


^^^ 


II, D, 


I. 


9 10 P. M. 


I, D, 




23- 


2 21 A. M. 


^^^ -• 


I. D, 


7. 


4 6 A. M. 


II, D, 




23. 


4 59 A.M. 


^^^ ■** 


I. D, 


8. 


10 35 P. M. 


I, D, 




24. 


8 49 P. M. 


^^ ^* 


II, D, 


8. 


II 46 P. M. 


II, D, 




26. 


6 17 p. M. 


_a 


I. D, 


14. 


6 A. M. 


III, D, 




28. 


7 1 1 p. M. 


^^ -— • 


I, D, 


16. 


12 28 A. M. 


I, D, 




30. 


4 15 A.M. 


■^^^ 


II. D, 


16. 


2 2 2 A. M. 


I, D, 




31. 


ID 43 P. M. 


4^^ -• 






Minima of Algol, P. 


S. T 


• 










H. Nf. 








H. M. 




an. I. 




7 24 A. M. 


Jan. 1 8. 






12 18 P. M. 


• 


4- 




4 13 A. M. 


21. 






9 7 A. M — 


•« 


7- 




I 2 A. M. 


23- 






5 56 A. ML . 




9. 




9 51 P. M. 


26. 






2 45 A. ^^. 




12. 




6 40 P. M. 


29. 






II 34 P. M. 


1 


15. 




3 29 P. M. 











Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 295 

Phases of the Moon» P. S. T. 

New Moon, Feb. i, 12 13 a. M. 
First Quarter, Feb. 9, 11 25 a. m. 
Full Moon, Feb. 17, 2 11 a. M. 
Last Quarter, Feb. 23, 7 44 a. m. 

The Sun. 

R. A. Declination. Rises. Transits. Sets. 

S97* H. M. o ^ II, j^, „, j^, „ Hf, 

rb. I. 21 2 — 16 56 7 13 A.M. 12 14 P.M. 5 15 P.M. 

II. 21 42 — 13 50 72 12 14 5 26 

21. 22 20 — 10 21 6 52 12 14 5 36 

ar. 3. 22 58 — 6 36 6 34 12 12 5 50 

Mercury, 

?b. I. 19 42 — 18 22 5 58A.M. 10 54A.M. 3 50P.M. 

II. 19 56 — 19 39 5 38 10 29 3 20 

21. 20 40 — 19 I 5 40 10 33 3 26 

IT- 3- 21 35 — 16 14 5 45 10 48 3 5L 

Venus, 

h, I. 23 56 — o 15 9 8a.m. 3 8 p.m. 9 8p.m. 

II. o 34 + 4 50 8 49 36 9 23 

21. I 9 + 9 42 8 30 33 9 36 

ar. 3. I 42 + 14 8 8 8 2 56 9 44 

Mars. 

lb. I. 4 45 +25 13 12 23 P.M. 7 56 P.M. 3 29 A.M. 

II- 4 55 +25 22 II 53 A.M. 7 27 31 

21. 5 9 +25 32 II 26 71 2 36 

ar. 3. 5 25 +25 40 II 3 6 38 2 13 

Jupiter, 

h, I. 10 41 + 9 46 7 21 P.M. I 54A.M. 8 27A.M. 

II. 10 36 + 10 13 6 36 I II 7 46 

21. 10 31 + 10 43 5 50 12 27 74 

ar. 3. 10 26 + II 12 50 II 38 6 16 



296 



Publications of the 



Sa turn. 



1897. 


R. 


A. 


Declination. 


Rises. 


Transits. 


Sets. 




H. 


M. 







H. M. 


H. 


M. 


H. 


M. 




Feb. I. 


15 


52 


- 18 


4 


2 8 a.m. 


7 


5 A.M. 


12 


2 P. 


M 


II. 


15 


54 


— 18 


9 


I 30 


6 


27 


II 


24 A. 


M 


21. 


15 


55 


- 18 


12 


12 53 


5 


50 


10 


47 




Mar. 3. 


15 


56 


— 18 


12 


12 14 


5 


II 


10 


8 












Uranus, 












Feb. I. 


15 


46 


- 19 


38 


2 9 A.M. 


6 


59 A.M. 


II 


49 P. 


M 


II. 


15 


47 


- 19 


41 


I 30 


6 


20 


II 


10 




21. 


15 


47 


- 19 43 


12 52 


5 


42 


10 


32 




Mar. 3. 


15 


47 


- 19 


44 


12 13 


5 


3 


9 


53 












Neptune, 












1897. 


R. A. 

H. M. 


Declination. 

/ 


Rises. 

H. M. 


Transits. 

H. M. 


Sets. 

H. M. 




Feb. I. 


5 


7 


+ 21 


28 


I I P.M. 


8 


18 P.M. 


3 


33 A. 


M, 


II. 


5 


6 


+ 21 


28 


12 21 


7 


38 


2 


55 




21. 


5 


6 


+ 21 


28 


II 41 A.M. 


6 


58 


2 


15 




Mar. 3. 


5 


6 


+ 21 


29 


II 2 


6 


19 


I 


36 





Eclipses of Jupiter's Satellites, P, S. T. 

(Phenomena are seen close to left-hand limb, as seen in an inverting tdescope before 
opposition February 23d; after that near right-hand limb.) 









H. M. 








H. M. 


I, D. 


Feb. 


2. 


5 12 P. M. 


Ill, D. 


Feb. 


12. 


3 7 A. M. 


Ill, D, 




4- 


II 10 p. M. 


I, D. 




15- 


2 30 A. M. 


I. D, 




6. 


6 8 A. M. 


I. D. 




16. 


8 58 P. M. 


I, D, 




8. 


12 36 A. M. 


II. D, 




17- 


2 6 A. M. 


IV, D, 




9- 


12 9 A.M. 


IV. R, 




25- 


10 31 P. M. 


I. D, 




9- 


7 4 P. M. 


II, R. 




27. 


8 49 P. M. 


II, D, 




9- 


II 30 P. M. 











Feb. 



Minima of Algol, P. S. T. 





H. 


M. 






H. 


M. 


I. 


8 


23 P. M. 


Feb. 


19. 


I 


17 A. M 


4. 


5 


12 P. M. 




21. 


10 


6 P. M 


7. 


2 


I P. M. 




24. 


6 


55 P. M 


10. 


10 


50 A. M. 




27. 


3 


44 P. M. 


13. 


7 


39 A. M. 










16. 


4 


28 A. M. 











Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 297 



THE TOTAL ECLIPSE OF AUGUST 9, 1896. 



By Alexander Rydzewski. 



The Russian Astronomical Society organized two expeditions 
Cor observing the total eclipse of the Sun of August 9th of this 
3'ear. One was stationed at the village of Tshekurskoje on the 
Xena, near Olekminsk, in Siberia, and another at Siikavuopio,* 
on the right (Swedish) bank of the river Muonio. At first the 
society intended to send the last expedition to litto, a little village 
on the left bank of the Muonio in Finnish Lapland; but the diffi- 
culties of transporting the luggage of the expedition to this place, 
and also the shorter distance of Siikavuopio from the line of 
central eclipse, forced a change in the first plan. 

Thinking that it will be interesting to the members of the 
Astronomical Society of the Pacific to learn some particulars of 
the expedition to Siikavuopio, I intend, as a member of thk 
cxi>edition and also as a member of the A. S. P., to give a brief 
sketch of our journey to Siikavuopio, and of our observations 
-during the eclipse. 

The personnel of this expedition was as follows: L. G. 
^WucHiKHOWSKY, an experienced astronomer, who possesses an 
observatory at Belkawe, near Winzig, in Silesia; L L Svcora, 
-an astronomer from Charkow, whose last paper, concerning the 
variability of the Sun's diameter, was remarked by the scientific 
world; General- Lieutenant Baron N. W. Kaulbars; and myself. 

The expedition possessed the following instruments: (i) seven- 
inch Merz telescope, equatorially mounted, moved by hand, 
and with a revolving camera, the system of which was 
proposed by the Russian physicist, W. W. Lermantoff; 
^2) four-inch Merz lens, loaned to the expedition by the Board 
for providing Russian state papers, with a photographical camera 
attached to it, equatorially mounted, and also moved by hand; 
(3) 2.4-inch Fraunhofer's telescope; (4) 1.8-inch Steinheil's 
and Zeiss' photographic lens, with camera; (5) a photographic 
apparatus with film-ribbons for sixty-four photographs, loaned to 
Baron N. W. Kaulbars, by the photographical firm Nyblin, 
in Helsingfors; (6) 1.2-inch Kern's universal instrument for 
-determining geographical positions; (7) Frodsham mean-time 



* The coordinates of the station were: Longitude, ih 36m 37s E.; Latitude. 68*^ 3/ 2/'. 



298 Publications of the 

chronometer; (8) Ericson mean-time chronometer; (9) Wiren 
mean- time chronometer (of decimal system); (10) Frodsham 
sidereal-time chronometer; (11) an aneroid by Node, loaned 
to the expedition by General A. A. Tillo; (12) a Stephanas 
compass; (13) a Pistor and Martin's reflecting-circle, with aa 
artificial mercurial horizon. 

We left St. Petersburg (Messrs. Wuchikhowsky, Sycora,. 
and myself), after making all the necessary preparations, July 
8th, at 9 o'clock a.m., by the Finland railway, and at 9 o'clock 
P.M. of this day at the railway station, Richimiaki, we met the 
fourth member of our expedition, Baron N. W. Kaulbars, who 
came from Helsingfors. 

The railway journey to Oulu (Swedish Uleaborg) was very 
pleasant and comfortable. I cannot omit here to mention the 
courtesy of the Senate of Finland, who arranged for a free 
passage for all the members of the expedition, and for free trans- 
port of the astronomical and domestic luggage. We arrived at 
Oulu on July 9th, at 9 o'clock p.m. The Sun at this hour of the 
day was yet high, and illuminated the very pretty but small town 
of Oulu, which is situated on the shore of the Gulf of Bothnia. 
This town, notwithstanding its smallness (it has only 10,000 
inhabitants), is illuminated by electric light, and has the tele- 
phone also. In the United States that is not a rare thing, but 
here much larger towns have neither telephone nor electric light. 

We left Oulu by the steamship **Pahjola," July loth, at half- 
past six in the morning. The day was fine and sunny; no wave 
disturbed the smooth surface of the Gulf of Bothnia. After 
twelve hours' journey, we arrived at Tomea, a little town which 
belongs to Finland, and is situated on an island near the mouth 
of the river Torneo, in the Gulf of Bothnia. Opposite, on the 
right coast of Torneo, is situated the Swedish town Haparanda, 
known to all the world as one of the most northern meteoro- 
logical observatories (+ 65° 50' latitude). At Torneo we spent 
two days in making astronomical observations for geographicaX 
position, and we left this town, July 9th, at nine o'clock in th^ 
evening. Our carriages were a kind of dog-carts, mostly used i 
Finland, but not very convenient for transporting a luggage s 
bulky as our instruments. In these dog-carts we made o 
journey to Kolari during three nights; traveling at night becau 
the days were too hot. During the daytime we slept at vex^^ 
pretty and clean post-stations. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 299 

July 13th, about eleven o'clock in the evening, we passed near 
the mountain Avasaksa, which is yearly visited about the 
twenty-first of June by innumerable tourists from different parts 
of the world, coming here to observe the Sun, which does not set 
during three days about this date. Although Avasaksa is 
situated south of the polar circle, its height (172 metres) com- 
pensates for the difference of latitude. The road from Torneo to 
Kolari is very hilly, and the constant climbing and descending 
wearied our horses immensely. As an additional annoyance we 
were attacked by an innumerable army of mosquitoes, about 
whose ferocity in this country we had heard before starting from 
home. 

The fifteenth of July, we came to Kolari, a littie village on the 
shore of the river Muonio. From this place our journey to 
Siikavuopio, the final point of our voyage, had to be made in 
boats. On the morning of July i6th, all the boxes containing 
our instruments and equipment were loaded into boats — six in 
all; after that we placed ourselves in the boats, on the boxes, and 
commenced our long journey on the river Muonio. The unusual 
mode of traveling requires a detailed description of the boats 
themselves, as well as of the mode of propulsion. The flat- 
bottomed boats are about eight yards long, one yard wide, and 
the distance between the gunwale of the boat and the surface of 
the water, when the boat was loaded, was only three and a half 
inches. The boats are propelled by three boatmen, one on the 
prow and two on the poop, who move the boat against the 
current by means of pushing-poles three and a half yards in 
length. This mode of propulsion is particularly difficult in the 
rapids, which on the Muonio river were encountered by dozens 
every day. In these places our boatmen were so tired by 
propelling the boats, that they were literally soaked with 
perspiration, and after an hour's hard work they were obliged to 
rest and to renew their strength with coffee. Muonio' s shores 
are very picturesque, particularly near the rapids, but the flora is 
not rich; the pine disappears totally by the village Ilimuonio 
<latitude 68° o'), the fir by Kuttainen (latitude 68° 23'); in the 
more northern parts of Lapland the wiry birches of small size are 
the sole representatives of trees. We encountered during our 
journey very few polar reindeer, although they are quite common 
in that country; they are usually sent in summer by their owners 
to graze in the mountains. The weather during our journey 



300 Publications of the 

through Muonio was variable; sometimes it rained the whole 
day, sometimes the Sun burned us from morning till night, when 
we stopped for rest in the very clean and comfortable villages 
situated on the shores. 

July 24th, the last day of our journey to Siikavuopio, was 
very cold. The wind was blowing from the mountains, which 
were covered in several places with snow lying in the hollows ; 
where it never melts, not even in the midst of summer. We came 
to Siikavuopio the same day at 6 o'clock p.m., and at once 
selected a suitable place for observing the coming eclipse: it was 
the hill Siikavaara, whose height is about ninety-five yards above 
the level of Muonio, situated about a mile from our lodging in 
Siikavuopio. We could not begin the installation of the instru- 
ments at once for want of wood for making supports, and we were 
obliged to wait till it was brought from a locality farther south. 
In the mean time Mr. SvcORA observed the Sun near the meridian 
and near the prime vertical, and I computed immediately from 
his observations the latitude and the corrections of the chronom- 
eter; Baron Kaulbars made a detailed plan of Siikavuopio, 
with its neighborhood ; and Mr Wuchikhowsky arranged the 
photographic dark-room and adjusted his telescope to photo- 
graphic focus by taking several photographs of the Moon. At 
last the wood arrived at Siikavuopio, and we began to make the 
necessary installation of the instruments. 

The meridian lines for all the instruments were determined 
by the Sun: all our astronomical observations in Siikavuopio were 
made by the Sun, because our universal instrument was so small 
that no star, even of the first magnitude, could be seen with it on 
such a bright sky as that of Siikavuopio till the middle of August, 
when even at midnight the Sun is only 7° 30' below the horizon. 

On August 5th all was ready, and on August 6th, at the same 
hour at which the eclipse would occur on August 9th, we made 
at Siikavaara a rehearsal of our coming observations. On this 
day, at 4 o'clock a.m., when we started from our lodging to 
Siikavaara, there was a frost, the only one experienced during 
our sojourn in Lapland. 

The weather in Lapland is very variable, which, I suppose, 
can be explained by its position directly in the path of cyclones 
traversing Europe towards the northeast ; but, on the whole, fin 
weather prevails there. It is a pity that no meteorologica 
observatory is established in this region (neither in Sweden no 




Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 301 

in Finland), and therefore we have no regular records of the 
weather in this part of Lapland. 

The eve of the long-expected day was rainy, and we lost all 
hope of seeing the eclipse; but in the evening the weather began 
to improve. The clouds broke in several places, which constantly 
grew, and with their growing we began to have more hope. We 
went to sleep at eleven, but, as is easily conceived, we could not 
sleep, and we skipped from our beds every ten minutes to see if 
the heavens were clearing or not. 

At 2 o'clock A.M., of August 9th, we were already up, and 
started at once for our observatory on Siikavaara« 

The sky to the north and northeast, and particularly at the 
place where the observations were to be made, was quite clear, 
although the rest of the sky was covered with small passing clouds. 
We were joined on the mountain by all our boatmen and by all the 
inhabitants of Siikavuopio, so that the people on the mountain, 
during the eclipse, amounted to one-and-thirty men and three 
women in all. There never were before, and there never will be 
again, so many people in such a wild region as Siikavaara. We 
placed ourselves beside our instruments: Mr. Wuchikhowsky at 
the seven-inch Merz photographic telescope, Mr. Svcora at the 
four-inch photographic Merz telescope.* Baron Kaulbars pre- 
pared himself for photography with two cameras (without equa- 
torial mounting), and I stood beside the 2.4-inch Fraunhofer 
telescope to make by its help a drawing of the corona and the 
prominences. 

This was not the first eclipse observed by Baron Kaulbars, 
Mr. Wuchikhowsky, and myself We had been participants in 
different expeditions organized by Russia in 1887 for observing 
the eclipse of August 19th; but the weather then had been 
unfavorable for the former two gentlemen. I had been lucky 
enough to belong to the party of Professor Glasenapp, who 
secured observations on the line of central eclipse, at a little town, 
Petrowsk, where the weather was more propitious. Although the 
sky was covered with clouds, it was yet possible to observe the 
corona through them, because they were sufficiently thin. 

At 4*" 27"" o* (M. S. T.) the first contact took place, and the 
Sun began rapidly to disappear behind the Moon. No such 



•To that telescope the spectroscope and another four-inch telescope for eye obser- 
vations were attached; but Mr. Sycora had no time during the short duration of the 
eclipse to make observations other than photographic. 



302 Publications of the 

strange and beautiful coloring of the clouds as I had remarked 
during the eclipse of 1887 was observed before totality. Several 
seconds before the second contact, Mr. Wuchikhowsky cried 
** Beads," but they were seen by no other member of the party. 
At 5* 21" 39* (M. S. T.) the totality began, but no trace of 
the corona was seen in the field of my telescope. Thiiddng I had 
moved the telescope. I gazed at the sky with the naked eye and 
immediately saw the extremely bright corona, and when I looked 
again in the telescope the corona was just in the middle of the 
field of view. The corona appeared smaller and not so bright as 
viewed with the naked eye, but its particularities were very well 
seen, on the other hand. Five large prominences (one of them 
double) of a light rose tint surrounded the very dark body of the 
Moon; two of th^ prominences were mountain-like, three column- 
like, one of the last being double. The top of the higher of the 
two was curved to the north. At the northwest of the corona I 
observed one coronal streamer; one at the east; and one at the 
southeast. The radial structure of these streamers was very evi- 
dent, whilst at the eclipse of 1887 no such structure could be 
observed at Petrowsk. The color of the corona was silver- white, 
with no greenish tinge such as has been observed during some 
eclipses by several astronomers; nor was a greenish tinge seen 
during the eclipse of 1887. Several seconds before third contact, 
which was at 5** 23" 20* (M. S. T.) the chromosphere appeared, 
and soon after that the first ray of the Sun flashed out, and the 
sublime spectacle was ended. It had lasted one hundred and 
one seconds. 

Twenty-two photographs of the corona and of the crescent Sun 
were obtained before the totality and during it: Mr. Wuchi- 
khowsky photographed five coronas and four crescents; Mr. 
Sycora, three coronas and three crescents; and Baron Kaulbars 
(with two cameras), three coronas and four crescents. On several 
photographs of Sun's crescents made by Mr. Wuchikhowsky a 
thin mist encircling the crescent is to be observed; but it was so 
thin that none of us observed it either with telescopes or with the 
naked eye. I suppose that this mist was due to the rapid falling 
of the temperature, which led to the condensation of the moist 
air just in the path of the cone of shadow. 

The temperature before the first contact of the eclipse was 
4° C. ; ten minutes after that contact it fell to 3° C. ; during the 
totality the thermometer was not observed, but as the tempera- 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 3^3 

ture ten minutes after totality was only 2° C, it may be supposed 
that duringf the totality it was not higher than 1° C. 

Thinking that the readers of this brief description of the eclipse 
of August 9th will be interested in seeing the photographs and the 
drawing of the corona, I add to my article five illustrations of 
the corona : 

(i) One of four seconds exposure, photographed with the 
seven-inch telescope by Mr. Wuchikhowsky.* 

(2) Two photographed with the four-inch telescope by 
Mr. Sycora ; one of fifteen seconds of exposure, another ol 
twenty seconds. * 

(3) One with landscape, photographed with the ordinary 
photographic camera by Baron Kaulbars. 

(4) My drawing of the corona, as observed by the 2.4-inch 
telescope. * 

To illustrate our observatory, and our instruments, I add also 
a photograph of the top of the mountain, Siikavaara, taken by 
Mr. Wuchikhowsky. about an hour after the totality. 

The same day most of our photographic plates were developed 
by Mr. Wuchikhowsky; the development of the remaining 
plates was put off until our return to St. Petersburg. 

We left Siikavuopio August 12th, after our bulky luggage 
was packed. 

The return homewards was far swifter than our journey to 
Siikavuopio, because the current of Muonio, and particularly its 
rapids, helped us, now, instead of hindering as was the case 
before. 

On August 2oth, we parted with Baron Kaulbars at Richi- 
miaki; Mr. Wuchikhowsky left us at Perkijarvi; and Mr. Sycora 
and myself arrived together the same evening at St. Petersburg. 
Such was the end of our interesting and fortunate expedition 
(compared with the unlucky expeditions to Vadso and Japan) to 
Lapland, which was carried out in such friendly company as 
can never be forgotten by me. 

St. Petersburg, October ylh, 1896. 



• Sec the plate accompanying. 



304 



Publications of the 



CATALOGUE NO. I, OF NEBULA DISCOVERED AT 
THE LOWE OBSERVATORY, CALIFORNIA, 

FOR 1900. 



By Dr. Lewis Swift, Director. 



Since the removal of my astronomical instruments from the 
Warner Observatory, at Rochester, N. Y., to the Lowe Obser- 
vatory, Echo Mountain, Cal, I have, besides entertaining visitors, 
devoted much time to comet -seeking, with my 4}^ -inch, and as 
a pastime, that an old habit may not entirely languish, have also 
at odd spells continued my former work of searching for new 
nebulae, resulting in the following list. My low latitude + 34^ 
20', enables me to work in fields beyond the reach of Sir William 
Herschel, or of his son Sir John, except while sojourning at the 
Cape of Good Hope. Scarcely any of these nebulae can be clas- 
sified as bright, and but very few are of Herschel' s Class II, 
while the large majority are much fainter than his Class III, and 
therefore visible only during exceptionally fine seeing, with large 
telescopes, and by an eye long trained in this kind of work. 

The eye-piece used is a periscopic by the Gundlach Optical Co. 
of Rochester, N. Y., giving a magnifying power of 132 and a 
field of 32'. Its large flat field renders it admirably adapted for 
nebular work, and for comet-seeking it cannot be excelled* 



o 



I 

2 

3 
4 
5 

6 

7 
8 

9 
10 

II 
12 

13 



Datk. 


h m s 


Sept. 


I2,'96 


I 40 


Dec. 


8. '95 


18 3 


Sept. 


10, '95 


30 


Sept. 


5/96 


38 30 


Sept. 


i8,'95 


53 22 


Dec. 


I3.'95 


56 40 


Oct. 


6/96 


I 12 45 


Dec. 


18/95 


I 14 20 


Dec. 


i8.'95 


I 14 40 


Oct. 


1 2, '96 


I 20 30 


Oct. 


8/96 


I 43 10 


Dec. 


8, '95 


I 46 45 


Dec. 


i8,'95 


I 55 5 



// 



— 4 19 10 
+ 6 25 35 

— 10 7 o 

— 4 41 53 

— 12 43 17 

— 1696 

— 17 38 12 

— 17 22 28 

— '7 37 25 
-|- 16 4 42 

— 27 26 42 

— 10 20 o 

— II 36 25 



Drscription. 



pB. vS. vE. 

eeF. unequal D*f 46s same parallel. 

eeeF. pS. R. eedif. 

eeF*. S. R. 10"* * close s. Not 239. 

eeF. pS. nearly bet. a 7™ * p & a 9" * nl 
near the latter. 

pF. S. R. 9™ * nearly in contact np. 

eF. 8™ * in field nf. p S. R. no * near. 

vF. pS. IE. wide D* near nf. f of 2. 

eeF. vS. R. p a 7"* * nf. 47* p of 2. 

eeeF. pS. IE. bet. 2*'s in meridian, wid< 
D star in field nf. eedif. 

pB. eeS. almost stellar, in vacancy. 

eeF. vS. G. C. 418 p. 

eeF. pS. bet. the 2 southern of 4 stan 
forming a trapezium. * 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 



9 


Date. 




, , „ 


u 


OcL 


8/96 


I 56 8 


— 25 34 40 


15 


Oci. 


8, '96 


J a 55 


- as 57 3a 


16 


Oct. 


u.'96 


a II » 


— "2 34 55 


17 


Oct. 


",■96 


a a? 50 


-37 II 40 


18 


Sept. 


1 6. -96 


3 20 


- 27 5a 35 


'9 


Oct. 


8. '96 


3 S 8 


- 25 4a 30 


» 


Oct. 


8.'96 


3 36 45 


— aa 55 35 


Ji 


Oct. 


5.'96 


3 37 1 


— 18 32 ao 


as 


Oct. 


5. '96 


3 51 I 


— aS 30 25 


»3 


Dec. 


10, "95 


4 10 3^ 


— 33 22 25 


H 


Dec. 


9.'9S 


4 33 3 


— 42 23 15 


»S 


Oct. 


5, '96 


4 41 2 


-34 to 43 


a6 


OcL 


I3,'96 


5 '7 30 


— 23 14 40 


a? 


Oct. 


16. '96 


5 *7 40 


— 17 20 3 


as 


Dec. 


9, "95 


5 29 35 


— a6 30 45 


^9 


May 


a6,'95 


15 15 10 


— 23 19 50 


So 


Aug. 


".'96 


ao58 49 


+ 11 as 15 


31 


Sept. 


n.'96 


ai 25 40 


+ 11 20 15 


3a 


Aug. 


8. -96 


aa 15 19 


— 14 54 5 


i3 


Aug. 


8.-96 


ai 16 ia 


- 19 as 20 


34 


.?ui,e 


».'96 


a2 16 45 


- 19 a3 20 


as 


Aug. 


8. '96 


33 16 54 


-1433 5 


36 


Sept. 


",'0 


22 49 10 


- 30 55 '5 


37 


Sept. 


2.'96 


2251 5 


-37 8 48 


38 


Sept. 


a.'96 


ai 5' 10 


-37 3 45 


39 


&pt. 


2.-76 


aa 53 


- 36 a? 40 


4o 




ii.'96 


22 52 5 


— 36 37 43 


41 


Aug. 


",■96 


22 53 4C 


-38 17 50 


4a 


Sept. 


10, '96 


23 5 30 


-33 5 rs 


*3 


Sept. 


1 3, '96 


13 ai 


-1836 


*4 


Sept. 


M.'96 


33 24 10 


- 29 »5 57 


<S 


Sept. 


14.'96 


23 41 40 


- a8 32 55 


*e. 


Sept. 


14/96 


23 42 


— 38 42 16 


47 


Sept. 


14. '96 


23 43 5 


— a8 42 56 


4S 


Sept. 


14/96 


33 42 30 


— a8 43 55 


49 


Sept. 


14/96 


33 45 


— 28 34 57 


50 


Sept. 


15/96 


23 51 


— 29 37 55 



eeeF. pS. R. 3 9" *'s near sf. form an 

equilateral triangle, eedif. 
vF. D * in iieb'y. both "'s = tn. but of 

extreme fiiininess — Curious object. 
eeF.eeE.bet.a*'s p&f.S'"* near nf. a ray. 
vF. S. K, wide D • near np. 
eeF. vS. R. F" near sf. 
eeF. pS. 3 stars in meridian close p. 
vF. pS. R. Not G. C. 765. 
eeF. S. R. in vacancy. 
eF. vS. eeeF • v close nf. 
eeef. eS. B* f. 1532 p. eedif. 3 in field 

including D neb. 
eF. pL. R. 3 sura like belt of Orion 

point to it, p of a. 
vF. pS. R, 3 stars in line near sp. 

nearly point to it. 
eF. pL. R. 8" •near nf, 
pp. vS. R. bet. 2 stars p & f. 
vF. pS. eE. almost a ray, 1963 p. 
eeeF vL. noi 5S98 nor 5901 vdif. bet. a 

wide D *'s ntki. 10" • eef. no • in field p. 
eeeF. vS. pH"" * 13' same parallel, wide 

D»nrn, eedif. 
eeF. vS. F» near f. Not 7068. 
vF. eE. a ray, p of 2. 
eeeF. vS. R. f below* 13' littles, fof 2. 
eF. S. nrn offol*of7inalinep&f. pof 3. 
pB. pS. R.pB*nears. fof 2. 
eeeF. pL. R. f 9" " la' eedif. 
vF.S.eeE. arays. pofbelowslars.sfofa. 
B. CI. R. bet 2 »'s p 4 f, np of 2. 
vF. ps. R. lip of 2. 
vF. pS. vE. sfofa. 
vF. CI, IE, a wide D stars near p. 
a few eeeF stars in neb. 
eF. vS. R. F * p close np. 
eeeF. S. vE. 8"' * p. 
eeeF. eS. R. g"- • nei 

isl of 5. 
eeF. S. R. a e™ • with dis com. f, 2nd 

of 5- 
eeF. S. R. 3rd of 3. 
eF. pS. E. 4ih of 3. 
eeF. pS. nearly bet. an 8™ • nf * a 9"' " 

sp. nearer the former, 5th of 5. 
vK. pS. R. 8~»nearsf. 



e parallel, 



3o6 Publications of the 

Remarks. 

No. 15. Found searchinf^ for Comet 1889 Brooks after 
Poor's ephemeris; saw it again June 10, 1896. 

No. 33. Found searching for Brooks's comet 1889. 

No. 34. Found searching for Brooks's comet 1889. 

No. 41. Neither this nor the four preceding nebuke are in 
N. G. C. No. 38 may possibly = No. 1459 of Dreyer's index 
catalogue. 



IS MARS INHABITED? 



By Professor C. A. Young. 



For some reason not quite obvious to the professional 
astronomer, there seems to be an extreme popular interest in the 
question of the habitability of ** other worlds," and of late it has 
been greatly intensified by the rather sensational speculations and 
deliverances of Flammarion, Lowell, and others — speculations 
based upon new discoveries reported within the last ten or fifteen 
years, some of which are doubtless real, while others are still more 
or less questionable. 

The editor of the Herald has done me the honor to ask me 
to say to his readers what I think about the matter, and I accept 
the invitation with pleasure. 

I may as well say at the outset that in my judgment we have 
not yet any satisfactory basis for a confident opinion. The avail- 
able data are insufficient, and, what is worse, they in some cases 
seem to indicate opposite conclusions. 

As to the general question whether the stars and planets are the 
abodes of life, we can, of course, say positively on the one hand 
that they may be. Plainly the Omnipotent Deity can, if He sees 
fit, organize forms of life suited to any possible conditions, 
creatures that might flourish in the solar fire, or in nebular fog. 
On the other hand, there is not the slightest valid evidence that 
such creatures exist. Considering the **vast emptinesses" 
between the stars, and the lifeless ages of the Earth's early 
history, as revealed by geology, one cannot argue that material 
globes must be inhabited. Unoccupied space, lifeless millen- 
niums, and worlds uninhabited all fall into the same category of 
unexplained use. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 307 

But if we narrow the question, and inquire as to the possi- 
bility of forms of life such as we are acquainted with upon the 
Earth, the case is different. We are able to say at once, and with 
absolute confidence, that there are only two among all the 
heavenly bodies observable with our present telescopes upon 
which anything like terrestrial life could possibly exist. The 
two are Ventis and Mars; upon all the rest the conditions are 
clearly too different from our own. 

But the limitation must not be lost sight of— there may be, 
and very likely there are, circulating around some of the distant 
suns, planets not very unlike the Earth and well enough suited for 
even human life. But if such planets exist we cannot see them 
with any telescope yet constructed or ever likely to be. To 
make them visible would require lenses from 50 to 100 feet in 
diameter. 

Speculation may be allowable in the premises, but dogmatism 
certainly is not. 

As to the planet Ve7ius, we need say very litde here. In 
diameter, mass, density, and the force of gravity upon her surface, 
she is the Earth* s twin sister. She is so much nearer than we are 
to the Sun that she receives from him almost twice as much heat 
and light as we do; but as to the character of her surface we 
know almost nothing. Unquestionable observations prove that 
she has a denser atmosphere than ours, and it is probably always 
filled with cloud. 

At any rate, no distinct and well-marked features have ever 
been detected on her surface, and there is no reason to suppose 
that the cloud veil has ever lifted. 

With Mars the case is different; we know more about him 
than we do about any other heavenly body, the Moon excepted. 

We may reckon up our stock of certain knowledge about this 
planet somewhat as follows: 

In the first place, its orbit is about once and a half as large as 
the Earth's, and it makes its circuit in 687 days, at a distance from 
the Sun which ranges between 128,000,000 and 150,000,000 
miles, the mean being 141,500,000. Once in every 730 days the 
Earth overtakes it, passing between it and the Sun; and if this 
happens in the latter part of August, the distance between us will 
be the least possible — only about 35,000,000 miles. 

No other heavenly body except the Moon and Venus, and 
now and then a comet, ever come so near. 



3o8 Publications of the 

Still this is not so very near after all. Thirty-five million 
miles is 147 times the distance of the Moon. So that, even with a 
magnifying power of a thousand (and only the largest telescopes, 
under the most favorable conditions, can ever use so high a power 
to advantage), we see the planet's surface just as we view the Moon 
through a common field-glass magnifying seven times. And 
most of our observations are made, of course, at a distance much 
greater than this minimum. 

Moreover, since the planet's distance from the Sun averages 
something more than once and a half that of the Earth, it is cer- 
tain that Mars receives less than half as much solar heat and 
light as we do — an unquestionable and most important fact. 

In the next place, we know that the diameter of Mars is 
about 4200 miles (somewhat more than half that of the Elarth), 
and that it rotates in 24 hours, 37 minutes, 22.65 seconds around 
an axis so situated that the planet's equator is inclined about 
twenty-four degrees to the plane of its orbit. This is so nearly 
the same as the inclination of the Earth's equator, that we may 
safely infer that Mars must have seasons very like those of the 
Earth, though notably modified by the considerable variations in 
its distance from the Sun at different parts of its orbit 

In the third place, from the motions of its two litde Moons, 
we can calculate with certainty the weight or **mass" of the 
planet, and we find it to be less than one-ninth (3-28) that of the 
Earth. From this it follows also that the planet's average 
density is seventy-two per cent, that of the Elarth; and the force 
of gravity upon its surface is not quite thirty-eight per cent as 
great as here. 

A man who here weighs 160 pounds would there weigh only 
sixty pounds. If he were able here to jump to a height of five 
feet, there he would jump thirteen. So far as this condition goes, 
a Martian elephant might be as agile as a terrestrial deer. 

Thus far there is no guesswork. We have stated knowledge, 
not speculation. 

Once more. There are clear indications of an atmosphere 
upon the planet, though they are not such as to enable us to 
calculate with certainty its extent and density. This atmosphere 
ought to be much less extensive and dense than ours, on account 
of the lessened force of gravity, and if the so-called ** dynamical 
theory" of gases, now almost universally accepted among 
physicists, is true, it must be a little body, like the Moon, or 
Mars cannot permanently retain an atmosphere like our own. 



Astronomical Societx of the Pacific, 309 

The inference is borne out, too, by the fact that clouds are only 
rarely observed upon the planet. As a rule we see the features 
of its surface unveiled and clear. There is probably never a time 
when a distant observer would be able to see half the seas and 
continents of the Earth unclouded and exposed to view. 

Whether the Martian atmosphere contains any sensible 
quantity of water vapor is still a debated point. Some of the 
earlier observers reported that they could distinctly make out the 
characteristic lines of this substance in the planet's spectrum, but 
some of the best recent observers, notably Professor Campbell, 
of the Lick Observatory, have reached an opposite conclusion. 

And now we come to a question of great difficulty — that of 
the planet's temperature. 

Since the planet's atmosphere is certainly not dense, it is 
natural to conclude that the temperature at its surface, even if 
the Sun's heat there were as intense as here, must be practically 
the same as that of places on the Earth where the density of the 
air is correspondingly low, namely, at the tops of the loftiest 
mountains, in the regions of perpetual snow. 

And, recalling that on Mars the solar radiation is less than half 
as intense as here, the inference is almost irresistible that the 
temperature must be appallingly low — so low that, as on the 
Moon, water, if it exists at all, can exist only as ice. 

And yet, while many astronomers — I myself, for one — are dis- 
posed to think this probably true, it is only an inference, and not 
a certain one. Nor can it be denied, as we shall see, that phe- 
nomena observed upon the planet look very much like the 
deposit and melting of polar snows, the flow of water, and the 
growth of vegetation. 

It may be, perhaps, as Flammarion has suggested, that the 
planet's atmosphere, though rare, has some peculiar constitution 
that makes it more effective as a * * blanket ' ' than our own in its 
power to retain the solar heat; or it may possibly have some un- 
known source of heat; or again it may be that Faye's modification 
of the nebular hypothesis is correct, and that Mars, instead of 
being an older planet than the Earth, as commonly supposed, 
may be a younger one, still retaining considerable of its original 
heat of condensation, and not yet cooled down to a permanent 
temperature corresponding to its distance from the Sun. 

But unless some cause operates to give it an abnormal 
temperature, the discussion need go no further. Life resembling 
that upon the Earth could not exist there. 



3IO Publications of the 

The time may come, perhaps, before very long, when we may 
have heat-measuring instruments of sufficient delicacy to give us 
certain information whether the planet's temperature is below 
zero, or b similar to that of our habitable earth. Till then judg- 
ment hangs suspended. 

As a telescopic object, Mars is fine. Its ruddy disk is diversi- 
fied with patches of greenish hue, which, in a small telescope, 
seem lo form a sort of irregular bell around its equator, with 
several projecting angles which thrust themselves down into the 
northern hemisphere. The telescope inverts the planet much as 
South America and Africa and India reach toward the south upon 
a terrestrial globe. 

These dark regions cover about a third of the ball, and, until 
recently, have generally been interpreted as seas and oceans, and 
are named accordingly. But later observations make this very 
doubtful by showing such changes in their form and appearance, 
and such markings upon them as to suggest rather that they are 
areas covered with vegetation. 

Then, near one or the other of the poles, there is usually a 
' ' polar cap ' ' of dazzling whiteness, and these caps grow and 
wane with the planet's seasons (as the elder Herschel dis- 
covered more than a century ago), just as they would do if they 
were composed of ice and snow. Sometimes, also, though rarely, 
as has been already said, there are whitish veils of cloud that 
obscure for a time the well-known features, and shortly vanish. 
All the time the planet whirls, and as the night wears on conti- 
nents and seas pass slowly in review, coming up from the eastern 
edge of the disk and descending upon the western. 

If the telescope is powerful enough. Hall's two litde Moons 
will be seen — Phobos^ hurrying from one side to the other, close 
to the planet, and so rapidly that it takes him only three hours 
and three-quarters to make the whole excursion, while the 
smaller and more distant Deimos is more than four times as 
deliberate in his motion. 

But the most interesting objects, if one can see them — for they 
require a keen eye, a first-rate instrument, and perfect atmo- 
spheric conditions — are the fine, dark, thread-like lines which cross 
the ruddy portions of the disk in various directions, in a most 
curious and suggestive manner. A few of them were noted (as 
rather ill-defined shadings), long ago, but it was Schiaparelli, 
the Milanese astronomer, who, in 1887, first discovered them in 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 311 

any number, and named them *'the canals," as resembling water- 
courses of some sort, running from sea to sea. 

As to their real nature, there is still much doubt. Those who 
ignore the temperature difficulty, and believe that the polar caps 
are really sheets of snow which melt in the summer, for the most 
part accept the suggestion which the names implies, and regard 
them as marking the track of channels, natural or artificial, 
through which the water that results from the melting of the ice- 
caps IS distributed over the arid plains near the planet's equator. 
They suppose — at least, this is the view of Flammarion and 
Lowell, — that what we see is not the water-course itself, but the 
fringe of vegetation, which springs up along its banks when the 
water comes, like the harvests of the valley of the Nile. 

And this certainly accords very well with the fact that these 
canals are not equally visible at all times, but are sometimes fairly 
conspicuous, while they vanish at others. 

Possibly, too, one might deduce from this theory a satisfactory 
explanation of a very strange phenomenon exhibited by many of 
them — their ** gemination," as it is called. They double them- 
selves at times. A canal which had been a single, thin, dark 
line is replaced in a day or two by two that are exacdy parallel 
and separated by a distance of from loo to 250 miles. Some of 
these canals are over 2000 miles in length, and appear to be as 
accurately straight as lines can be upon a sphere. They seem to 
follow a true great circle course. 

At their points of intersection — and in several instances, as 
many as half a dozen seem to converge as accurately to a single 
point as railroads to a city — small dark spots appear, which have 
received the name of ** lakes." Mr. Lowell, however, prefers 
to call them ** oases," believing them to be patches of vegetation 
which are formed where the converging channels bring an 
especially abundant supply of moisture. 

And the fact that, according to Schiaparelli and the Flag- 
staff observers, some of the canals appear to invade, and pass 
across, the so-called **seas," of course, proves, unless there is 
soine error or illusion in the observations, that these darkly 
shaded regions are not bodies of water, but marshes, fields, or 
forests. 

We should have noted, as removing a natural objection to this 
water-course theory of the ** canals," that so far as can be judged 
from observations, the planet's surface is much more level than 



3^2 Publications of the 

that of the Earth. There is no evidence of lofty mountain 
ranges, though a few projecting bright spots have been noted at 
the boundary of day and night on the planet's surface, which 
may indicate elevations having the height of two or three thou- 
sand feet. 

And it is to be admitted also, I think, that no other explana- 
tion of the * * canals * * as yet proposed satisfies the reported 
appearances so well as that of water-courses. The only one not 
absolutely contradicted by direct observations is that they are 
fissures and wrinkles in the planet's crust, produced by its 
shrinkage over a comparatively unyielding nucleus. But, then, 
what is to be made of their ** gemination " ? 

We have thus set forth the conditions of the planet so far as 
they appear to bear upon its possible habitability by living 
beings, resembling in essential characteristics those that inhabit 
the Earth. If we put aside, as Flammarion and Lowell have 
done, rather airily, we think, the serious difficulty as to tempera- 
ture, and assume with them that the planet's water-supply is 
extremely scanty — which can hardly be doubted, if water exists 
there at all, — and that the planet's surface, for the most part an 
arid waste, is to some extent made fertile by the channels which 
distribute the water derived from the melting polar snow-caps, it 
is clear that we have a condition of affairs which might make 
habitability of the sort contemplated a not absurd hypothesis. 

And yet the great difference between the Earth and Mars as 
to thinness of the atmosphere, the absence of clouds, and the 
lessened force of gravity and solar radiation must necessitate a 
wide difference between the inhabitants of the two worlds. 

Next comes the question whether, granting the possibility of 
life upon the planet, we have any evidence of its existence. 

As regards vegetable life, its existence is, of course, assumed 
in the very plausible explanation which Lowell and Flam- 
marion give of the '^canals," and the seasonal changes obser\'ed 
in the features of the planet's disc. And they go further. 
Mr. Lowell finds evidence of intelligent design and engineering 
skill in the — accordino; to him — perfect straightness of the long 
water-courses and the precision with which numbers of them con- 
vercfe to or diverjire from certain centers. And he enters into 
interesting speculations as to the ability of the people of Mars to 
perform feats of engineering quite beyond our human powers. 

In the first place, owing to the feebleness of gravity there, the 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 313 

**men " of Mars might attain a strength and stature nearly three 
times as great as ours without encumbrance from their own weight, 
and dealing, as they would have to, with rocks only a little more 
than a third as heavy as they would be here, their work would 
be greatly more effective. 

Then, too, Lowell, basing his speculation upon the generally 
received form of the nebular hypothesis (which, contrary to Faye's 
theory, makes Mars an older world than ours), argues that the 
Martians already possess the engineering skill, machines, and 
appliances which we shall have upon the earth some ages hence. 

Human beings may then find themselves upon a world nearly 
dried up, and may have to undertake irrigation on a scale sug- 
gested by what we see upon our neighbor. 

Both Lowell and Flammarion remind us, however, very 
properly, that we must beware of assuming that the **men" of 
Mars — its intelligent inhabitants — are vertebral bipeds like our- 
selves. If intelligent beings exist there, the probabilities are strong 
that they are very different from us in ways which we can hardly 
conjecture, since the difference between the Earth and Mars in 
physical conditions must almost necessarily have determined 
different lines of development on the two planets. Flammarion 
suggests, in a caprice of speculation it would seem, that the 
Martians are winged creatures, but whether bats, birds, or butter- 
flies he does not attempt to decide. 

There has been some speculation as to the possibility of 
establishing communication with our hypothetical neighbors, and 
some enthusiastic amateurs have reported glittering spots upon 
the planet's disc, and have tried to interpret them as hailing sig- 
nals from the distant world. 

These ** lights," however, were, in all probability, mere 
reflections from favorably situated surfaces of the same material 
that compose the polar caps; and there is not the slightest proba- 
bility that with any instruments we now possess we could dis- 
tinguish any signals they could make. And if we could, who 
could read them? 

Still, it is always wise to be reticent in denying the possibilities 
of the future, and no less so to be cautious in accepting as ascer- 
tained truth the startling conclusions and unverified discoveries 
of imaginative observers. It is so easy to see what one expects 
and wishes to find, especially on a disc so small and delicately 
marked as that oi Mars, — Boston Herald, October 18, 1896. 

Princeton, N. J., October 10, 1896. 



314 Publications of the 



DISCOVERY OF THE COMPANION TO PROCYON. 



By J. M. SCHAEBERLE. 



This morning I discovered a companion to Proeyan, of about 
the thirteenth magnitude, in position -angle = 3i8°.8; distance = 

4". 59. 

The two sets of measures are as follows: 

Telescope west of pier; /V<79'^« east P = 3i9°66) 

of meridian D= V'-SS { ^^'«^*'' ^ 

Telescope east of pier; P racy on west P = 3 1 7°. 20 



of meridian D = 



7 20 "i 
.V^o} Weight 



I. 



It is quite probable that the observed perturbations of Procyon, 
ascribed by Bessel to a theoretical companion, are caused by 
this newly discovered star. The position-angle of Professor 
AuwERS* theoretical perturbing body is about 275°. 

The companion is yellowish in color and sharply defined. 
Assuming it to be the perturbing body, its mass is about one-fifth 
of the mass of Procyon, 

Lick Observatory, November 14, 1896. 



MEASURES OF SIRIUS, 



Made with the Thirty-Six-Inch Equatorial of the Lick Obser- 
vatory — Robert G. Aitken. 



On Saturday morning, October 24th, I turned the large 
equatorial of this observatory upon Siriiis and saw the com- 
panion. Since then I have made two additional measures, and 
Professor Schaeberle has made two, which he has kindly given 
me to publish with mine. Neither of us saw any star in the 
position given by Dr. See (^Asironomical Journal , 385). 



Our measures are: 










1896. \\ S. T. 


B 


p 


Seeing. 


Obsener, 


October 23.65 


189^.0 


3". 8 1 


5 


A 


28.65 


188 .5 


3 .57 


3 


A 


28.65 


1S8 .3 


3 -65 





S 


** 30.60 


190 .0 


3 -65 


5 


S 


30-65 


190 .6 


[4. it] est. 


4 


A 



Mt. Hamilton, October 31, 1896. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 315 

ELEMENTS AND EPHEMERIS OF COMET /, 1896, 

(PERRINE). 



By F. H. Seares. 



The following elements and ephemeris of comet /, 1896, 
(Perrine), have been computed by Mr. Crawford and myself, 
from observations made at the Lick Observatory by Mr. Per- 
rine on November 2d, 3d, and 4th. 

The observations were sent by telegraph to the Students* 
Observatory by Dr. Holden. 

T = 1897 January 23.6384 G. M. T. 

i = 145° 55' 22" 
^=79 52 47 ^ Mean Equinox, 1896.0 

<«=I38 59 40 
log^ = 0.172302 

Representation of the middle place: 

O-C. AXcosi3=-3".7. A)8= + o".9. 



ephemeris for GREENWICH MEAN MIDNIGHT. 



Nov. 







a 








I 




log p 


Br. 


II-5 


2o'» 


ga 


29' 


+ 


18" 


23' 


•3 


0.219 


0.92 


15-5 


20 


4 


17 




15 


42 


.8 


0235 


0.88 


19-5 


20 





56 




13 


16 


•7 


0.251 


0.84 


23-5 


19 


58 


19 


+ 


II 


4 


.0 


0.267 


0.81 



The brightness on November 2d is taken as unity. 

Students' Observatory, University of ^ 
California, November 13, 1896. / 



BENJAMIN APTHORP GOULD. 



By R. H. Tucker. 



A life of devotion to science and of high achievement has 
closed. While fitting record of the wide extent of Doctor 
Gould's contributions to astronomy will be made by others, it 
is proper to give expression to the admiration and esteem which 
he inspired in the many, to whom came the opportunity to share 
in his pursuits. 



3i6 Publications of the 

His was an example of untiring energy and of intense appli- 
tion, and the results of his labors are of a solid and enduring 
character. He had the distinction of being the first American 
astronomer, educated as such, and the influence of the great men 
of that past generation, Argelander, Gauss, and Arago, 
with whom he studied, may have strenghtened the bent of his 
own talent for thorough and substantial work. He had the 
faculty of inciting the strongest zeal in those who labored for him 
and with him, while his sympathy and encouragement strength- 
ened the bond which held them in a common cause. Not other- 
wise could the results of the Cordoba Observatory have been 
accomplished. They form almost an epitome, for the Southern 
sky, of the needs of astronomy in the department of star positions* 
— the Uranometry, for standard magnitudes of the brighter stars; 
the Zones, embracing a network of well-distributed stars, whose 
places are exact enough for reference in differential measures; 
and finally, the General Catalogue, giving more thoroughly 
determined places for the more important stars. With the 
Durchmusterung, included as a possible undertaking in the 
original scheme of Doctor Gould, but carried out after his 
departure, these several Catalogues represent in general the steps 
required for the determination of stellar places, and nearly in the 
order followed in the survey of the Northern heavens. 

Mention should not be omitted of the early and successful 
photographs of star clusters, taken at Cordoba, which will furnish 
such record of those wonderful aggregations in the southern sky 
as could be obtained in no other way. They are in no sense to 
be treated as mere pictures, and remembrance is quite vivid of 
the gentle repulse given to a collector, who desired some for that 
purpose. The plates have been undergoing exhaustive measure- 
ment in this country ; and many stars of the clusters were 
observed with the meridian-circle at Cordoba, for reference points. 

Perhaps the incident referred to may be an illustration of the 
stand taken by Doctor Gould early in his career, and adhered 
to throughout. Belonging to the old regime, he did not favor 
much popularizing of astronomy, and was strongly opposed to 
the notoriety that comes through the daily papers, and to the 
publication of immature work. The usefulness to science was 
the object striven for, and to this end the energies of the observa- 
tory were bent, without division of endeavor. Success in that 
aim attained, there was no striving for personal eclat. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 3'? 

With his associations formed in this country, and strong ties 
to hold him here, the life in Cordoba was, in a sense, one of 
exile, only to be taken up with so worthy an object. To his 
younger assistants the novelty of a somewhat unconventional life 
in a new country had, doubtless, its attractiveness. The kindly 
and ^miliar intercourse there established, never losing in dignity, 
became closer, and was more appreciated in a foreign land, not, 
indeed, without charm of its own. 

Since his return to this country. Dr. Gould's interest had 
been mainly given to the Astronomical Journal. His later years 
have been filled with the peaceful calm that follows active en- 
deavor, and the happiness that is sometimes the reward of 
-\inselfish devotion. The lines of. Dr. Holmes, in "The Iron 
Gate," when Age lifts the door-latch, seem to picture these closing 
years. 

"What though of gilded bawbles he Iwreaves us, 
E>ear to the heart of youth, to manhood's prime; 
Think of the calm he brings, the wealth he leaves us, 
The hoarded spoils, the legacies of timel 
" Altars once flaming, still with incense fragrant. 
Passion's uneasy nurslings rocked asleep; 
Hope's anchor faster, wild desire less vagrant, 
Life's flow less noisy, but the stream, how deep!" 




Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 319 




NOTICES FROM THE LICK OBSERVATORY. 

Prepared bv Members op the Staff. 

JVtlas Photograph I que de la Lune, publie par l'Ob- 

SERVATOIRE DE PARIS. EXECUTE FAR MM. LOEWY ET 

PuisEUx. Premier fascicule, Paris, 1896. Mimoire et 
Alias de six planches. 

The library of the Lick Observatory has just received the 
xnagniticent Atlas of the Moon published by the Paris Observa- 
tory, from negatives taken with the equatorial coude by MM. 
LoEWV and PutSEUX, and reproduced in heliogravure by the 
«are of M. Fillon. The original negatives were some six and 
a half inches in diameter, and they have been subsequently 
enlarged in the camera fourteen or fifteen diameters to the scale 
of publication. 

The operations required for the production of lunar maps are 
of three sorts r 

ist. To obtain suitable negatives, (Only a few of the very first 
excellence have been obtained in the past two years at Paris, 
owing to unsteady air, and at all observatories the very best 
conditions are required.) 

ad. Enlargement of the original negatives on glass in the 
camera. (Each negative is enlai^ed to the greatest size which is 
advantageous at Paris.) 

3d. Reproduction of the enlargements on paper. (Helio- 
gravure has been chosen for the Paris Atlas.) 

The ^t focal negatives obtained at Paris and at Mt. Hamilton 
appear to be of the same order of excellence. This is shown by 
comparing silver-prints of enlargements by Professor Weinek 
from various Paris and Mt. Hamilton negatives. There is little 
to choose between them. Both are very good. 



320 Publications of the 

Direct enlargements in the telescope are extremely advanta- 
geous on many accounts, but they are difficult to make when 
large instruments are employed. (See Publications of the Lick 
Observatory, Vol. Ill, p. i6). This method has been tried at 
Paris and abandoned for the present It was unsuccessful at 
Mt. Hamilton until 1895, when Mr. Perrine made changes 
in our driving-clock, which have allowed us to use it to great 
advantage. The devices applied . by Mr. Perrine were but 
makeshifts; and it is only in 1896 that the necessary funds have 
been obtained for providing suitable change-wheels for lunar rate 
(and these have not yet been received from the makers). 

The Cramer Dry Plate Company has lately been able to 
supply us with extremely rapid emulsions, which have allowed 
us to reduce the exposure-times for direct enlargements to ten 
seconds, or even to five seconds. Short exposures are the chief 
factors in such celestial photographs. 

The direct enlargements at Mt. Hamilton give an image of 
the Moon some twenty-six inches in diameter, and the resulting 
plates are, of course, of relatively finer grain than the focal 
images. They have been enlarged on glass, by Mr. CoLTON, 
to the scales of III feet, VI feet, and X feet to the Moon's 
diameter with excellent results. The VI -foot scale shows, how- 
ever, everything that can be seen in the X-foot enlargements, 
and the Ill-foot shows nearly all that is given by the Vl-foot, 
though the details are not so readily seen, of course. 

Baron A. v. Rothschild, of Vienna, has also enlarged several 
of our focal negatives (on carbon) to the VI- foot scale, and 
Mr. Nielsen and Professor Prinz have done the same. Many 
negatives of the Moon have been taken by Professor W. H. 
Pickering at the Harvard College Observatories at Cambridge 
and Arequipa, some of them being excellent, but none have yet 
been published, I believe. 

On account of the great expense of publication (a very 
important point at Mt. Hamilton), the Lick Observatory has 
decided to issue its Observatory Moon Atlas on a scale of III 
French feet (38.36 English inches, 97.45 cm.^ to the Moon's 
diameter. This is the scale of Maedler's and Lohrmann's 
charts, and one-half that of Schmidt's. The negatives taken 
in the telescope are slightly enlarged (by Mr. Colton) in the 
camera, and are reproduced for publication by the gelatine 
process by the New York Photogravure and Color Company, 
241 W. Twenty. third Street, New York City. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 321 

Trials of the heliogravure process and of direct carbon print- 
ing were made before adopting the gelatine process (which is 
much less expensive than either of them). It appears to be true 
that in America, at least, neither of the foregoing processes can 
be depended on to give as good and uniform results as the 
gelatine method. 

Focal negatives of the Moon are regularly taken at Mt. 

^Hamilton (by Messrs. Holden and Colton), and some of them 

^re sent to the Observatory at Prag, where Professor Weinek 

enlarges them to a scale of about X feet to the Moon's diameter. 

He proposes to issue an atlas of the Moon in sheets about 

•934 X 11)4 inches to the X-foot scale. Silver prints of most of 

Professor Weinek' s enlargements (several hundred in number), 

have been sent to the Lick Observatory. Heliogravure and 

^jelatine prints are permanent. Silver prints will deteriorate with 

time, though they have several advantages over any mechanical 

process of publication. 

Every method of reproduction necessarily introduces a grain 
which is not in the original negative. The silver print seems to 
introduce less grain than any other process. So far as my limited 
experience goes, the grain from carbon printing and from helio- 
gravure is about the same, and that due to the gelatine process 
is less objectionable than either. The gelatine prints require 
careful handling to prevent smearing, which is a drawback. 
A careful comparison has been made of the Paris charts with 
reproductions of the Lick Observatory negatives on gelatine 
(Ill-foot), by direct carbon printing (Ill-foot), with Baron v. 
Rothschild's carbon enlargements (Vl-foot), with Professor 
Weinek' s silver-print enlargements (X-foot), and with Mr. 
Colton' s enlargements on glass (VI -foot and X-foot), with 
particular reference to determining the special excellence of each 
process of reproduction. It appears to show conclusively that 
the silver-prints of Professor Weinek (X-foot scale) come nearer 
to technical perfection than any other, in that they most success- 
fully reproduce the grain of the original negative and therefore 
are best fitted to show the finer details of the lunar surface. 
(Compare, for example, Professor Weinek's enlargement of 
Archimedes and vicinity from the Lick Observatory focal negative 
of 1893, August 3d, with the same subject shown — on a smaller 
scale — in the Paris chart of 1894, February 13th.) Professor 
Weinek's scale i.s, in my opinion, somewhat too large for 
general use. It is particularly suitable for special studies. 



322 Publications of the 

The general effectiveness of the Paris heliogravures is, on the 
other hand, wonderfully fine, and superior in this respect to any 
reproductions I have seen, except those on glass by Mr. Colton. 

As glass diapositives cannot be widely distributed, such helio- 
gravures as the Paris maps must hold the palm for plastic 
excellence. 

Copies on glass of some of the Mt. Hamilton n^;atives can be 
seen, however, in Paris (Astronomical Society of France, 
National Observatory) ; in London (Royal Astronomical Society, 
British Astronomical Association); in Berlin (Royal Academy of 
Sciences) ; in Rome ( Accademia dei Lincei) ; Copenhagen (Ro)ral 
Observatory); Washington (Smithsonian Institution); etc., etc. 

The grain of the gelatine reproductions of the Lick Observa- 
tory direct enlargements is very much finer than that of the 
Paris maps (as it should be, considering the advantage of work- 
ing from original negatives twenty-six inches in diameter), though 
the original grain of the negatives is not reproduced. It is to be 
remarked, however, that the grain of different gelatine prints 
differs from print to print, but it is fine in all. The effectiveness 
— relief— of the Lick Observatory maps is satisfactory. 

It is important that the various prints from a single negative 
should be uniform in quality. This uniformity can be readily 
obtained in silver printing. In heliogravure and in the gelatine 
process it must be secured by careful proof-reading. In the 
direct carbon printing and enlargement it is not so easy, so far as 
my very limited experience goes. The method of reproduction 
chosen by Professor W. Prinz* is not as satisfactory as any of 
the foregoing processes. 

The above comparisons refer only to the excellence of the 
several processes of reproducing the data of a given negative. 
It is important to recollect, also, that in such reproductions one 
may work for two quite different results. 

1st. The effort may be to attain the boldest relief possible — to 
give the resulting maps the greatest plastic effect. To accomplish 
this end the resulting plate must be made as sharp and precise as 
practicable (the edges of craters as definite as possible, for 
example) and the contrasts of light and shade on the moon must 
consequently be exaggerated — made more harsh. 

2d. The effort may be to retain, in the reproductions, the 
greatest amount of detail (on the bright illuminated surfaces just 



* See Publications A. S. P., Vol. VI., page 296. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 323 

within ihe rims of craters, for example) and to preserve the faint 
contrasts on the moon in their true values, so far as may be. 
(Compare the frontispiece to Publications of the Lick Observatory, 
Vol. III., with the first plate of the Paris maps.) Both effects 
cannot be successfully obtained from a single negative. The 
Paris maps seem to have been made with the first object in view, 
if I am not mistaken. At any rate, they have most successfully 
attained it. 

The Mt. Hamilton enlargements have been purposely made 
with the second object in mind; and they have, I think, attained it. 

The effort of Professor Weinek has been to reproduce the 
minutest particularities of the original negative; and he has 
certainly accomplished this end. 

The results, ist and 2nd, may be consciously sought for by 
the astronomer in making his enlargements on glass, or they may 
be forced upon him by the processes of heliogravure. A good 
example of unnecessary sharpening and consequent loss of detail 
within the high lights (with a gain of precision at the terminator) 
is shown in the plate facing page 39, of Vol. Ill, Publications of 
the Lick Observatory (see the remarks on page 15, op, cit,') 

The maps of Professor Weinek are on the X-foot scale; 
those of the Paris charts are of varying scales (2°*. 58 = 101.57 
inches; 2°.50 = 94. 49 inches); those of the Lick Observatory 
are of Ill-feet. The Paris Atlas sheets are 24x30 inches; 
those of the Lick Observatory are 16x20 inches. The latter 
size seems to be as large as is convenient for use at the telescope, 
though the Paris charts are considerably more impressive. 

The Mefnoir accompanying the Paris charts contains many 
excellent remarks upon lunar charts, and upon the topography 
and physical condition of the Moon, which there is no space to 
refer to here. The great advantage of lunar photographs over 
even the best lunar drawings is insisted upon. It is pointed out 
that drawings must be executed over relatively small areas at a 
time, and that it is practically impossible to fit these drawings 
together subsequently with strict accuracy. The same remark 
applies to all attempts to make a complete map of the Moon by 
combining drawings with photographs. 

Finally, it may be said that the Paris lunar charts already 
published constitute a splendid contribution to science. Their 
plastic relief is unrivaled and is not likely to be surpassed. 
Taken together with other maps and charts now published, or to 



324 Publications of the 

be published (Weinek, Lick Observatory, Pickering, Nielsen, 
Fauth, Prinz, Schmidt, Lohrmann, Gaudibert, Klein, 
Maedler, Neison, etc.), they provide a sure basis for a present 
scientific account of the lunar surface and promise future results 
of great importance. Edward S. Holden. 

Mt. Hamilton, November 3, 1896. 

Meteor Seen at Noon (November i). 

A meteor, leaving a broad scintillating track, traversed fifteen 
degrees of the northwestern heavens at about ten minutes past 
noon yesterday. It was seen at a point about thirty degrees 
above the horizon, and in the half second of its flight shone as an 
electric light. The shooting star was seen by a visitor at the Park, 
in San Francisco. — S. F. Chronicle^ November 2. 

A Bright Meteor Seen on October 8, 1896. 

Mr. P. Perrine, of Alameda, reports a meteor four or five 
times as bright as Venus on October 8, 1896, at 7** 32" p.m. 
It was of a brilliant white color and moved rapidly from an 
altitude of about thirty degrees to near the horizon, inclining 
toward the east at an angle of about forty- five degrees. C. D. P. 

The Meteor of October 22, 1896. 

In the evening of October 22d, while in Oakland, I saw an 
unusually interesting meteor. I first saw it a little north of west, 
where it seemed to rise like a sky-rocket, which it so much 
resembled that at first I had no thought of its true character. 
Its apparent motion after the first few seconds was almost exactly 
parallel to my horizon. At first sight the head appeared to be 
single, but after two or three seconds (during which time it 
rapidly increased in brightness), it separated into four parts but 
not with the usual explosive effect, for all the parts pursued the 
same course in a straight line, each leaving its train of sparks 
which reached to the next part, a long train following all. The 
last portion was much the faintest and soon disappeared, while 
the remaining three were of more nearly equal brightness, the 
first being somewhal brighter than the others. 

After traversing an arc of ninety degrees or more, they all 
disappeared at 6** 9™ 30' zb 10* P. S. T. in the smoke of the city 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 325 

and behind the Berkeley hills. When at their brightest, each 
portion considerably surpassed Venus in brilliancy. 

The apparent motion was remarkably slow, the meteor being 
visible for about ten seconds. C. D. Perrine. 

Mount Hamilton, October 31, 1896. 

Abstract of a Letter from Mr. D. J. Brown to 

Professor Holden. 

** Last Camp,'* Napa, October 23, 1896. 

**At about six o'clock, p.m. yesterday, there appeared in this 
vicinity a meteor of such remarkable appearance that I deem it 
proper to report its passage to you. 

** It came from the west — its flight was quite near the Earth, 
and speed slower than that of any other like body I have ever seen. 
At first it had a solid head, with a train of considerable length. 
Soon this head divided into three parts, presenting an appearance 
like this,* slowly passing over the valley in the direction of Napa 
Soda Springs. It went to pieces like a spent sky-rocket.*' 

Letter from Mr. H. F. Stivers, at Hunter's, Tehama 

County, Cal., October 26, 1896. 

** Seeing a meteor, the other evening, that appeared to me more 
than ordinary, I have roughly sketched and described its appear- 
ance and would be pleased to know if it was seen at the Observa- 
tory. Friday, October 22d, at 6:10 P. m., P. S. T., I saw a very 
brilliant meteor in the west. My attention was drawn to it by the 
great light it gave. At first view it was not more than fifteen or 
twenty degrees above the western horizon. It sailed majestically 
along like an immense rocket directly towards the Moon, and 
disappeared in the Moon's light, not more than ten degrees from 
that luminary. Its zenith was about ten degrees north of mine, 
on passing which it separated twice, making plainly visible three 
pieces, the largest the apparent size of a closed hand, the others 
diminished to about one-half each. 

'* It was visible from ten to fifteen seconds, and had a trail of 
twenty-five or thirty degrees. 

' * It emitted a white light, tinged at times, I should judge, with 



* The sketch is omitted. 



326 Publications of the 

red and yellow. It must have described the complete arc of the 
heavens and had it not been for the brightness of the full moon, 
should nearly all have been observable by me. ' ' 

NoTB.~The accompanying;; sketch has not been reproduced. 

Wheatland,* October 22. — A most remarkable meteor 
was seen a few minutes past 6 o'clock this evening. It appeared 
in the west as a star of the magnitude of the evening star, and in 
close proximity to Jupiter, f It increased in size and gradually 
separated, first into two and finally into three distinct comet- 
shaped bodies. Following each other they sped toward the east 
and disappeared. — 5". F, Chronicle, 

Highland Springs, October 23. — At 6:13 o'clock, last 
night, a meteoric display, such as is seldom seen, passed over 
here. It was composed of three large balls of fire moving from 
southwest to northeast. It looked as if the balls burst on the 
mountain north of Clear Lake. 

Three Meteors in Line. 

Nevada, Cal., October 22. — A triple connected meteor was 
observed in the northern heavens at ten minutes past 6 o'clock 
this evening. Three balls of fire, all in a row and connected like 
a train of cars, with a long fiery tail, flashed in view just a few 
degrees above the western horizon and traveled in a direction a 
little north of east. In half a minute they disappeared from view 
high in the heavens, apparently somewhere over the Great Dipper 
and North Star. 

The sight was magnificent and awe-inspiring, and one long to 
be remembered, as it did not appear to be over forty or fifty miles 
above the earth. A splendid view of the triple-connected meteor 
was taken by W. M. Richards. — 61 F, Examiner^ Oct. 23, 1896. 

This meteor was also seen by many visitors at the Clifi* House, 
near San Francisco. 

On the Form of the Corona of August 9, 1896. 

The Lick Observatory has just received three good positive 
copies of photographs of this eclipse, taken in Lapland by 
Dr. L. Wuchikhowsky. A naked-eye sketch also accompanied 



• Yuba County, California. \ I. e. V'tnus. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 327 

the photographs. Professor Holden has handed these over to 
me for examination. 

A good illustration of how unsatisfactory and unreliable eye 
sketches are, is again shown by comparing the sketches, so far 
published in the various scientific journals (and the one above 
mentioned) with these photographs. In the sketches there is 
apparently no law of distribution of coronal matter with reference 
to the Sun's equator, while in the photographs the general form 
of the corona is in agreement with the form predicted by means 
of the '* Mechanical Theory,** being characterized by great polar 
extension, causing a tendency towards a nearly circular outline. 
See Lick Observatory Report on the Eclipse of December^ i88gy 
page 76, Table V, and Plate VI, Figures 5 and 8. 

It is a significant fact, that while this eclipse took place near 
the time of the sun-spot minimum, the coronal form corresponds 
to the type of coronas which astronomers have quite generally 
considered as belonging to the times when the Sun is most 

spotted. J. M. SCHAEBERLE. 

Lick Observatory, November 6, 1896. 

Proposed Gift to the University of California by 

Mrs. Phcebe A. Hearst. 

The daily papers of October 25th announce that it is the 
intention of Mrs. Hearst to present to the University of Cali- 
fornia two buildings to be erected at Berkeley. It is also said 
that it is Mrs. Hearst's intention to endow, at least, one of the 
colleges at Berkeley. A Board of Trustees has been appointed 
to carry out Mrs. Hearst's plans. 

The university has long since outgrown its buildings; and there 
is probably no way in which its interests can be so efficiently fur- 
thered as by the provision of a group of buildings specially 
designed for their purposes and of high architectural excellence. 

£. S. H. 
October 26, 1896. 

Request for Observations of Comet IV, 1895. 

I have undertaken the definitive orbit of Comet IV, 1895, 

and shall be glad of any unpublished observations. 

C. D. Perrine. 
Mt. Hamilton, October 19, 1896. 



328 Publications of the 

List of American Learned and Educational Societies. 

Prepared by Dr. Stephen B. Weeks. 

The attention of members of the society is called to an excel- 
lent article with the foregoing title printed in Chapter XIII 
(pages 1493-166 1) of Vol. II, of the Report oi the United States 
Commissioner of Education, for the year 1893-94, just issued. 

E. S. H. 

Scientific Visitors to the Lick Observatory. 

Professor Kayser. 

We had the pleasure of a scientific visit from Professor 
Kayser, of the University of Bonn, on October 5th, 6th, and 7th. 
The weather was excellent (except for smoke in the valleys from 
extensive forest fires) and representative of our usual summer 
conditions, and Professor Kayser was able to see many objects 
of which observations have been made here, particularly the 
spectra of interesting and type objects. E. S. H. 

The Meeting of the Astronomische Gesellschaft at 
Bamberg (1896) — Greetings to their 
Colleagues in California. 

On October 7th, the mail brought a post-card addressed to 
the Lick Observatory inscribed as follows: 

*' From the XVI Astronomical Congress (Bamberg). Send 
Greetings. ' * 

*'Auwers, Dr. J. Bauschinger, Prof. E. Becker, Strass- 
burg, Martin Brendel, C. V. L. Charlier, F. Cohn, 
Dr. G. Eberhard, F. Folie, J. Franz, Dr. Ernst Hartwig, 
Bamberg, J. Holetschek, P. Kempf, Otto Knopf, Jena, 
H. Kreutz, Editor ad. int. Ast. Nach., Lehmann-Filhes, 
Mr. and Mrs. A. O. Leuschner, Dr. Messerschmitt, Zurich, 
M. Nyren, J. A. C. OuDEMANs, J. Palisa, C. F. Pechule, 
Dr. M. Schmidt, R. Schorr, Hamburg, W. Schur, Got- 
tingen, H. Seeliger, R. Steinheil, B. Wanach, Prof. Dr. 
E. Weiss, Vorsitzender, W. Winkler, Jena, (and at least one 
more name not to be deciphered.) 

These cordial greetings are highly welcome. They empha- 
size the fact that science has nothing to do with boundary lines. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 329 

Wherever the members of the Astronomische Gesellschaft may 
be, they have a common cause, and, in a sense, a common 
country. E. S. H. 

1896, October 8. • 

Mt. Helena visible from Mt. Hamilton. 

Mt. Helena, 4343 feet high, is situated at the head of the 
Napa Valley, California. It is visible from Mt. Hamilton, at a 
distance of about 105 miles. 

The highest (west) point of this mountain bears 30° 15' west 

of true north from the Transit House of the Lick Observatory. 

C. D. Perrine. 
Lick Observatory, October 31, 1896. 

Comet/ 1896 (Perrine). 

This comet was discovered about 10 p.m., November 2d, in 
the constellation Vulpeada, Its position at 19*" 13" 3' G. M. T., 
was R. A. 20'' 21" 36'.33; Decl. + 25° 6' 39". 8. Its motion 
was nearly 2" west and 50' south per day. From Mt. Hamilton 
observations of November 2d, 6th, and nth, I have derived 
the following parabolic elements : 

T= 1897 February 8.15286 G. M. T. 
0, = 172° 37' 36" \ 
^=86 28 00 V 1896.0 
i = 146 8 42 j 

q= 1. 0571 
Residuals: (O-C) A X cos i3-4"; A j3- i". 

The comet is faint, not being brighter than a star of loj^ or 

II magnitude, and has a stellar nucleus of about 13 magnitude. 

It has a well-marked central condensation, and is about 2' in 

diameter. Its distance at discovery was about 140,000,000 miles, 

and is slowly increasing, the comet consequently growing fainter. 

C. D. Perrine. 
Lick Observatory, November 16, 1896. 

Decoration for Professor Holden. 

The Director of the Lick Observatory has received the 
diploma and decoration of Knight of the Order of the Danne- 
brog, of Denmark, for services to science. 



330 Publications of the 

Completion of the Washington Zone — 13^ 50' to — 18° 10'. 

[Extract from a private letter of Mr. A. N. Skinner.] 

. . . ** It may interest you to know that about three years 
ago I was put in charge of the Pistor and Marten's Transit- 
Circle, and ordered to execute the observation of the Gesellschaft 
Zone — 13^50' to —18° 10'. I entered vigorously upon it at 
once, and was highly favored in having two competent assistants 
— Frank B. Littell and Theo. I. King. The observing was 
practically finished in two years. I did all the work at the tele- 
scope; the assistants recorded and read the microscopes. There 
are 8689 stars in the Zone. More than 19,000 observations have 
been made. The reductions are more than half- finished. One 
minor fruit of the work has been the discovery of four interesting 
variable stars — X Hydra, W G?//, R. T. Libra, and Z Capri- 
comi, ' ' 

U. S. Naval Observatory, 
Washington, November 11, 1896. 

Dr. John H. C. Bonte (Died November 24, 1896). 

Dr. J. H. C. Bonte, Secretary of the University of California 
during the years 188 1-1896. and Professor of Legal Ethics in 
the Hastings Law School, died in Sacramento, November 24, 
1896, at the age of sixty-five years. This is not the place to 
speak of his long, disinterested, and very valuable services to the 
University, as its Secretary, Land Agent, and Business Manager. 
He occupied a difficult position in the midst of conflicting inter- 
ests, and few will realize to the full the genuine devotion which 
he brought to his manifold duties. 

During the early years of the history of the Lick Observatory, 
when much was lacking in our equipment, and when the annual 
appropriations were markedly smaller than at present even, it 
would have been impossible to have carried on the work of the 
institution as it has been carried on, had it not been for Dr. 
Bonte' s cordial seconding of the plans of the Director, which 
had been approved by the Chairman of the Regents' Committees 
on the Lick Observatory and on Finance, but which could only 
be made effective by the most scrupulously rigid economy. 

He took unusual pains to understand what was wanted; and 
he spared no labor to make it as easy as possible to realize the 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 33^ 

ends desired as quickly as practicable, and this in the face of 
genuine difficulties. Fortunately, the Observatory has passed 
through its early difficulties with success, and has entered another 
period, under new and improved conditions. This change was 
certain to come sooner or later. That it has come quickly is due 
in an important degree to his friendly co-operation. So much, 
at the very least, is due from the Observatory to our departed 
friend. Those who have cheerfully and faithfully borne the bur- 
den and heat of the early days deserve the gratitude of those 
others who will reap the benefit of their labors. 

Edward S. Holden. 
Mt. Hamilton, Nov. 25, 1896. 

Astronomical Telegrams. 
Rotation-Times of Venus and Mercury, etc. 

The following telegram appeared in the daily papers of the 
United States early in October: 

Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, Arizona, October 6. — The 
astronomers here have discovered that the planets Mercury and Venus 
each rotates once on its axis during its revolution around the Sun. These 
planets have therefore only one day in each of their years. Venus has 
a dense atmosphere, while Mercury has none. 

This telegram omits to state that Schiaparelli announced 
on December 8, 1889,* ^^21^ ^^s observations from 1882 onwards 
led to the conclusion that Mercury revolved on its axis once in 
one period of revolution about the Sun; and that he announced 
a similar conclusion with respect to Venus early in i890.t 

As no telegram relating to these important observations 
reached the Lick Observatory directly, I applied for a copy of 
the original sent to Boston, which has been kindly furnished by 
Mr. Ritchie, as follows: 

(Dated) Lowell Observatory, ) 
Flagstaff, A. T., October 5, 1896. 3 

To John Ritchie, Jr., Boston: 

Mercury and Venus rotate once on their axes in a revolution 
round the Sun. Veyius is not cloud-covered, but atmosphere 
veiled. Mercury not. (Signed) Lowell. 

It thus appears that the original telegram from the Lowell 



* See Publications A. S. P.. Volume II. page 79. f Ibid., Volume II, page 246. 



332 Publications of the 

Observatory simply announces the important fact that the 
observers have confirmed the conclusions announced by Schia- 
PARELLi in 1889 and 1890, and makes no claim whatever to 
discovery. This point is emphasized here because the wording^ 
of the newspaper telegram has been criticized on various sides 
{e. g, in the New York Sun, of October 8, 1896), as an injustice 
to Professor Schiaparelli, although all astronomers, were, ot 
course, familiar with his discovery. The publication of the 
observations of the Flagstaff Observatory on the points covered 
by the telegrams will be awaited with interest. 

Edward S. Holden. 
Mt. Hamilton, October 26, 1896. 

Re-Discovery of the Companion of Sirius, at the 

Lick Observatory. 

Astronomical Telegram. 

(Dated) Lick Observatory, Oct. 31, 1896. 

To Harvard College Observatory: (Sent 8** 20" a. m.) 

Clark's companion to Sirius is in its predicted place. 
Position, 189°; distance, 3". 7; from three nights measures by 
Aitken and Schaeberle. No other companion is visible. 
Cable. 

NoTK.— Clark's companion o{ Siriu^ was last observed at Mt. Hamilton by Professor 
BuRNHAM i89o.27in, />-3S9°.7, j = 4".i9. Professor Hussey examined the system carefully, 
during February and March of the present year, (and Professor Campbell, in March, also) 
and the companion was not to be seen. It was still too close (see Publications A. S. P., 
Vol. VIII. page 183.) 

On August 3T, Dr. T. J. J. Shk reported that the companion had been re-discovered 
at the Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff. Arizona, (see A sironomical Journal, "No. 2,S$^ in 
^ = 220*^, J = 5". Measures of an object near this place were made by Messrs. Sek, Doug- 
lass and Cogshall; and it was also reported to have been seen by Messrs. Lowrll and 
Drkw. (See Howard's orbit, A. J. Vol. X, page 140). 

There is no doubt that the Clark companion is in /=iS9°, j = 3".7; and it is not 
probable that any other companion exists. E. S. H. 

Astronomical Telegrams (Translatioji), 

(Dated) Lick Observatory, Oct. 15, 1S96. 
F. H. Shares, Berkeley: (Sent 7^ 41" p. m.) 

Comet GiACOBixi was observed by Hussey ancd Perrine, 
October 4, 16" 6™ 56' G. M. T. ; R.' A. iS'^ 20" 59'.57; Dec!. 
— 11*^ 56' 40". 8. [Also on October 7 and 8j. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 333 

Discovery, Etc., of Comet/, 1896 (Perrine, November 2). 
Astronomical Telegrams (Translation). 

(Dated) Lick Observatory Nov. 3, 1896. 

To Harvard College Observatory: 1 ,g^^^ 8»^ 4^" a m ^ 

Students* Observatory: J 4:> • •>' 

A faint comet was discovered by C. D. Perrine [at 10 p.m. 
November 2]. Its position, November 2, 19'' 12° o' G. M. T., 
was R. A. 20*" 21°* 36'. 30; Decl. + 25° 6' 40". Its motions are 
— 30' R. A., — 45' Decl. daily. Cable. 

(Dated) Lick Observatory, Nov. 3, 1896. 

To Harvard College Observatory: J .g^^^ ^ ^, ^^^ 
Students' Observatory: ) 

Comet Perrine was observed by Perrine November 3, 
xf i» 53' G. M. T.; R. A. 20'* 19" 55'. 50; Decl. + 24° 21' 5". 

Lick Observatory, Nov. 4, 1896. 

To Harvard College Observatory: | 3^^^ , 

Students* Observatory: 3 ^ ' ^^ ^ 

Comet Perrine was observed by Perrine November 4, 
14*^ 34" 6' G. M. T.; R. A. 20** 18" 2i'.2; Decl. + 23° 36' 53". 

(Translation,) 

Lick Observatory, Nov. 5, 1896. 

To Harvard College Obser\'atory: (Sent 9** 0°* a.m.) 

The elements and ephemeris of Comet Perrine were com- 
puted by Messrs. Hussev and Perrine, from the observations 
of November 2, 3, 4, as follows: Cable. 

T= 1897, January 18.6072 G. M. T. 

« = 133° 8' 35" ) 
^==78 33 48 V 1896.0 

i = 145 52 56 ) 
q= 1. 5441 

[The ephemeris, at four-day intervals, from November 6th to 
i8th, is here omitted.] 



334 Publications of the 

Astronomical Telegrams. 

In the Astroiwmische Nacknchien, No. 3384, col. 422, 
Mr. Ritchie has a note on the comet reported by Swift, 1896, 
September 20th, in which it is said that *' telegrams of request 
were sent to Lick .... and other places. * ' No telegrams were 
received at Mt. Hamilton other than those printed in what 
precedes. {PubL A. S. P., Vol. VIII, p. 265.) 

Boston, November 11, 1896. 

To Lick Observatory: (Received 7*" 10" p.m.) 

Mars Trivium Charontis seen double November 10, by 
Flammarion. (Signed) John Ritchie, Jr. 

Discovery of the Companion to Procyon. 

Lick Observatory, November 14. 

To Harvard College Observatory: (Sent 9*" 15" a.m.) 

Professor Schaeberle reports the discovery of the com- 
panion to Procyon. Position, 318°; distance, 4". 6; magni- 
tude, 13. Cable. 

[See a note by Professor Schaeberle elsewhere in this 
number.] 

Discovery of Comet g, 1896 (Perrine). 

A comet was discovered by Mr. C. D. Perrine on December 
8, 1896. The details concerning it will be given in the next 
number of the Publications, 



¥• 
¥ 






Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 335 

Minutes of the Meeting of the Board of Directors, 
held in the rooms of the society, november 

28, 1896. AT 7:30 P. M. 

President Hussey presided. A quorum was present. The minutes 
of the last meeting were approved. The following members were duly 
elected : 

List op Members Elected November 28, 1896. 

Dr. J. T. Boyd 76 E. Ohio St., Indianapolis, Ind. 

Rev. W. Arthur Duckworth, J. P. . Frome, Somerset, England. 

Mr. Julius Hansen 218 Forest Ave., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Mr. Robert Y. Hayne, Jr San Mateo, Cal. 

Prof. H. Kreutz Stemwarte, Kiel, Germany. 

Colonel J. G. C. Lee, U. S. Army . . . New Montgomery St., S. F., Cal. 
Mr. D. A. Lehman College Park, Cal. 

^ CATION °''. ™^ .®"''.^*".°.'' .^T f Washington. D. C. 

New York Public Library . . . . { 40^Lafeyette Place, New York. 

The Public Library Boston, Mass. 

Library of the University of\d^.^. „ ^-^i 
California .... I Berkeley, Cal. 

Mr. Edward Payson San Mateo, Cal. 

w- T r- Dabb. i p. O. Box 301, Mare Island, Val- 

Mr.j.c.KABE y lejo. Cal. 

Mr. John S. Townsend { ^ o"aks^^^^^^ 

Miss Marie B. Wilson 3196 Pacific Ave., S. F., Cal. 

The election of Messrs. Hayne, Kreutz, Lehman. Payson, Town- 
send, and the University of California Library to take effect January 
I, 1897. 

A communication was received from the California Academy of 
Sciences, kindly granting the use of the lecture hall of the Academy for 
the meetings of November 28, 1896, January 30, 1S97, and March 27, 1897. 
Adjourned. 



33^ Publications of the 

Minutes of the Meeting of the Astronomical Society 

OF the Pacific, held in the Lecture Hall of 

THE California Academy of Sciences, 

No\'EMBER 28, 1896. 

The meeting was called to order by President Hussev. The imnnres 
of the last meeting, as printed in the Publications^ were approved. 

The Secretary read the names of new members duly elected at the 
Directors' meeting. 

The following papers were presented: 

1. Historical Review of Eclipse Observations (illustrated by lantern 

slides), by Mr. A. L. Colton, of the Lick Observatory. 

2. The Lick Obser\'atory Eclipse Expedition to Japan, Ai^^st, 1S9S, 

(illustrated by lantern slides), by Mr. C. Burckhalter, of the 
Chabot Observatory. 

3. The Total Solar Eclipse of August 9, 1S96, as observed in Rossia, 

(with photographs of the Corona), by Mr. Alexander Rtdzewsri. 

4. Discovery of the Companion to Pracyon, by Prot Schafbfkik, 

of the Lick Observatory. 

5. Re-disco ver>' of the Companion to Sirius, by ProC Attken, of the 

Lick Observatory-. 

6. Discover}- of Comet /, 1896, by Mr. C. D. Perrine, of the Lick 

Observatorv. 

7. Measures of 108 Double Stars, by Prof. Aitken, of the Lick Obscr- 

vaior\'. 

8. Catalogue of 50 New Nebulae discovered at the Lowe Observatory, 

California, by Dr. Lewis Swift. 

9. ID, II, 12. Orbits of Comet e, 1896, calculated by Messrs. Hcssey 

and Perrine, of the Lick Obser\'ator>'; Sears and Crawford, 
of the Student's Obser\'atory, Berkeley. 

13. Planetary Phenomena for January and Febniar>-, 1897, by Prof. 

McNeill, of Lake Forest, Ills. 

14. Kepler, by Dr. Edward S. Holden. 

15. The photographic Moon-Atlas of the Paris Obser\'atory, reviewed 

by Dr. Holden. 

Mr. A. L. CoLTON gave an historical review of eclipse obser\-ations, 
illustrated by lantern slides; commencing with the earliest drawings of 
the corona, made in 171 5, copies of the first successful photographs, 
made in 1851, and concludin!^ with pictures of the eclip)se of Augiist, 
1S96, made by the Russian Expedition in Lapland. 

Mr. Bl'RCKHAltek contributed a description of the recent eclipse 
expedition to Japan, exhibiting a number of slides of scenes along the 
route of travel and of the eclipse station and instruments at Akkeshi. 

The thanks of the Societv were returned to the California Academv 
of Sciences for the use of the lecture hall. 

Adjourned. 



Astronomical Society of i/ie Pacific. 337 



i OF THE SOCIETY. 

W. J. HussHT (Lick Obmrviiory). ... 

E.J. MoLinA <«i>6 Clay Simt.S. F.) ..... 

e. S. HnLDKi. iLiCK Obitrviilor)) 

O. VOM GlLDIRH IS14 MukEI Slr»I, S. F.) 

C. D. Pii>i>i>ii(LicK ObMrvaioryi, ... 

F. R. ZiiL(4ioC»liromi»Slr«i. S. F.) 



PtmOtMl 
Ti-Pmidnli 



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Uirary Cemmiltti~Ma O'Halloiak, » 
CommiUtt tn tlu Ctmtl-.Vrdai—Mian. Ht 



UK, Pin 



O? THE CHICAGO SECTION. 

EjiiKlht Comm'lltr—iU. RcjiiiYiK W. Pik». 

OFFICERS OF THE MEXICAN SECTION. 

EitiHlh-i Ctmmill.r-l-UKn. Cahilo Gonzalei, F>AKt:c»:o Kourigui 



e^r ID fiuk« our txiok-l««pLnf uumpkatpoutbU- I>D«t Mnl by 



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yur only Sub«qu™i 



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then lun b«en (uDranun.uJv) u 



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MemDcrt are m|l»] 

nbcn, who can ihm t 



Sig Marka S(i 



Ihu lhamiHini DU 

I Ihecopieiof lb* /"aMiniMwj of tha SoEiw; 

conienKol' the precnliiig nliiahen will (Jh be >enl lo int 

•.n losHhei inhi ( vuluine. Canpleie volimu r>>r paM yi 

unLy, w far at ihe Htock in hand u lufikitnt, « the payinein « twu uuiHn lu cunn tn 

lan». Any non-R!dd<nt mmbar within the United biatucanubiainboolitfioinlha 

libnrr by Kodini hill lilvarT card wiih Ten cenli in atampito ihc Sccrelary A.S. P- 

.. e ^_-., : — whuwUlreluniilie book and ihe card. 

m dnira lo Hythat the order in -hirh mnrn ar* nrim*^ ;■. 

-..I A Li; — :„ 1. : -!.■ — '-— ^ proof iheeii of pi 

reui with the writert, and is net uiumed by Ibe 



her of the Seerelar 



lirB which are earliblaccepiaf lor paUicaliDn. It it nalpouiUeii 

to bt primed to authori wboia r- ' * - " "-■-=- -■-- ■■-'-- ■ -■- 

SMiI!y7i»i5!" '" ' *"' 

Thi tlillt of naperi for reading ihould be i 

■I Ttrflowi: a blocli of letter paper. 40 cents; of note paper, 15 eenli; u package cS ei 
cenlB. I'heK prices include pmlafie, and hhould be remiued by money-Drder or io U. 
ftianiu. The ^ndingi art at (he ritlr of the member. 

■hould cominunicaie wiih "The Secretary Aiitonomical Sucieiyof the Pacific "ai 1I 
ihe Socielir. Dio .Markri Streti, San Francisco, in order that arrangeminK nay b 




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